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ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda 
Enabling EPCIS Event-Based Traceability 
in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains via 
Aut...
ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda 
Motivation 
m.solanki@aston.ac.uk, @nimonika EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Ph...
ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda 
Visibility* in supply chains 
Visibility is the ability to know exactly where 
th...
ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda 
Enabiling Visibility 
Data/Knowledge Sharing 
Information and knowledge need to b...
ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda 
Pharmaceutical supply chains 
Flow of goods and flow of information (Abstraction)...
ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda 
Visibility in Pharmaceutical supply chains 
Crucially Important! 
Counterfeiting ...
ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda 
Visibility in Pharmaceutical supply chains 
Legal requirements 
Drug Supply Chain...
ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda 
Pharmaceutical supply chains 
GS1 standards* for Visibility 
GS1: a neutral, not-...
ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda 
EPC, EPCIS and CBV 
The Electronic Product Code (EPC)*: provides products 
with u...
ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda 
SW & LD for Visibility in Supply chains 
Problem statement 
* Can we exploit EPCI...
ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda 
SW & LD for Visibility in Supply chains 
Potential solution & Proposed framework ...
ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda 
EPCIS(1.1) Events: An informal Intuition 
One generic and four specific physical ...
ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda 
Data model components 
What(product(s)), Where(location), When(time), and 
Why(bu...
ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda 
EEM*: The EPCIS Event Model 
Focuses on a tight conformance with the EPCIS 1.1 
s...
ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda 
EEM Modules 
m.solanki@aston.ac.uk, @nimonika EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in P...
ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda 
EEM Entities: Mapping to PROV-O 
m.solanki@aston.ac.uk, @nimonika EPCIS Event-Bas...
ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda 
Pedigrees 
Most widely prevalent in the pharmaceutical industry. 
Pedigree (e-ped...
ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda 
OntoPedigree: A CO design pattern 
m.solanki@aston.ac.uk, @nimonika EPCIS Event-B...
ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda 
Pharmaceutical supply chains 
Flow of linked pedigrees (Abstraction) 
m.solanki@a...
ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda 
Automated generation of Linked Pedigrees 
Set of EPCIS events (cf. EEM ontology):...
ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda 
Automated generation of Linked Pedigrees 
Let I be the set of IRI references and ...
ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda 
Automated generation of Linked Pedigrees 
An EPCIS event named graph, Eg, is a pa...
EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains via Automated Generation of Linked Pedigrees
EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains via Automated Generation of Linked Pedigrees
EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains via Automated Generation of Linked Pedigrees
EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains via Automated Generation of Linked Pedigrees
EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains via Automated Generation of Linked Pedigrees
EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains via Automated Generation of Linked Pedigrees
EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains via Automated Generation of Linked Pedigrees
EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains via Automated Generation of Linked Pedigrees
EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains via Automated Generation of Linked Pedigrees
EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains via Automated Generation of Linked Pedigrees
EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains via Automated Generation of Linked Pedigrees
EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains via Automated Generation of Linked Pedigrees
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EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains via Automated Generation of Linked Pedigrees

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EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains via Automated Generation of Linked Pedigrees

  1. 1. ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda Enabling EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains via Automated Generation of Linked Pedigrees Monika Solanki https://w3id.org/people/msolanki @nimonika Aston Business School Aston University, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2. ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda Motivation m.solanki@aston.ac.uk, @nimonika EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains
  3. 3. ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda Visibility* in supply chains Visibility is the ability to know exactly where things are at any point in time, or where they have been, and why. *http://www.gs1.org/docs/GS1_SupplyChainVisibility_ WhitePaper.pdf m.solanki@aston.ac.uk, @nimonika EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains
  4. 4. ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda Enabiling Visibility Data/Knowledge Sharing Information and knowledge need to be interlinked, shared and made available consistently along the supply chain not least for regulatory reasons but also due to increasing consumer demands of being able to track and trace commodities. m.solanki@aston.ac.uk, @nimonika EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains
  5. 5. ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda Pharmaceutical supply chains Flow of goods and flow of information (Abstraction) m.solanki@aston.ac.uk, @nimonika EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains
  6. 6. ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda Visibility in Pharmaceutical supply chains Crucially Important! Counterfeiting has increasingly become one of the major problems prevalent in these chains. The WHO estimates that between five and eight percent of the worldwide trade in pharmaceuticals is counterfeit. m.solanki@aston.ac.uk, @nimonika EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains
  7. 7. ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda Visibility in Pharmaceutical supply chains Legal requirements Drug Supply Chain Security Act (DSCSA) The Drug Quality and Security Act (DQSA), was signed into law by President Obama in 2013. DSCSA outlines critical steps to build an electronic, interoperable system to identify and trace certain prescription drugs as they are distributed in the U.S. The system will facilitate the exchange of information at the individual package level about where a drug has been in the supply chain. http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ DrugIntegrityandSupplyChainSecurity/ DrugSupplyChainSecurityAct/ m.solanki@aston.ac.uk, @nimonika EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains
  8. 8. ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda Pharmaceutical supply chains GS1 standards* for Visibility GS1: a neutral, not-for-profit organization dedicated to the design and implementation of global standards and solutions to improve the efficiency and visibility in supply chains. Core GS1 standards: EPCIS 1.1 & CBV 1.1 GS1 US Secure Supply Chain Task Force: preliminary implementation guidelines* for applying GS1 Standards to U.S. Pharmaceutical supply chains for track and trace. *http://www.gs1.org/healthcare/standards *www.gs1us.org/RxGuideline m.solanki@aston.ac.uk, @nimonika EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains
  9. 9. ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda EPC, EPCIS and CBV The Electronic Product Code (EPC)*: provides products with unique, serialised identities. Electronic Product Code Information Services (EPCIS)*: provides a set of specifications for the syntactic capture and informal semantic interpretation of EPC based product information. CBV* supplements EPCIS by defining the structure of vocabularies and specific values for the vocabulary elements. Events as abstractions for traceability. *http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_Product_Code *http://www.gs1.org/gsmp/kc/epcglobal/epcis *http://www.gs1.org/gsmp/kc/epcglobal/cbv m.solanki@aston.ac.uk, @nimonika EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains
  10. 10. ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda SW & LD for Visibility in Supply chains Problem statement * Can we exploit EPCIS events for the automated generation of provenance-based traceability/visibility artifacts that can be shared across supply chain partners? * Can we exploit EPCs of products to detect counterfeits in the supply chain and utilise provenance to trace their origins? m.solanki@aston.ac.uk, @nimonika EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains
  11. 11. ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda SW & LD for Visibility in Supply chains Potential solution & Proposed framework Based on GS1’s EPCIS 1.1 and CBV 1.1 standards. A set of ontologies: EEM, CBVVocab, OntoPedigree. Streams of EPCIS events. Event-Based traceability artifact: Linked Pedigrees. Algorithm: automated generation of linked pedigrees from EPCIS events and counterfeit detection. m.solanki@aston.ac.uk, @nimonika EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains
  12. 12. ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda EPCIS(1.1) Events: An informal Intuition One generic and four specific physical event types For this talk, EPCISEvent: the generic EPCIS event. ObjectEvent: an event that occurred as a result of some action on one or more entities denoted by EPCs. AggregationEvent: an event that happened to one or more EPC-denoted entities that are physically aggregated. TransactionEvent: an event in which one or more entities denoted by EPCs become associated or disassociated with one or more identified business transactions. m.solanki@aston.ac.uk, @nimonika EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains
  13. 13. ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda Data model components What(product(s)), Where(location), When(time), and Why(business step and status) of events (product movement) occurring in any supply chain. EPCs Time Read Points Business Location Business steps Disposition Action m.solanki@aston.ac.uk, @nimonika EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains
  14. 14. ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda EEM*: The EPCIS Event Model Focuses on a tight conformance with the EPCIS 1.1 standard and Simplicity. Explicitly defines relationships with CBV entities through CBVVocab*. EEM has been mapped* to PROV-O*. *http://purl.org/eem# *www.w3.org/ns/prov-o *http://purl.org/cbv# *http://fispace.aston.ac.uk/ontologies/eem_prov.html m.solanki@aston.ac.uk, @nimonika EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains
  15. 15. ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda EEM Modules m.solanki@aston.ac.uk, @nimonika EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains
  16. 16. ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda EEM Entities: Mapping to PROV-O m.solanki@aston.ac.uk, @nimonika EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains
  17. 17. ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda Pedigrees Most widely prevalent in the pharmaceutical industry. Pedigree (e-pedigree) is an audit trail that records the path and ownership of a drug as it moves through the supply chain. Each stakeholder involved in the manufacture or distribution of the drug adds information to the pedigree. “Event-based Linked Pedigrees”: pedigrees based on a relevant subset of the captured EPCIS events. cf. COLD, DeRiVE @ ISWC 2013 m.solanki@aston.ac.uk, @nimonika EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains
  18. 18. ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda OntoPedigree: A CO design pattern m.solanki@aston.ac.uk, @nimonika EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains
  19. 19. ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda Pharmaceutical supply chains Flow of linked pedigrees (Abstraction) m.solanki@aston.ac.uk, @nimonika EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains
  20. 20. ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda Automated generation of Linked Pedigrees Set of EPCIS events (cf. EEM ontology): Etypes = fOe;Ae; Teg, where Oe is an ObjectEvent, Ae is an AggregationEvent and Te is a TransactionEvent. Set of business step types (cf. CBVVocab ontology): Bsteps = fcom; pck; shpg representing the business steps of “commissioning”, “packing” and “shipping” respectively. m.solanki@aston.ac.uk, @nimonika EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains
  21. 21. ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda Automated generation of Linked Pedigrees Let I be the set of IRI references and G the set of RDF Graphs* An EPCIS event E is a 6-tuple hIe; to; tr ; et ; bs;Rei where, Ie 2 I is the IRI for the event. to is the time at which the event occurred. tr is the time at which the event was recorded (timestamp). et 2 Etypes is the type of event. bs 2 Bsteps is the business step. Re is a non empty set of EPCs associated with the event. * J. J. Carroll, C. Bizer, P. Hayes, and P. Stickler. Named graphs, provenance and trust. In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on World Wide Web, WWW ’05. ACM, 2005. m.solanki@aston.ac.uk, @nimonika EPCIS Event-Based Traceability in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains
  22. 22. ISWC, 21st October 2014, Riva del Garda Automated generation of Linked Pedigrees An EPCIS event named graph, Eg, is a pair (In 2 I;Ge 2 G), where In is the name (as well as the IRI) of the event graph and Ge is the RDF event graph. Functions: The event graph: eventGraph

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