14-04-2012                                                                    Research Methodology                        ...
14-04-2012“Literature review is conscious, focused anddirected scanning of literature for specifiedpurposes”© Dr. Nimit Ch...
14-04-2012Your job as a (research) writer is to show thatyou know what youre talking about, that whatyoure writing is true...
14-04-2012    Rationalizing the significance of the problem;    Enhancing and acquiring the subject     vocabulary;    ...
14-04-2012Steps in research              Kinds of literature to           Purposes of reviewprocess                       ...
14-04-2012Steps in research                Kinds of literature to              Purposes of reviewprocess                  ...
14-04-20127.  What methodologies were used? Were they    appropriate?8. What were the limitations? How were these    limit...
14-04-2012 the accepted facts in the area the popular opinion the main variables the relationship between concepts and...
14-04-2012    Review the literature don’t reproduce it!    Look for circular patterns in the material you     are access...
14-04-2012    Show different view points.    Explain why these may be misguided.    Use primarily current peer-reviewed...
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17 literature review

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17 literature review

  1. 1. 14-04-2012 Research Methodology Dr. Nimit Chowdhary, ProfessorA ‘GOOD’ LITERATURE A ‘POOR’ LITERATUREREVIEW… REVIEW… Is a synthesis of available  Is an annotated research bibliography Is a critical evaluation  Is confined to description Has appropriate breadth  Is narrow and shallow and depth Has clarity and is concise  Is confusing and longwinded Uses rigorous and  Constructed in an arbitrary consistent methods way Saturda y, April 14,© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 2 2012 1
  2. 2. 14-04-2012“Literature review is conscious, focused anddirected scanning of literature for specifiedpurposes”© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 3 Saturday, April 14, 2012“Literature review is a combination of summaryand synthesis of relevant literature that followsa logical pattern”© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 4 Saturday, April 14, 2012 2
  3. 3. 14-04-2012Your job as a (research) writer is to show thatyou know what youre talking about, that whatyoure writing is true, and that youre writingmatters--with doctoral-level evidence that willpass the critical read of the audience in theauthoritative style and voice of a scholarlywriter.© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 5 Saturday, April 14, 2012 Distinguishing what has been done from what needs to be done; Discovering important variables relevant to the topic; Synthesizing and gaining a new perspective; Identifying relationships between ideas and practice; Establishing the context of the topic or problem© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 6 Saturday, April 14, 2012 3
  4. 4. 14-04-2012 Rationalizing the significance of the problem; Enhancing and acquiring the subject vocabulary; Understanding the structure of the subject; Relating ideas and theory to applications; Identifying methodologies and techniques that have been used; Placing the research in a historical context to show familiarity with state-of-the-art developments.Steps in research Kinds of literature to Purposes of reviewprocess be reviewedIdentification and  Source material,  To gain preliminaryselection of encyclopedia, textbooks, orientation reference books  To gain up-to-dateproblem  Latest publications on the knowledge in the field disciplines  To know the work  ICSSR survey of research already done on the in social sciences subject  Bibliography of doctoral  To identify research dissertations (AIU) gaps in the field  Theses in the selected  To avoid duplication disciplineSaturday, April 14, 2012 © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary 4
  5. 5. 14-04-2012Steps in research Kinds of literature to Purposes of reviewprocess be reviewedFormulation of the  Previous studies in the  To become familiarselected problem field. Journals, published with appropriate and unpublished theses methodology and research techniques relevant to the studyOperationalisation  Same as above  For clarifying conceptsof concepts and knowing measurement techniquesSaturday, April 14, 2012 © Dr. Nimit ChowdharySteps in research Kinds of literature to Purposes of reviewprocess be reviewedPreparation of  Illustrated books on  To develop alternativeresearch proposal methodology of research designs  Published an unpublished  For formatting theses hypothesis and deciding sample design, etc.Construction of  Same as above  For gaining thoroughtools for collection  Copies of tools and scales knowledge of the furnished in the appendix process of tools andof data measurement of theses techniquesSaturday, April 14, 2012 © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary 5
  6. 6. 14-04-2012Steps in research Kinds of literature to Purposes of reviewprocess be reviewedDrafting the  Journals, textbooks,  To take notes andtheoretical chapters reference books and compile bibliography reports on subjectand theory parts of matterother chaptersInterpreting  Journals, textbooks,  To compare outcomesfindings and reference books and of research with earlier reports on subject studies and makedrawing matter sense to arrive atconclusions conclusionsSaturday, April 14, 2012 © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary1. What was done? Was it effective?2. When did this take place?3. What was the accepted belief at this time?4. Where did this study or event take place?5. How does this relate to your study?6. Who was involved?© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 12 Saturday, April 14, 2012 6
  7. 7. 14-04-20127. What methodologies were used? Were they appropriate?8. What were the limitations? How were these limitations addressed?9. What type of instruments were used?10. What was the sample and population studied?© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 13 Saturday, April 14, 201211. What did this add to the knowledge or solution of the problem?12. What recommendations were made?13. Who was affected by this study or program?14. What are the similarities between this study and your study?15. Was this an appropriate means of dealing with the problem?© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 14 Saturday, April 14, 2012 7
  8. 8. 14-04-2012 the accepted facts in the area the popular opinion the main variables the relationship between concepts and variables shortcomings in the existing findings limitations in the methods used in the existing findings the relevance of your research suggestions for further research in the area.© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 15 Saturday, April 14, 2012 An overview of the subject, issue or theory under consideration, along with the objectives of the literature review Division of works under review into categories (e.g. those in support of a particular position, those against, and those offering alternative theses entirely) Explanation of how each work is similar to and how it varies from the others Conclusions as to which pieces are best considered in their argument, are most convincing of their opinions, and make the greatest contribution to the understanding and development of their area of research 8
  9. 9. 14-04-2012 Review the literature don’t reproduce it! Look for circular patterns in the material you are accessing and reading. Identify two articles that really impressed you and use these as models.© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 17 Saturday, April 14, 2012 Plan the literature review:  Outline what you plan to argue.  Structure the evidence around your main argument(s).  Emphasise the relatedness of the literature to the problem you are discussing.  Interpret, don’t just give summaries.© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 18 Saturday, April 14, 2012 9
  10. 10. 14-04-2012 Show different view points. Explain why these may be misguided. Use primarily current peer-reviewed and refereed journal articles. You include all germinal work related to your problem and topic. Integrate sources – do not present one view, then another, then another…© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 19 Saturday, April 14, 2012 10

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