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11 tourism demand trends

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11 tourism demand trends

  1. 1. 1 Tour Guiding Series Tourism demand trends Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Professor Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management
  2. 2. 2 Tour Guiding Series Changing face of travel consumer • More affluent, measured in disposable income per capita, ownership of property and household facilities. • Better educated and more interested in continuing education. • More healthy and interested in more active pursuits. • Older, with a particular shift in the number and attitudes of the more active over- fifties.
  3. 3. 3 Tour Guiding Series Changing face of travel consumer • More leisured in terms of hours of work and holiday entitlement, having regard also to early retirement. • More traveled, for work and business as well as for holidays and leisure, increasing numbers with frequent international travel experience. • More exposed to the media and information generally
  4. 4. 4 Tour Guiding Series Changing face of travel consumer • More computer literate with ownership of personal computers (PCs) and access to internet growing exponentially. • More heterogeneous and individualistic in their demands and expectations. • More culturally diverse in terms of ethnic origin as well as their range of lifestyle choices.
  5. 5. 5 Tour Guiding Series Determinants of tourism demand • Economic factors and comparative prices • Demographic, including education • Geographic • Socio-cultural attitudes to tourism • Mobility • Government/ regulatory • Media communications • Information and communication technology
  6. 6. 6 Tour Guiding Series Economic factors • 30 major countries of origin accounted for over 90% of world traveling spending • Top 10 alone account for 2/3rd of spending and nights. • These are countries with highest per capita income. • Developed and growing economies also sustain business travel and trips (more than 50%)
  7. 7. 7 Tour Guiding Series Economic factors • Relationship between changes in real disposable incomes and volume of trips and expenditure away from home. • Increase in real incomes since 1990s has led to increase in expenditure on travel and tourism (income elasticity) . • China and India are fast emerging as tourism markets and suppliers owing to rapid economic growth
  8. 8. 8 Tour Guiding Series Economic factors • Comparative prices are a major determinant of volume of demand. • Price is cost to customers in terms of money, time and effort. • Spending will depend upon comparative price and disposable income of tourist. • East Asia, China and BRIC are therefore increasingly attracting more tourists.
  9. 9. 9 Tour Guiding Series Demographic factors • Developed world- one- and two- person household, late marriages, with fewer children – Divorce, single parent, – Small households means more households – Affluent old age people (26% Europeans are over 50 years of age) • Developing world- greater women involvement, two-income households, more disposable incomes
  10. 10. 10 Tour Guiding Series Demographic factors • Rise in life expectancy – Greater proportion of older population – New demand for leisure and travel – Health care and nursing – Quality of life • Structural shifts in communities – Development of new towns and cities • Education- higher the education, more the amount of travel
  11. 11. 11 Tour Guiding Series Geographic factors • Climatic and scenic attractions • Willingness and affordability to demand destination of choice. • Urban areas generate more tourism compared to rural areas- for multiple reasons • Geographical pockets of heritage, culture and arts offer tourism products • Eco-tourism, and ecological constructs as tourism products
  12. 12. 12 Tour Guiding Series Social factors • Increased no. of women in work force • Working women and resulting two-income households • Quality of life • International mobility leads to more sophisticated consumer tastes • Greater complexity of life • Increased competition in life
  13. 13. 13 Tour Guiding Series Changing attitudes • Attitudes towards tourism are a subset of wider view on the desired quality of life and how to achieve it. Examples of attitudes in America and Europe • Therapeutic value in lying on the beech and sun • Holidays are ‘rights’ and necessities for relieving stress rather than luxuries
  14. 14. 14 Tour Guiding Series Changing attitudes Examples of attitudes in America and Europe • Longer holiday entitlement in twentieth century has lead to consumers taking several holidays in a year • Scandinavia & N. Europe- people having a second home • That holiday products should be environmentally sustainable
  15. 15. 15 Tour Guiding Series Personal mobility factor • Superior roads and infrastructure • More people having cars and four wheelers • Most hotels, nearly all self-catering establishments, restaurants, and great majority of visitor attractions and entertainment in America and Europe are dependent on travelers by car • Congestion has increased and governments are favoring public transport
  16. 16. 16 Tour Guiding Series Government/ regulatory framework All governments impose laws and regulations to safeguard health and safety of their populations and to control the use of land and buildings; most impose penalties for non-compliance
  17. 17. 17 Tour Guiding Series Government/ regulatory framework Governments intervene: • To ensure fair competition between supplier- check monopolistic tendencies • To ensure that customers have choices and rights against suppliers • To influence such market patterns as governments control- timing of holiday • To ensure that proposed projects do not damage the environment
  18. 18. 18 Tour Guiding Series Government/ regulatory framework Politico-legal changes: • Governments creating infrastructure for services (led by EU) • Internationalization • Governments consciously (rather aggressively) promoting tourism
  19. 19. 19 Tour Guiding Series Government/ regulatory framework Transport regulation • Air transport – What routes can be flown – Which Airline can fly, number of flights, slots available at airports, the capacity of seats on routes, prices that can be charged • Bi-lateral agreements between countries • Asian highway project • Train and rail link with Pakistan • Rights to sell ‘duty free’ items
  20. 20. 20 Tour Guiding Series Government/ regulatory framework Tour operations and hotels • Regulatory framework • Licensing of tour operators and hotels • Licensing for bar • Example of Bhutan • Taxation • Control and grading of hotels
  21. 21. 21 Tour Guiding Series Government/ regulatory framework • Regulation for the environment • CRS
  22. 22. 22 Tour Guiding Series Information and communication technology • Increasing promotion and distribution of products on www. • Multimedia information provision in customers’ homes enhancing promotional possibilities • Switch to direct marketing, reducing the traditional role of travel intermediaries • Customer database development and its role in marketing information systems
  23. 23. 23 Tour Guiding Series Information and communication technology • Power to develop customized products for consumers • Relationship marketing with repeat buyers and other targeted customers/ stakeholders • Creation of virtual enterprises- “Make my trip”, networks of micro-businesses • Major opportunities for access to international markets at low costs
  24. 24. 24 Tour Guiding Series Travel propensity Low propensity characteristics High propensity characteristics • Low income per household • High income per household • Single parent household • Two parents (employed) household • Rural-community dweller • Large-city dweller • Educated to minimum age • Degree or other higher education level
  25. 25. 25 Tour Guiding Series Travel propensity Low propensity characteristics High propensity characteristics • Older people (80+) • Young people and ‘empty nesters’ • No access to private transport • Two or more cars in the household • Three or less weeks’ paid holiday • Six or more weeks’ paid holiday • No access to internet • Access at work and at home

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