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13-04-2012
1
Research Methodology
Dr. NimitChowdhary,Professor
Friday, April 13, 2012 1© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary
© Dr. Nimit C...
13-04-2012
2
 Traditionalapproach
 K.D. has a hunch that someone murdered
someone else
 Seek to prove it!
© Dr. Nimit C...
13-04-2012
3
It is important to
makesense of things
around us!
© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 5 Fr...
13-04-2012
4
© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 7 Friday, April 13, 2012
Epistemologyis concerned with...
13-04-2012
5
© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 9 Friday, April 13, 2012
This is deduction This is ind...
13-04-2012
6
© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 11 Friday, April 13, 2012
From general to specific
Exa...
13-04-2012
7
 Test the theory that people who have never done
research before will attend a research methods
course to do...
13-04-2012
8
1-15
A process of determining, acquiring,
analyzing, synthesizing, and disseminating
relevant business data, ...
13-04-2012
9
Data warehousing
 Storing vast amounts
of data in electronic
storehouses
Data mining
 Applying mathematical...
13-04-2012
10
Decision Support Systems
 Numerous elements of
data organized for
retrieval and use in
business decision
ma...
13-04-2012
11
1-21
Häagen-DazsTactics
 Super premium
 Dozens of flavors
 Small packages
 Signature colors on
packaging...
13-04-2012
12
1-23
CharacteristicsDSS
Models
Data
collection/
transmission
Data
Management
Data
interpretation
1-24
Clearl...
13-04-2012
13
1-25
 Research which combines a deductive
approach with precise measurement of
quantitative data to enable ...
13-04-2012
14
 Quantitative
 Qualitative
 Positivist
 Interpretivist
 DeductiveDeductive - begins with an abstract i...
13-04-2012
15
 natural science model:natural science model: representative
sampling, formulation and testing of an
hypot...
13-04-2012
16
© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 31 Friday, April 13, 2012
Deductive approach
tests hy...
13-04-2012
17
© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 33
Friday,
April 13,
2012
13-04-2012
18
nimitchowdhary@gmail.comnimitchowdhary@gmail.com
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  1. 1. 13-04-2012 1 Research Methodology Dr. NimitChowdhary,Professor Friday, April 13, 2012 1© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 2 Friday, April 13, 2012
  2. 2. 13-04-2012 2  Traditionalapproach  K.D. has a hunch that someone murdered someone else  Seek to prove it! © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 3 Friday, April 13, 2012  ACP Pradyuman’s team find evidence  And then they produce the theory on what probablyhappened! © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 4 Friday, April 13, 2012
  3. 3. 13-04-2012 3 It is important to makesense of things around us! © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 5 Friday, April 13, 2012 © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 6 Friday, April 13, 2012 Epistemologyis study of knowledge. It is the branch of philosophyconcerned with the nature and scope (limitations)of knowledge  What is knowledge?  How is knowledge acquired?  How do we know what we know?
  4. 4. 13-04-2012 4 © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 7 Friday, April 13, 2012 Epistemologyis concerned with how we know things and what we can regard as acceptable knowledgeof discipline. There are two ways one can acquire knowledge about things/ phenomenon  Through sensory experience  Through reasoning © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 8Friday, April 13, 2012 Source of knowledge Reasoning used Empiricism Through sensory experience Inductive reasoning (Aristotle) Rationalism Through reasoning Deductive reasoning (Plato)
  5. 5. 13-04-2012 5 © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 9 Friday, April 13, 2012 This is deduction This is induction © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 10 Friday, April 13, 2012 From specific to general Example All swans which have been observed are white in colour Therefore one can conclude that all swans are white  Everyone uses inductive reasoning every day quite successfully without even thinking about it  Some times what appears obvious may not be so after systematic research
  6. 6. 13-04-2012 6 © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 11 Friday, April 13, 2012 From general to specific Example All men have two hands Nimit is a man Therefore, Nimit has two hands  It is not practically possible to be either a pure inductivist or deductivist as you either need some theoretical ideas in order to know what info to look for; or some knowledge in order to devise theories  Are you seeking to prove or disprove a theory? Or are you trying to generalize your findings to a population? If so this will be a deductive approach, a quantitative approach  Or are you hoping to elicit some understandings on what people think or feel about an issue? Is the topic an area that there is little information and so you must undertake an initial, exploratory study? If so this will be induction, a qualitative approach © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 12 Friday, April 13, 2012
  7. 7. 13-04-2012 7  Test the theory that people who have never done research before will attend a research methods course to do research in the future You want to test a theory-This is deductive approach.  Or ask a question why do people do a research methods course? What is your theory on this? You want to propose a theory-This is inductive approach. © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 13 Friday, April 13, 2012 1-14 Business research provides information to guide business decisions
  8. 8. 13-04-2012 8 1-15 A process of determining, acquiring, analyzing, synthesizing, and disseminating relevant business data, information, and insights to decision makers in ways that mobilize the organization to take appropriate business actions that, in turn, maximize business performance 1-16 Complex Decisions Stakeholder Influence Competition Factors Growth of Internet Business as a discipline Government Intervention Greater Computing Power New Research Perspectives
  9. 9. 13-04-2012 9 Data warehousing  Storing vast amounts of data in electronic storehouses Data mining  Applying mathematical models to extract meaningful knowledge from data in internal databases 1-17 1-18 Organizational Mission Business Goals Business Strategies BusinessTactics
  10. 10. 13-04-2012 10 Decision Support Systems  Numerous elements of data organized for retrieval and use in business decision making  Stored and retrieved via  Intranets  Extranets Business Intelligence Systems  Ongoing information collection  Focused on events, trends in micro and macro-environments 1-19 1-20 Business Intelligence Demographic Economic Cultural/ social Technological Competitive Government/ Regulatory
  11. 11. 13-04-2012 11 1-21 Häagen-DazsTactics  Super premium  Dozens of flavors  Small packages  Signature colors on packaging  Available in franchise and grocery stores  Can information be applied to a critical decision?  Does it improve managerial decision-making?  Are sufficient resources available? 1-22
  12. 12. 13-04-2012 12 1-23 CharacteristicsDSS Models Data collection/ transmission Data Management Data interpretation 1-24 Clearly defined purpose Detailed research process Thoroughly planned design High ethical standards Limitations addressed Adequate analysis Unambiguous presentation Conclusions justified Credentials
  13. 13. 13-04-2012 13 1-25  Research which combines a deductive approach with precise measurement of quantitative data to enable the discovery and confirmationof causal laws
  14. 14. 13-04-2012 14  Quantitative  Qualitative  Positivist  Interpretivist  DeductiveDeductive - begins with an abstract idea and principle and works toward the concrete details to test these ideas.  InductiveInductive - begins with concrete details and then works toward abstract ideas or general principles or laws.
  15. 15. 13-04-2012 15  natural science model:natural science model: representative sampling, formulation and testing of an hypothesis  social science model:social science model: an ethnographic approach to data collection, a research question. Seeks information about reality. Not testing of reality positivist, systematic, or scientific researchers using a positivist epistemology generally seek to collect quantitative data anti-positivist, interpretivist, ethnographic or naturalistic researchers using an anti-positivist epistemology generally seek to collect qualitative data
  16. 16. 13-04-2012 16 © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 31 Friday, April 13, 2012 Deductive approach tests hypothesis Inductive approach producestheories ThisThis uusesses quantitativequantitative research methodsresearch methods ThisThis uusesses qualitativequalitative research methodsresearch methods © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 32 Friday, April 13, 2012
  17. 17. 13-04-2012 17 © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 33 Friday, April 13, 2012
  18. 18. 13-04-2012 18 nimitchowdhary@gmail.comnimitchowdhary@gmail.com

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