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Collection of three suttas in three languages tribute to founders

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Collection of three suttas in three languages tribute to founders

  1. 1. nemA ts`s BgvetA arhetA smZmA smZb<d`Ds`s!. st=x sdn ebAz<mg Buddhist Guide Lines for Happiness
  2. 2. p<NYAn<emA`dnAv gAl`el`, ak`mFmn vfs> kFr~tfpAl k=mAreg` pfyANn` aBAvp&Ap`t vF vsr 25 k` spfern ad, mFx vsr 9 kx epr aBAvp&Ap`t v> mAt=pAlf k=mAreg` m{Nfyn` d, vsr 8 kx epr aBAvp&Ap`t v> gAmfNF nfhAl` smrsf^h (elAk=b{NA) mhtA da[t=HE pv<el` mfy gfy sfyHE QAtFn` sfhfpt` krmfn`, ov<n`x pfn` an<emA`dn` krn< pfNfs, z>vr[n`, b{NAvr[n` sh m<n<p<r[ mfnfpfrfyn` vfsfn` DAr~mfk Dn prftYAgeyn` emm Dr~m g&$Ty enAmfel` pfrfnmn< l[ebZ. emm udAr Dr~mdAnAn<BAv bleyn` at`pt` krgn`nA k=sl Vk`tfy,E` sfyHEm QAtFn`x ssr s<gtf s^KYAt smZpt` at`vF nfvn` s<v pfNfsm eh`t= evZvA! vAsnA evZvA! 2010 j<nf ms 10 vn dfn
  3. 3. vfeV`S s`t=tfy Dr~m dAny sHdhA g&$Tyk` sks` kr edn els ap vfsfn` krn ld il`lFm prfdf, itA oZn{kmfn` hA st=xn` Em kAr~yy ix< kr z<n` apeg` hft mft& f vF.vF. ep&`mvr~Dn sh dyA ep&`mvr~Dn yn edpLx apeg` hRdy^gm s`t=tfy pL krn atr, emm p<NY kr~m Vk`tfy ov<n`x ct=rAr~y stY Dr~my avebA`Dy pfNfs eh`t= evZvA’yf itsftfn` p&Ar~TnA krn`enm<. klx evZlAvx emm epAt m<z&Ny krz<n` m<z&NAlyADfptf t=mA a[t=HE kAr~y mN`wlyx d, apeg` s`t=tfy p<d krn atr, emZ sHdhA upkAr kL sfyHE ednAxm pfn` an<emA`dn` krm<.. k=mAreg` pv<elhf sAmAjfk, sAmAjfkAevA`..
  4. 4. epr vdn gRh jFvfty sAr~Tkv gt kfrFmx avVY uped`VAt`mk Dr~m kr[N< a[t=Lt`s>t& rAVfyk` tf&pfxkey` dk`nx l[ebZ. E` s>t& at=rfn` ebAehA` ugt=n`eg` vfms<mxlk`vn`en` m^gl, prABv, vYg`Gpj~j sh sfgAelA`vAd yn s>t&yn`y. m^gls>t&ey` emelAv dfy<N<vx eh`t= vn, apAy mAr~gy ah<rn kr[N< an`tr~gt vnatr prABv s>t&ey` edelAvm pfrfhFmx eh`t= vn kr[N< a[t=Lt` evZ. b<z<rjANn`vhn`es`egn` emelAv dfy<N<vx eh`t= vn m^gl kr[N< 38 k` d[ngt` dfvY p<t&yAxps< dfn gATA 12 kfn` un`vhn`es` vdAeL` emelAvt` prelAvt` pfrfhFmx eh`t= vnkr[N< 23 kf. dFGjAn< ekA`lfy p<t&yA b<z<rz<n` evt ELM p[vs<evZ ps`kmZ s<vvfHdfn, Eeht` krdr kmZkexAl<vlfn` pFwA vfHdfn tmn`x emelAv dfy<N<vx eh`t= vndhmk` ed`VnA krn elsyf. emm il`lFm pfLfgt` un`vhn`es` kr[N< 8 kfn`smn`vft vYg`Gpj~j s>t&y ed`VnA kL es`k. BAgYvt` b<z<rjANn` vhn`es`sfgAlk nmZ tr[NyAx cArft& ehvt` sfrft` nmfn` hHz<n`vn kLy<t= ehAHd ed`(y<t=kmZ) sh vArft& ehvt` vfrft` nmfn` hHz<n`vn enAkL y<t= ed` ehLf krmfn` gfhfvfny nmfn` d hHz<n`vn sfgAelA`vAd s>t&y ed`VnA kL es`k. emm s>t& a[s<rfn` st=x sdn ebAz<mg nmfn` emm Dr~m g&$Ty sks` kLvF. vF. ep&`mvr~Dn sh dyA ep&`mvr~Dn y<vL b<d`D Dr~my t=Lfn` ld mAnsfk shnysh dhmZ rsy vfHdfmfn` Dr~m g&$T sks` kr sehA`dr jntAv atr ebdA edmfn`krn es`vy p&V^snFyyf. mFx epr d m^gl, rtn, krNFy emt`t, DmZmck`kp`pvt`tn, Djg`g sh mhA stfpxZXAn yn s>t& pAlf, sf^hl, i^gF&sf ynBASA t=enn`m sks` ekAx ebdA edn ldF. emm Dr~m dAnmy st`kArey` tvt`idfrf pfyvrkf, st=x sdn ebAz<mg nmfn` ELf dk`vn emm agnA Dr~m g&$Ty.jFvftey` s[Hd{ smey` ‘sbZb dAn^ DmZm dAn^ jfnAtf’ yn b<z< vdnx an<gtvemv[nf st`kAr~yyn`hf eyedn ob edpLx t=n<r[vn` st= s<vfsf g=N bleyn`kAyfk hA mAnsfk s<vyt` dFr~GAy<St` p&Ar~TnA krmf. cfr^ tfxZXt= elAks`mf^, smZmA smZb<d`DsAsn^!k[nwAevZ exAerAn`exA` mhA vfhArvAsF,dhmZ pAsel` p&DAnAcAr~y,aDYApnevZdF p>jY uw<pfhfl`el` vfmlb<d`Df s`vAmFn` vhn`es`. 1
  5. 5. st=x sdn ebAz<mg h[Hdfn`vFm BAgYvt` b<z<rjANn` vhn`es` vfsfn` emyx av<r[z< 2553 kx pmN epr,sfyl< elA`k s#vyAeg` yhpt pfNfst` nfr~vANAvebA`Dy pfNfst` mhA kr[NAevn`hA mhA p&QAevn` ed`VnA krn ld dhmkf, b<z<dhm. elA`key` d[nx adhn aAgmZat=rfn` p[rNftm aAgmk` v<vd vr~tmAneyhf pvA elUkfk aBfvRd`Dfy hA s<bestaep`OSAevn` Em mAr~gey` gmn` krn s[d[h[vt=n` ebAehA`y. emhf d[k`evnm^gl, prABv, vYg`Gpj~j hA sfgAelA`vAd yn s>tvlfn` emelAv hA prelAv s<B &sfd`Dfy slsA gn`nA ay<r[t` eBUtfk hA aADYAt`mfk vVeyn` pfrfhFmx lk`vnay<r[t` p[h[dflf eker~. Eemn`m avsAney` nfvn` s<v at` vfHdgn`nA aAkAry ddk`vyf. emm s<t& sterhf a[t=Lt` kr[N< EdfendA jFvftey` dF p&AeyA`gfkv eyAdAg[nFemn` emelAv jFvft vwAt` ar~Tvt`v sh PldAyF els gtkfrFmxt` aADYAt`mfkhA sAmAjfk dfy<N<v slsA g[nFmxt` h[kfvnvA a[t. ad smhr ay b<z<n` vhn`es` vfsfn` ed`VnA krn ld emm sd`Dr~my pfLfbHdvvfevZcnAt`mk dRS`xf ekA`Nykfn` y<t=v n<tn gfhf smAjyx enAg[lepn bvxecA`dnA krtf. vfeV`Seyn`m elUkfk s[p smZpt` nfsf prfdf B=k`tf vfdmxt` aAr~Tfk H FvVeyn` vt`epAehAst` vFmxt` gfhfyAx bADA pm<N<vn bv mt=kr dk`vtf. Ees`mb<d`D BASfty mnA avebA`Dykfn` prfVFlny enAkL Em pfrfs b<z<dhm aV=BvAdFaAgmk` els h[Hdfn`vFmx d epLeMtf. tvz<rxt` smhr[ b<z<dhm elUkfk jFvftyat` h[r gfy BfOS< BfOS>NFn`x pmNk`m sFmA v> aAgmk` els d p&kAV krmfn`vfsfEk` vn sfyves` gfhfynx kfsfes`t`m p&AeyA`gfkv pfLfp[dfy enAh[kf, an<cftaAgmk` yyf tr~k krtf. b<z<n` vhn`es` vfsfn` ed`VnA krn ld emm ut=mZ Dr~my pfLfbHdv dk`vn<lbn emvn` mf#TYA s^kl`p stYyyf kfsfes`t` pfLfgt enAh[kfy. s[d[h[vt=n`atr d[n<z< jnp&fyBAvyx lk`v a[tf emm s>t& ster~ aw^g= b<d`D BASfty yemk`avebA`Deyn` y<t=v kfyvA et`r[mZ gn`en` nmZ vfgsfn`m Em v[rdf vfevZcnAt`mkecA`dnA sfyl`lm pfLfgt enAh[kf nfS`Pl vYAyAm els vxhA gn< a[t. Eelsmemm s>t&vlfn` idfrfpt` ekern kr[N< s[eNkfn`m gfhfyn`eg` EdfendA jFvn kxy<t=sAr~Tk kr g[nFmx r[k=l` edn bv DnAt`mkv sftFmx y<h<s<l< vn< a[t. Eemn`mgfhf b[tfmt=n`eg` aADYAt`mfk sft=mZ p[t=mZ hA aAcAr Dr~myn` aBfvr~Dnyx d emmkr[N< ebehvfn` upkArF vn< a[t. emhf dF etA`rA egn a[tf emm s>t& strm iht dk`vn ld sfyl<m v[rdfvfevZcnAt`mk dRS`xFnx EkehlAm pfLft=r[ spyyf. b<z<n` vhn`es` mhAkr[NAevn`hA mhA p&QAevn` ed`VnA krn ld prfdf aAr~Tfk dfy<N<vkfn` etArv aADYAt`mfkdfy<N<vk` lbAg[nFm EtrmZm phs< enAevZ. emhfdF h[kftAk` z<rx Dr~mAn<k+lvalskmfn` etArv m<dl` upyA g[nFmx an<m[tfy lbA dF a[t. Eb[vfn` emelAv s[psmZpt` prfeBA`jny hA esUBAgYy udA krg[nFm sHdhA gfhf jFvft h[wgs`vAg[nFm ebUd`D s[d[h[vt=n` vVeyn` apeg` y<t=kmk` d evyf. Em p&tfpt`tfvlxan<k+lv p&AeyA`gfkt`vyx m<l`t[n` edmfn` EdfendA cr~yA s[ls<mZ krgn`en` nmZ 2
  6. 6. p&tYOS vVeyn` ik`mnfn`m gfhf smAjey` sfyl< ednAxm s[pvt` vAsnAvn`tesUBAgYmt` jFvft gtkfrFemZ vAsnAv udAvn< a[t. emm kr~tvYey` p&DAn aep`OSAv vn<ey` b<z<n` vhn`es` vfsfn` ed`Vftsd`Dr~my phs<evn`m avebA`D krgnfmfn` gfhf jFvft vwAt` ar~Tvt` krg[nFmx ymZmg epn`vFmk` kfrFmy. ut=mZ V&F sd`Dr~mey` bfHdk` vn emm vxfnA s>t& ster~prfvr~tn srl sf^hl hA i^g&Fsf bsfn`, h[kf s{mvfxm evn` evn`v kr[N< vVeyn`epL gs`vA a[t. Eb[vfn` E`vA phs<evn` kfyvFmxt` ar~TAvebA`Dy lbA g[nFmxt`upkArF vn< a[t. emm b<d`D BASft elUkfk vVeyn` sAr~Tk jFvft gtkfrFmxt`elAekA`t`tr s[p smZpt` at` vfHdFmxt` mg epn`vn< a[t. emm g&$Ty sks` kfrFmx apv unn`z< kr v> sh mg epn` v>, Eemn`meprvdn lfyA z<n`, k[nwAevZ exAerAn`exA` mhA vfhArvAsF, dhmZ pAsel`p&DAnAcAr~y, aDYApnevZdF p>jY uw<pfhfl`el` vfmlb<d`Df s`vAmFn` vhn`es`x nms`kArp>r~vkv egUrvy p<d krm<. Eemn`m embHz< kxy<t=vlx apx nftrm shAy edn, emm g&$Ty al^kArels s[ksFmx tAOSN shAy lbAz<n`, p<b<z, as^gA, cmflA, sh acl yn <aAdrNFy z> dr[vn`x s`t=tfvn`t vn atr emyfn` ap at`pt` krgn`nA sfyHE pfn`an<emA`dn` krm<. sfyHE st`veyA` nfz<k` evt`vA! nFerA`gF evt`vA! s<vpt` evt`vA!s[ks<m:- vF. vF. ep&`mvr~Dn sh dyA ep&`mvr~Dn Buddhist guide lines for Happiness Introduction Buddhism is the religion of Enlightenment-where the emphasis on greatcompassion and wisdom, which was expounded about 2553 years ago by theBuddha. It is one of the oldest religions still being practised in the whole world,hostile to worldly progress and happiness. The four sermons presented here namely– Mangala, Parabhava, Vyagghapajja and Sigalovada – explain us how to gainprosperity and happiness, how to avoid material, moral and spiritual downfall andenlighten us on the blessings in life to win the bliss of deliverance. These foursuttas are very useful and practical guidelines for every day life, to lead personalimprovement, spiritual progress and social development. Some people used to criticise that the Buddha was not unduly concernedwith the social life, economic progress, worldly happiness and material welfare ofhis lay disciples in the modern world. Those same people who have not properly 3
  7. 7. read or heard about Buddhism say it is a pessimistic religion. Some others havetried to show that this teaching meant or relevant only for monks and nuns whohave renounced the worldly life. Further they say ordinary lay people could notfollow or practise Buddha‟s Teaching and come to conclusions that Buddhism isnot significant to 21 st century humanity. These misconcepts that come from a lack of clear understanding of whatBuddha taught are wrong. But when you read and understand what you find inthese suttas you will very quickly dispel any such misinformed views. Very soonyou find these four sermons are very useful and practical guide lines for every daylife, which serve as a foundation for intellectual and ethical development. All these suttas mentioned here are shining examples that reflects suchcriticism is entirely unwarranted. The Buddha had emphasized that without somedegree of economic well being spiritual progress was entirely difficult. Hetherefore asked his lay disciples to earn money in a righteous way as much aspossible without being lazy. So try your best to adjust yourself to live according tothese noble principles where you can win every happiness and prosperity in thisworld. The Buddha has shown the clear way, we just only need to follow all theseguide lines and practise of which brings immediate results. The main intention of this task is to make the teaching of Buddha moreaccessible and easy understood. These four valuable suttas mainly related to codeof discipline are presented in Sinhala and English translations to make more easierto read and understand and practice with every devotion to achieve prosperity andhappiness in this life and next. We are so much grateful with all respect to Venerable UdupihilleWimalabuddhi Thero (B.Ed), the Principal of the Dhamma School of the TorontoMaha Vihara in Canada, for his sincere and unstinting support. He encouraged uswith necessary guidence and useful suggestions to bring this book to its presentform. We also extend our sincere thanks for his kindness to write a Forward forthis book. In preparing this book we have been helped as on earlier occasions by ourloving children Pubudu, Asanga, Chamila, and Achala. We thank them for theirkind valuable support and effort in outstanding technical editing. May they allshare this fortune of Merits. May all beings be happy, healthy and well! Prepared by - V. V. Premawardena & Daya Premawardena. 4
  8. 8. mhA m^gl s<t`t^ - mhA m^gl s>t&y Maha Mangala Sutta The Discourse on Blessings tf&pfxkey` K<d`dk nfkAyx ayt` s<t`t nfpAteyhf En mhA m^gl s>t&yebUd`D s[d[h[vt=n` atr itA jnp&fyy. m^gl kr[N< itA srlv gATAmys`vr{peyn` idfrfpt` vF a[tf ay<r[ oZn{m ayk=eg` mtkey` phs<evn`m !HdFyAmxupkArF evZ. tvd gfhf jFvfty yhmgx eyAm< krvn, vhAm p&tfPl at`vfHdfy h[kfemZ gATA epeLhf a[t=lt` m^gl kr[N< s`t&F p<r[S eB`deyn` etArv oZn{m vys`kAN`wyk ayx v<vd phs<evn` pfLfp[dfy h[kfy. Ees`m oZn{m t#vyk sfxfn,oZn{m aAgmk` adhn, oZn{m aDYApn mxZxmk sfxfn ayx d phs<evn`ms$dfxZXfkvm p&tfPl enlA gt h[kf prfdf s[ksF a[t.. emm v[dgt` s>t&eyhf sfyl< ednA vfsfn`m p&g=N kL h[kf ut=mZ m^glkr[N< 38 k` sft` gn`nA ay<rfn` d[k`evZ. EmHgfn` ap atr m<l` b[s egn a[tf s<Bnfmft, f vAsnA Vk`tfy v[nf mf#TYA vfV`vAsvlfn` etArv, yhpt` nfv[rdf kAykr~m, vcF kr~m hA menA` kr~m ekerhf vfV`vAsy a[tf ekAx E`vA eds s<BvAdFvb[lFmx apv unn`z< krvyf. EdfendA jFvftey` dF apx upkArF vn yh mgepn`vn ut=mZ m^gl kr[N< emhf d[k`evn atrm b<z< dhemZ m>lfk prmAr~Ty vnnfr~vANy sAOSAt` kr g[nFmx d k&meyn` eyAm< krvA a[t. evnt` uped`Vyk`enAm[tfv v<v d eknk=x elUkfk emn`m elA`ekA`t`tr aBfvRd`Dfy slsA g[nFmxh[kf smZp>r~N upeds` mAlAvk` emm m^gl s>t&eyhf a[t=lt` evZ. This mangala sutta find in Tipitaka - Khuddaka Nikaya - Sutta Nipata - is one ofthe most important and popular teachings in Buddhism. It is so well known amongall Buddhists is because of the wide range of teachings within a few easilyremembered stanzas or verses. Though this discourse is proclaimed by Buddha italso provides unfailing guidance, capable of direct application and immediatefruitful use by people in all walks of life, irrespective of differences of sex or status,race or religion, creed or education. There are all together thirty eight (38) good qualities or highest blessings to bedeveloped by every one, introduced in a very pleasant way in this great sermon. Itreflects a new light on new angle on luck, omens, auspiciosness and encouragereliance upon on one‟s own good deeds, speech, and thoughts. This teachingincludes the most basic blessings or useful practical guidelines, each and every oneshould have and lead gradually to the highest qualities required to win the ultimateblessings of Nibbana. It is a complete manual for building up successful andstable life, without any need for supplication to power besides oneself. This is themain purpose of this sutta. 5
  9. 9. Ev^ em s<t^: Ek^ smy^ BgvA sAv#Tfy^ vfhrtf, ejtven anATpfN`wfks`s aArAem. aTeKA aJ`JtrA edvtA aBfk`kn`tAy rt`tfyA aBfk`kn`tvN`NA ekvlkp`p^ejtvn^ oBAes#vA eyn BgvA etn<ps^kmf. ups^kmf#vA Bgvn`t^ aBfvAed#vAEkmn`t^ axZXAsf. Ekmn`t^ XftA eKA sA edvtA Bgvn`t^ gATAy aj~ODBAsf.mA vfsfn` emes` asn ldF: Ek` smeyk`hf BAgYvt=n` vhn`es` s[v[t` n<vr smFpeyhf ej~tvn nmZ v>aen`pfHw< sfx<h<eg` aArAmeyhf v[w vsn es`k. Ekl`hf vnAhF, Ek`trA dfvYp<t&eyk` rAt&feyhf p&Tm yAmy ik`m v> kl`hf yhpt` VrFr vr~Neyn` y<t=v sfyl<ej~tvny bb<l<vA, BAgYvt=n` vhn`es` ymZ t[enk`hf d, Et[nx ELMfey`y. ELM,BAgYvt=n` vhn`es`x nms`kAr ekAx Ekt`pesk sfxfey`y. Ekt`pesk sfxf EmdfvY p<t&yA BAgYvt=n` vhn`es`x gATAvkfn` emes` kr[N< s[L keL`y.Thus, have I heard: On one occassion The Blessed One was dwelling at the monastery ofAnathapindika, in Jetha‟s Grove, near Savatthi. Now, when the night was faradvanced, a certain deity, whose surpassing splendour illuminated the entire JethaGrove came into the presence of the Blessed One and drawing near, respectfullysaluted him, and stood on one side. Standing thus he addressed the Blessed One inverse.1. bh> edvA mn<s`sA c – m^glAnf acfn`ty<^ aAk^KmAnA esAt`TAn^ - b&{hf m^glm<t`tm^. edelAv yhpt k[mtf edvfeyA` d, mn<SYeyA` d, m^gl kArNyn` sft+h. Em edvf mfnfs<n`x an<kmZpAevn` hft s<v Elvn ut=mZ m^gl kr[N< ed`VnA kL m[nvf. Many deities and men, yearning after good have pondered on Blessings. Pray, tell me the highest Blessings. emt[n` sfx Ek` Ek` gATAv sh Ehf En m^gl kr[N< d[k` evZ.2. aesvnA c bAlAn^ - pN`wftAn^ c esvnA p>jA c p>jnFyAn^ - Et^ m^glm<t`tm^.  aesvnA c bAlAn^ - an<vN bAlyn` es`vny enAkfrFm – to avoid the company of fools  pN`wftAn^ c esvnA - pN`wftyn` es`vny kfrFm – to associate with the wise  p>jA c p>jnFyAn^ - b<d`DAdF pfdfy y<t`tn` pfdFm – to honour those who are worthy of honour 6
  10. 10. 3. ptfr{p edsvAesA c – p<bZeb c ktp<J`JtA at`t smZmA pNfDf c – Et^ m^glm<t`tm^.  ptfr{p edsvAesA c - s<z<s< epedesk vfsFm – to reside in a suitable locality  p<bZebZ c ktp<J`JtA - epr kL pfn` a[tf bv – to have done meritorious actions in the past  at`t smZmA pNfDf c - sft mnAv pfhfx<vFm – to set oneself in the right course4. bAh<scZc^ c sfp`p^ c – vfneyA c s<sfk`KfetA s<BAsftA c yA vAcA – Et^ m^glm<t`tm^.  bAh<scZc^ c – ebAehA` a[s> pfr{ t[n` a[tf bv – to have much (vast) learning  sfpp^ c - Vfl`p (hs`t kr~mAn`tAdF) d[nFm – to be skillful (proficient ` at work) in handicrafts  vfneyA c s<sfk`KfetA – mnA hfk`mFemn` y<t= vfnygr[k bv – to be well trained in a code of discipline  s<BAsftA c yA vAcA – yhpt` vcn kFm – to practise pleasant speech5. mAtApft+ upxZXAn^ - p<t`tdArs`s s^gehA anAk=lA c kmZmn`tA – Et^ m^glm<t`tm^.  mAtApft+ upxZXAn^ - mvZpfynx uvx[n` kfrFm – to support our parents  p<t`tdArs`s s^gehA – aM<dr[vn`x s^g&h kfrFm – to cherish wife and children  anAk=lA c kmZmn`tA – nfrv<l` kr~mAn`t a[tf bv – to engage in peaceful occupations6. dAn^ c DmZmcrfyA c – JAtkAn^ c s^gehA anvj~jAnf kmZmAnf – Et^ m^glm<t`tm^.  dAn^ c – dn` dFm – to be charitable (generous in giving)  DmZmcrfyA c – Dr~meyhf (ds k=sl`h) h[sfrFm – righteous in conduct f  JAtkAn^ c s^gehA – n{ynx s^g&h kfrFm – the helping of relatives  anvj~jAnf kmZmAnf – nfv[rdf kf&yA a[tf bv – blameless actions7. aArtf vfrtf pApA – mj~jpAnA c sJ`JemA ap`pmAedA c DmZemZs< - Et^ m^glm<t`tm^.  aArtf (pApA) – pApeyhf enAa[l`m - to have no desire for evil 7
  11. 11.  vfrtf pApA – ak=sleyn` evn`vFm – to abstain from evil (unwholesome actions)  mj~jpAnA c sJ`JemA – mt`p[nfn` v[LkFm – to refrain from intoxicants  ap`pmAedA c DmZemZs< - s[m k=sl` dhmZhf pmA enAvFm – steadfastness in virtue8. gArevA c nfvAetA c – sn`t=xZXF c ktJ`Oz<tA kAeln DmZm svN^ - Et^ m^glm<t`tm^.  gArevA c – gr[ kL y<t`tn`x gr[ kfrFm – to be respectful  nfvAetA c – yxht` pht` bv (nfhtmAnF bv) – to be humble  sn`t=xZXF c – ld edyfn` st=x<vFm – contentment  ktJ`Oz<tA – kL g=N s[lkFm – to be grateful  kAeln DmZmsvN^ - s<z<s< kl`hf dhmZ a[sFm – listen to the Dhamma in due occations9. Kn`tF c esAvcs`stA – smNAn^ c ds`sn^ kAeln DmZm sAkcZCA – Et^ m^glm<t`tm^.  Kn`tF c – ivsFm – to be patience  esAvcs`stA – kFkr[ bv – to be obedient  smNAn^ c ds`sn^ - V&mNyfn` d[kFm – to associate with monks  kAeln DmZm sAkcZCA – s<z<s< kl Dr~m sAkcZCA kfrFm – have religious discussions on due occations10. tepA c b&h`mcrfy^ c - arfyscZcAn ds`sn^ nfbZbAN scZCfkfrfyA c – Et^ m^glm<t`tm^.  tepA c – tps – self control – self restraint  b&h`mcrfy^ c – ut=mZ h[sfrFm – a holy and chaste life  arfyscZcAn ds`sn^ - sfv<ss` d[kFm – perception of the Noble Truths  nfbZbAN scZCfkfrfyA c – nfvn` avebA`D kr g[nFm – realisation of Nirvana11. P<xZXs`s elAkDmZemhf – cft`t^ ys`s n kmZptf aesAk^ vfrj^ eKm^ - Et^ m^glm<t`tm^.  P<xZXs`s elAkDmZemhf – cft`t^ ys`s n kmZptf – axelA` dhmfn` yemk=eg` sft kmZpA enAvFm – whose mind does not flutter by contact with worldly contingencies 8
  12. 12.  aesAk^ - eVA`k rhft bv – to be free from sorrow  vfrj^ - rAgAdF ekels` z>vflf n[tf bv – to be free from defilements  eKm^ - bfy rhft bv – to have lasting peace and security12. EtA dfsAnf kt`vAn – sbZbt`TmprAjftA sbZbt`T esAt`Tf^ gcZCn`tf - t^ ets^ m^glm<t`tm^’tf. embHz< yhpt` kr[N< an<gmny krn`nA v> ay, sfyl< tn`hf enAp[rz<nAh< sfyl< t[n s[ptx eytf. ov<nx emm kr[N< axtfs (38) ut=mZ mHg=l` kr[N< evZ. edelAv v[w sdA ln kr[N< evZ. To them, fulfilling matters such as these (38), everywhere (ever remain) invincible (too strong to be defeated), in every way moving happily – these are the highest blessings. 9
  13. 13. prABv s<t`t^ - prABv s>t&y Parabhava Sutta s>t& pfxkey`, K<d`dk nfkAyx ayt` s<t`t nfpAteyhf En prABv s>t&eyn`vfs`tr ekern`en` p<d`glyA prfhAnfyx pm<N<vn eh`t= sADk hA E`vAyfn` mfdFmsHdhA an<gmny kLy<t= k&fyAmAr~g sm>hykf. itA ekxf s>t&yk` vn emhf Enkr[N<vlfn` eknk=eg` eBUtfk hA aADYAt`mfk jFvfty pfrfhF avsAney` ast=xx hAz<kx pt`vn ay<r[ m[nvfn` p[h[dflf kryf. aAr~Tfk dfy<N<v hA aDYAt`mfk dfyN<vyxpt` vFemn` eknk=x emelAv vVeyn` emn`m prelAv vVeyn` d kfsf kelkst=xk` ehA` pvtfn sAmyk` blAepAerAt`t= vfy enAh[kfy. Em nfsA mnA n<vNfn`hA sfhf b<d`Dfeyn` emm prfhAnf lOSN et`r[mZ egn vfvfD uvz<r[vlfn` mfdF VAn`ts<n`dr nfvn` mgx eyAm< vFmx ut`sAh kxy<t=y. This sermon in Sutta Nipata of Kuddhaka Nikaya explains us the causes ofdownfall and guides us how to avoid those causes of downfall in our all activities.It is a very short sutta which teaches us the causes of downfall. Each of the causesof downfall shuts a person off from the path of material and spiritual progress, andwill eventually lead to unhappiness and suffering. Those causes of downfall are themain reason for one‟s financial disasters and spiritual decline and never enjoy trueand lasting peace and happiness here in this life and future. So be wise, alert andmindful and remember all those causes of downfall to get rid of all variousmisfortunes and finally enter the Path of Purity.Ev^ em s<t^: Ek^ smy^ BgvA sAv#Tfy^ vfhrtf ejtven anATpfN`wfks`s aArAem. aTeKA aJ`JtrA edvtA aBfk`kn`tAy rt`tfyA aBfk`kn`tvN`NA ekvlkp`p^ejtvn^ oBAes#vA eyn BgvA etn<ps^kmf. ups^kmf#vA Bgvn`t^ aBfvAed#vAEkmn`t^ axZXAsf. Ekmn`t^ XftA eKA sA edvtA Bgvn`t^ gATAy aj~ODBAsf:mA vfsfn` emes` asn ldF: Ek` smeyk`hf, BAgYvt=n` vhn`es` s[v[t` n<vr smFpeyhf ejtvn nmZ v>aen`pfHw< mh sfx< vfsfn` krvn ld aArAmeyhf v[w vsn es`k. ik`bft`etn`Ek`trA ed`vtAevk` rAt&fey` p&Tm yAmy ik`m<N< kl`hf atfVyfn` menA`Q v> Cvfvr~N a[t`et` ejtvn vfhAry m<HEl`l bb<HEvA BAgYvt=n` vhn`es` ymZ t[enk`hf d,Et[nx ELMfey`y. EL[M, BAgYvt=n` vhn`es`x mnAekAx v[Hd Ekt`pesksfxfey`y. Ekt`pesk sfxfyA v> E` edvf etemZ BAgYvt=n` vhn`es`x gATAvkfn`emes` kr[N< s[L keL`y. 10
  14. 14. Thus have I heard: Once the Exalted One was dwelling at Anathapindikas monastery, in the JetaGrove, near Savatthi. Now when the night was far spent a certain deity whosesurpassing splendour illuminated the entire Jeta Grove, came to the presence of theExalted One and drawing near, respectfully saluted Him and stood at one side.Standing thus, he addressed the Exalted One in verse:1. prABvn`t^ p<rfs^ - my^ p<cZCAm egAtm^ Bgvn`t^ p<xZX<mAgmZm - kf^ prABvetA m<K^? ap h[mednm pfrfehn`nA v> p<r[SyA g[n egUtmyn` vhn`es`egn` asA d[ngn`nA pfNfs vfcArmZh. BAgYvt=n` vhn`es` vfcArn< pfNfs p[mfNfeym<. st`vyA pfrfehn edArx< kver~d? Having come here with our questions to the Exalted One, we ask thee, O Gotama, about mans decline. Pray, tell us the cause of downfall.2. s<vfjAenA Bv^ ehAtf - s<vfjAenA prABevA DmZmkAemA Bv^ ehAtf - DmZmeds`sF prABevA. dfy<N<vx pt`vn p<d`glyA m[nvfn` dt h[kfy. pfrfhFmx pt`vn p<d`glyA d m[nvfn` dt h[kfy. sd`Dr~myx k[mtf p<d`glyA dfy<N<vx pt` evZ. sd`Dr~myx ak[mtf (d`evZS krn) p<d`glyA pfrfhFmx pt` evZ. Easily known is the progressive one. Easily known he who declines. He who loves Dhamma progresses. He who is averse to Dhamma, declines.3. itf eht^ vfjAnAm - pXemA esA prABevA z<tfy^ BgvA b&{hf – kf^ prABvetA m<K^? emZ prfhAnf kArNy vdAL prfd`edn`m dnfm. Ey pLm<evnf prfhAnf kArNy < vn`en`y. BAgYvt=n` vhn`s, edevnf pfrfehn kArNy vdAL m[nvf. pfrfhFmx kArNA kver~d? Thus much do we see: this is the first cause of ones downfall. Pray, tell us the second cause.4. asn`ts`s pfyA ehAn`tf - sn`et n k=r[et pfy^ ast^ DmZm^ erAectf - t^ prABvetA m<K^. ast`p<r[Syfn`x pf&y vFm, st`p<r[Syfn`x pf&y enAvFm, ast`p<r[S Dr~myx k[mtf vFm, yn emZvA pfrfhFmx kArNA evZ. The wicked are dear to him, with the virtuous he finds no delight, he prefers the creed of the wicked - this is a cause of one‟s downfall. 11
  15. 15. 5. itf eht^ vfjAnAm - z<tfeyA esA prABevA ttfy^ BgvA b&{hf – kf^ prABvetA m<K^? emZ prfhAnf kArNy vdAL prfd`edn`m dnfm<. Ey edv[nf prfhAnf kArNy vn`en`y. BAgYvt=n` vhn`s, t=n`v[nf pfrfehn kArNy vdAL m[nvf. pfrfhFmx kArNA kver~d? Thus much do we see: this is the second cause of ones downfall. Pray, tell us the third cause.6. nfd`dAsFlF sBAsFlF - an<xZXAtA c eyA nerA alesA ekADpJ`JAeNA - t^ prABvetA m<K^. nftr nfdn s<HT bv, ebAehA` ay smHg nfS`Pl kTAevhf eydFmx k[mtf bv, vFr~yy enAm[tfkm, als bv, kfepn s<HT bv, yn emZvA pfrfhFmx kr[N<y. Being fond of sleep, fond of company, indolent, lazy and irritable – this is a cause of one‟s downfall.7. itf eht^ vfjAnAm - ttfeyA esA prABevA ct=#T^ BgvA b&{hf – kf^ prABvetA m<K^? emZ prfhAnf kArNy vdAL prfd`edn`m dnfm. Ey t=n`v[nf prfhAnf kArNy < vn`en`y. BAgYvt=n` vhn`s, strv[nf pfrfehn kArNy vdAL m[nvf. pfrfhFmx kArNA kver~d? Thus much do we see: this is the third cause of ones downfall. Pray, tell us the fourth cause.8. eyA mAtr^ vA pftr^ vA - jfN`Nk^ gteyAbZbn^ ph>sn`etA n Brtf - t^ prABvetA m<K^. ymZ kfsfevk` jrAvx pt` v> (mhHE vfyx pt` v>), eyAv<n` bv egvF gfyA v> m{Nfyn` ehA` pfyANn` ehA` tmA epAehAst` v<vt` (s<ves` jFvt` v<vt`) ov<n` epA`SNy enA eker~ d, E` mvZpfyn` epA`SNy enAkfrFm edelAvfn`m pfrfhFmx kArNyyf vdAL es`k. Though being well-to-do, not to support father and mother who are old and past their youth - this is a cause of ones downfall.9. itf eht^ vfjAnAm - ct=e#TA esA prABevA pJ`cm^ BgvA b&{hf – kf^ prABvetA m<K^? 12
  16. 16. emZ prfhAnf kArNy vdAL prfd`edn`m dnfm. Ey strv[nf prfhAnf kArNy < vn`en`y. BAgYvt=n` vhn`s, ps`v[nf pfrfehn kArNy vdAL m[nvf. pfrfhFmx kArNA kver~d? Thus much do we see: this is the fourth cause of ones downfall. Pray, tell us the fifth cause.10, eyA b&Ah`mN^ vA smN^ vA - aJ`J^ vApf vNfbZbk^ m<sAvAedn vJ`ectf - t^ prABvetA m<K^. ymZ kfsfevk` b&Ah`mNyk= ehA` V&mNyk= ehA` n[tehAt` kfsfvk` il`ln an` yAckyk= ehA` ebAr[ kfemn` vJ`cA eker~d, Ey edelAvfn`m pfrfhFmx kArNA evZ. To deceive by falsehood a brahman or ascetic or any other mendicant - this is a cause of ones downfall.11. itf eht^ vfjAnAm - pJ`cemA esA prABevA CxZXm^ BgvA b&{hf – kf^ prABvetA m<K^? emZ prfhAnf kArNy vdAL prfd`edn`m dnfm. Ey ps`v[nf prfhAnf kArNy < vn`en`y. BAgYvt=n` vhn`s, syv[nf pfrfehn kArNy vdAL m[nvf. pfrfhFmx kArNA kver~d? Thus much do we see: this is the fifth cause of ones downfall. Pray, tell us the sixth cause.12. ph>tvft`etA p<rfesA - shfrJ`eJA seBAjenA EekA B=J`jtf sAD>nf - t^ prABvetA m<K^. ebAehA` rn` rfdF m<t= m[Nfk` smZpt` a[tf, ebAehA` khvN< a[tf p<d`gleyk` enAeyk` s>p vYJ`jneyn` y<k`t mfy<r[ rs a[tf ebAj<n` tm aM<dr[vn`xt` enA dF tnfvm an<Bv eker~d, Ey prfhAnfyx kArNA evZ. To have much wealth and ample gold and food, but to enjoy ones luxuries alone - this is a cause of ones downfall.13. itf eht^ vfjAnAm - CxZXemA esA prABevA st`tm^ BgvA b&{hf – kf^ prABvetA m<K^? emZ prfhAnf kArNy vdAL prfd`edn`m dnfm. Ey syv[nf prfhAnf kArNy < vn`en`y. BAgYvt=n` vhn`s, st`v[nf pfrfehn kArNy vdAL m[nvf. pfrfhFmx kArNA kver~d? 13
  17. 17. Thus much do we see: this is the sixth cause of ones downfall. Pray, tell us the seventh cause.14. jAtf#Td`eDA Dn#Td`eDA - egAt`t#Td`eDA c eyA nerA sJ`JAtf^ atfmJ`eJtf - t^ prABvetA m<K^. ymZ mn<SYeyk` jAtfy krN ekAx egn td mAny a[t`et`, Dny eh`t= ekAx egn td mAny a[t`et`, egA`t&y eh`t= ekAx egn td mAny a[t`et`, tmAeg` aveV`S n{yn` yxt` ekAx sftA d, E` sfy n{yn` yxt` ekAx d[kFm E` st`vyA pfrfhFmx kArNA evZ. . To be proud of birth, of wealth or clan, and to despise ones own kinsmen - this is a cause of ones downfall.15. itf eht^ vfjAnAm - st`temA esA prABevA axZXm^ BgvA b&{hf – kf^ prABvetA m<K^?. emZ prfhAnf kArNy vdAL prfd`edn`m dnfm. Ey st`v[nf prfhAnf kArNy < vn`en`y. BAgYvt=n` vhn`s, axv[nf pfrfehn kArNy vdAL m[nvf. pfrfhFmx kArNA kver~d? Thus much do we see: this is the seventh cause of ones downfall. Pray, tell us the eighth cause.16. i#TfD<t`etA s<rAD<t`etA - ak`KD<t`etA c eyA nerA ld`D^ ld`D^ vfnAestf - t^ prABvetA m<K^. ymZ mn<SYeyk` pr s`tF&n` ekerhf elAl` v>ey` d, s<rA bFemhf elAl` v>ey` d, z>ekLfeyhf elAl` v>ey` d, ld ld ymZ vs`t=vk` vfnAV kryf d, Ey pfrfhFmx kArNA evZ. To be a rake, a drunkard, a gambler and to squander all one earns - this is a cause of ones downfall.17. itf eht^ vfjAnAm - axZXemA esA prABevA nvm^ BgvA b&{hf – kf^ prABvetA m<K^? emZ prfhAnf kArNy vdAL prfd`edn`m dnfm<. Ey axv[nf prfhAnf kArNy vn`en`y. BAgYvt=n` vhn`s, nvv[nf pfrfehn kArNy vdAL m[nvf. pfrfhFmx kArNA kver~d? Thus much do we see: this is the eighth cause of ones downfall. Pray, tell us the nineth cause. 14
  18. 18. 18. eshf dAerhf’sn`t=xZeXA - evsfyAs< pdfs`stf dfs`stf prdAers< - t^ prABvetA m<K^. tmAeg` BAr~yAvn` eh`t= ekAx egn enAst=x< v> yemk` evVYAvn` ekerhf dk`nA l[ebyf d, prs`t&Fn` ekerhf dk`nA l[ebZ (a[s<r[ kryf) d, Ey pfrfhFmx kArNA evZ. Not to be contented with ones own wife, and to be seen with harlots and the wives of others - this is a cause of ones downfall.19. itf eht^ vfjAnAm - nvemA esA prABevA dsm^ BgvA b&{hf – kf^ prABvetA m<K^?. emZ prfhAnf kArNy vdAL prfd`edn`m dnfm. Ey nvv[nf prfhAnf kArNy < vn`en`y. BAgYvt=n` vhn`s, dsv[nf pfrfehn kArNy vdAL m[nvf. pfrfhFmx kArNA kver~d? Thus much do we see: this is the nineth cause of ones downfall. Pray, tell us the tenth cause.20. atFt eyAbZbenA epAesA - aAentf tfmZbr[#Tnf^ ts`sA is`sA n s<ptf - t^ prABvetA m<K^. ik`m gfy eyUvn vys` a[tf p<r[Seyk` etm tfMfrf Pl v[nf tn a[tf Ld[rfyk srN pAvAegn Eyf d, (ehetm) a[y tr[N p<r[Syk+ ptA edA` yn Ir~SYAevn` rAt&feyhf enA nfdA d, E` kArNy pfrfhFmx kArNA evZ. Being past ones youth, to take a young wife and to be unable to sleep for jealousy of her - this is a cause of ones downfall.21. itf eht^ vfjAnAm - dsemA esA prABevA EkAdsm^ BgvA b&{hf – kf^ prABvetA m<K^? emZ prfhAnf kArNy vdAL prfd`edn`m dnfm. Ey dsv[nf prfhAnf kArNy < vn`en`y. BAgYvt=n` vhn`s, EekAeLAs`v[nf pfrfehn kArNy vdAL m[nvf. pfrfhFmx kArNA kver~d? Thus much do we see: this is the tenth cause of ones downfall. Pray, tell us the eleventh cause.22. i#Tf esAN`wf^ vfkfrNf^ - p<rfs^ vApf tAdfs^ is`srfys`mf^ XpAeptf - t^ prABvetA m<K^. mt`sY mA^V s<rAevhf elAl` v> tRS`NA a[tf, E` mA^sAdfy nfsA smZpt` ps` emn` vfs<r[vn (vfnAV krn) s<l< v> s`t&fyk ehA` tv d, EbHz< v> ehvt` Em 15
  19. 19. s`t&fy v[nf v> p<r[Syk= ehA` BAN`wAgArAdfy bAr dFemn` aDfptf bevhf tbA d, ehvt` EkF edeyhf nfy<k`t eker~d, Ey pfrfhFmx kArNA evZ. To place in authority a woman given to drink and squandering, or a man of a like behaviour - this is a cause of ones downfall.23. itf eht^ vfjAnAm - EkAdsemA esA prABevA d`vAdsm^ BgvA b&{hf – kf^ prABvetA m<K^? emZ prfhAnf kArNy vdAL prfd`edn`m dnfm<. Ey EekAeLAs`v[nf prfhAnf kArNy vn`en`y. BAgYvt=n` vhn`s, edAeLAs`v[nf pfrfehn kArNy vdAL m[nvf. pfrfhFmx kArNA kver~d? Thus much do we see: this is the eleventh cause of ones downfall. Pray, tell us the twelfth cause.24. ap`peBAegA mhAtN`ehHA - Kt`tfey jAyet k=el esA c rj~j^ p#Tytf - t^ prABvetA m<K^. mHd v> upeBA`g prfeBA`g vs`t=vk` a[tf, mht` eBA`g tRS`NA a[t`etk` (ld edykfn` st=x< enAvn`enk`) k`St&fy k=leyhf updF d, ehetm rAjYy p&Ar~TnA eker~ d, Ey pfrfhFmx kArNA evZ. To be of noble birth, with vast ambition and of slender means, and to crave for rulership - this is a cause of ones downfall.25. Eet prABev elAek - pN`wfetA smevk`Kfy arfeyA ds`sn smZpn`enA - s elAk^ Bjet sfvn`tf. emZ st`v elA`keyhf pfrfhFmx eh`t= vn iht d[k` v> kr[N<, ehAHdfn` prFk`SA ekAx d[n gn`nA v> n<vN[tf p<d`glyA aAr~y dr~Vneyn` y<k`t v>ey` ut=mZ v>, eOS`m v> elA`ky es`vny krn`en`y. Knowing well these causes of downfall in the world, the noble sage endowed with insight shares a happy realm. 16
  20. 20. sfgAl s<t`t^ - sfgAelA`vAd s>t&y (gfhf vfny) SIGALOVADA SUTTA (The Layperson’s Code of Discipline) ebUd`D elA`ky ehAHdfn` dn`nA sfgAelA`vAd s>t&y (sfgAl s>t&y) s>t& pfxkey`dFG nfkAyx ayt`y. VflAdF g+N Dr~m v[wFm m>lfk ekAx egn ed`Vft emms>t&eyhf Dny ipyFm hA s^rOSNy, Dny vfnAV vn ay<r[, smAj smZb$DtAp[v[t`vFemZ dF aenYAnY vVeyn` pfLfp[dfy y<t= vgkFmZ, mft&#vy aAdF p<d`gls^vr~Dny sHdhA atYvVY kr[N< rAVfyk` d[k`evZ. gfhfyn` sHdhAm ed`Vft b[vfn`emyx gfhf vfny yyf d vYvhAr eker~. gRhs`T hA smAjgt jFvfty st=xfn` gtkfrFmx avVY, gfhfyn` vfsfn` pfLfp[dfy y<t= vfny nFtf mAlAvk svfs`trAt`mkvfg&hyk` emhf d[k`evZ. ax<vAcAr~y b<d`DeGA`S hfmfeyA` emm s>t&y pfLfbHdv emes` pvstf.‚gRhptfyk=eg` y<t+kmZ hA vgkFmZ kfsfm aw<vkfn` etArv dk`vn emm s>t&y gfhfvfny nmZ evZ. emhf sHdhn` kr[N< ymZkfsfvk= pfLfpdfn`en` nmZ oh<eg` dfy<N<v mfsprfhAnfy kfsfes`t` aep`OSA kL enAh[kfy.‛ tvz<rxt` emm s>t&y g[n kr[N<dk`vn rFs` ewZvfwZs` m[tfNfy pvsn`en`, mfnfs<n` EkfenkA atr eemt&fy, aenYAnYs<B sfd`Dfy vwvn aAcAr Dr~m pfLfbHdv svfs`trAt`mkv egn h[r d[k`evn evnt`s>t&yk` b<d`D ed`VnAvn`hf ekAt[nkvt` dk`nx enAl[ebn bvyf. Eb[vfn` v[wfhfxfyn`eg` sh dr[vn`eg` gRhs`T hA smAjgt jFvft sAr~Tkkr g[nFmx s<z<s< evnt` aAcAr Dr~m mAlAvk` d[k`vfy enAh[kfy. ap kAeg`t`aep`OSAv vfy y<t`et` emm ut=mZ uped`Vyn` pfLfegn avebA`Deyn` y<t=v pfLfpdfmfn`tm jFfvft gmn sAr~Tk kr g[nFmx kxy<t= kfrFmyf. Ees`m vfV`vAseyn` hABk`tfeyn` y<t=v, p&AeyA`gfkvm emm g=N Dr~m EdfendA jFvftyx smZb$D krg[nFemn` nfrn`tr st=x pvt`vA g[nFmx h[kfvn< enAan<mAny. Sigalovada Sutta (Sigala sutta) which belongs to the Digha Nikaya in SuttaPitaka is one of the most well known discourses in Buddhist world. It is one of thegreatest and most valuable set of teachings which deals with basic morality,building and preserving wealth, friendships, the reciprocal responsibilities in socialrelationaships, and the qualities of successful persons. It is also called GIHIVINAYA or laymen‟s discourse. The laymen‟s code of dicipline or layman‟sDhamma. This sutta beautifully discribes and gives a clear picture of the domesticand social life of the lay people. Commenting on this sutta Ven. Buddhaghosa says: “ Nothing in the duties ofa householder is left unmentioned. This sutta is called the Vinaya of the householder. Hence in one who practises what he has been taught in it, growth is to belooked for, not decay.” Further to this Mrs. Rhys Davids adds: “The Buddha‟s 17
  21. 21. doctrine of love and goodwill between man and man is here set forth in a domesticand social ethics with more comprehensive detail than else where.” So no other disciplinary rules or social or domestic ethics are required totrain adults and children except what has been taught in this sutta. As such ourearnest desire is that those who are able to understand and appreciate these valuableinstructions given in this sutta, to adopt yourself as a guide to strengthen yourconfidence, devotion and practical knowledge for the attainment of ever lastingHappiness.Ev^ em s>t^: Ek^ smy^ BgvA rAjgeh vfhrtf, evHTven kl$dk nfvAep. etn eKApn smeyn sfgAlekA ghptfp<t`etA kAls`esv v<xZXAy rAjghA nfk`Kmf#vAal`lve#TA al`lekesA pJ`jlfekA p<T<d`dfsA nms`stf, p<r#Tfm^ dfs^, dk`KfN^ dfs^,pcZCfm^ dfs^, ut`tr^ dfs^, ehxZXfm^ dfs^, uprfm^ dfs^.mA vfsfn` emes` asn ldF: Ek` kelk BAgYvt=n` vhn`es` rjgh n<vr kln`dk nfvAp nmZ v> evHTvnvfhAreyhf vAsy krn es`k. Ekl sfHgAlk nmZ gRhptf p<t& etm kl` a[tfvmn[gfx rjgh n<vrfn` pfxt`v egAs` ett` v> a[Hz<mZ a[tfv, ett` v> hfseks` a[tfv,a[Hdflf b[Hdegn ebAehA` dfVAvn` nms`kAr krn`en`y, eprdfg dfVAv, dk=N< dfVAv,bxhfr dfVAv, ut=r[ dfVAv, yx dfVAv, uw dfVAv vVeyn`.Thus have I heard: On one occasion the Exalted One was dwelling in the Bamboo Grove, theSquirrels Sanctuary, near Rajagaha. Now at that time, young Sigala, ahouseholders son, rising early in the morning, departing from Rajagaha, with wetclothes and wet hair, worshipped with joined hands the various quarters: the East,the South, the West, the North, the Nadir and the Zenith. aT eKA BgvA p<bZbN`hsmy^ nfvAes#vA pt`tcFvrmAdAy rAjgh^ pfN`wAypAvfsf. ad`dsA eKA BgvA sfgAlk^ ghptfp<t`t^ kAls`esv v<xZXAy rAjghAnfk`Kmf#vA al`lv#T^ al`leks^ pJ`jlfk^ p<T<d`dfsA nms`sn`t^, p<r#Tfm^ dfs^,dk`KfN^ dfs^, pcZCfm^ dfs^, ut`tr^ dfs^, ehxZXfm^ dfs^, uprfm^ dfs^. dfs`vAnsfgAlk^ ghptfp<t`t^ EtdevAc: ik`bftf BAgYvt=n` vhn`es` ud{snm h[Hd eprv pA sfv<r[ !egn, rjghn<vrx pfHw< pfNfs pfvfsf es`k. Evfx, kl` a[tfvm n[gfx rjgh n<vrfn` nfk`m,ett` v> a[Hz<mZ a[tfv, ett` v> eks` a[tfv, eprdfg dfVAv, dk=N< dfVAv, bxhfrdfVAv, ut=r[ dfVAv, yx dfVAv, uw dfVAv vVeyn` ebAehA` dfVAvn`x a[Hdflf b[Hdnms`kAr krn`nA v> sfgAlk gRhptf p<t&yA z<x< es`k. d[k sfgAlk gRhptfp<t&yAx emes` kF es`k: 18
  22. 22. Then the Exalted One, having robed himself in the forenoon took bowl androbe, and entered Rajagaha for alms. At that time, young Sigala, rising early in themorning, departing from Rajagaha, with wet clothes and wet hair, worshipped withjoined hands the various quarters: the East, the South, the West, the North, theNadir and the Zenith. Now He saw young Sigala worshipping thus and spoke tohim as follows: ‚kfn`n< eKA #v^ ghptfp<t`t, kAls`esv v<xZXAy rAjghA nfk`Kmf#vAal`lve#TA al`lekesA pJ`jlfekA p<T<d`dfsA nms`ssf, p<r#Tfm^ dfs^, dk`KfN^ dfs^,pcZCfm^ dfs^, ut`tr^ dfs^, ehxZXfm^ dfs^, uprfm^ dfsn`tf?‛ ‚gRhptf p<t&y, k=mk` ehyfn` n<M kl` a[tfvm n[gfx rjgh n<vrfn` nfk`m,ett` v> a[Hz<mZ a[tfv, ett` v> eks` a[tfv, eprdfg dfVAv, dk=N< dfVAv, bxhfrdfVAv, ut=r[ dfVAv, yx dfVAv, uw dfVAv vVeyn` ebAehA` dfVAvn`x a[Hdflf b[Hdnms`kAr krn`enhf d?‛ "Wherefore do you, young householder, rising early in the morning,departing from Rajagaha, with wet clothes and wet hair, worship, with joined handsthese various quarters: the East, the South, the West, the North, the Nadir and theZenith?" ‚pftA m^ Bn`et, kAl^ kerAn`etA Ev^ avc: ‘dfsA tAt, nms`esyYAsF’tf.esA eKA ah^ Bn`et, pft= vcn^ sk`kerAn`etA gr[kerAn`etA mAenn`etAp>ejn`etA kAls`esv v<xZXAy rAjghA nfk`Kmf#vA al`lve#TA al`lekesApJ`jlfekA p<T<d`dfsA nms`sAmf, p<r#Tfm^ dfs^, dk`KfN^ dfs^, pcZCfm^ dfs^, ut`tr^dfs^, ehxZXfm^ dfs^, uprfm^ dfsn`tf.‛ ‚s`vAmFn` vhn`s, mAeg` pfyA m[ern kl mx emes` kFey`y. ‘dr[v,dfVAvnx nms`kAr krv.’ s`vAmFn` vhn`s, E` mm pfyAeg` vcnyx st`kArkrn`enmZ, egUrv krn`enmZ, b<h<mn` krn`enmZ, p>jA krn`enmZ, kl` a[tfvmn[gfx rjgh n<vrfn` nfk`m, ett` v> a[Hz<mZ a[tfv, ett` v> hfseks` a[tfv, a[Hdflfb[Hdegn eprdfg dfVAv, dk=N< dfVAv, bxhfr dfVAv, ut=r[ dfVAv, yx dfVAv, uwdfVAv vVeyn` ebAehA` dfVAvn`x nms`kAr krmf‛yf kFey`y. "My father, Lord, while dying, said to me: „The six quarters, dear son, youshall worship.‟ And I, Lord, respecting, revering, reverencing and honouring myfathers word, rise early in the morning and leaving Rajagaha, with wet clothes andwet hair, worship with joined hands, these six quarters, the East, the South, theWest, the North, the Nadir and the Zenith." ‚n eKA ghptfp<t`t, arfys`s vfney Ev^ CddfsA nms`sftbZbA‛tf. “gRhptf p<t&y, aAr~y vfneyhf emes` sdfVAevA` enAv[Hdfy y<t`tAh<y‛ 19
  23. 23. "It is not thus, young householder, the six quarters should be worshipped inthe discipline of the noble." ‚yTA kT^ pn Bn`et, arfys`s vfney Cd`dfsA nms`sftbZbA? sAD< em Bn`etBhvA tTA DmZm^ edest=, yTA arfys`s vfney Cd`dfsA nms`sftbZbA‛tf. ‚s`vAmFn` vhn`s, aAr~y vfneyhf ekes` nmZ sdfVAevA` v[Hdfy y<t`tAh< d?s`vAmFn` vhn`s, aAr~y vfneyhf sdfVAevA` ymZ prfd`dkfn` v[Hdfy y<t`tAh< d,Eprfd`edn`` BAgYvt=n` vhn`es` mx Dr~my ed`VnA kL m[nv[‚yf (kFey`y). "How then, Lord, should the six quarters be worshipped in the discipline ofthe noble? It is well, Lord, if the Exalted One would teach the doctrine to meshowing how the six quarters should be worshipped in the discipline of the noble." ‚etnhf ghptfp<t`t s<NAhf, sAD<k^ mnsf kerAhf, BAsfs`sAmF‛tf. ‚Ev^Bn`et‛tf eKA sfgAelA ghptfp<t`etA BhvetA pcZcs`esAsf. ‚gRhptf p<t&y, Ees` vF nmZ asv. ehAHdfn` sfhfey` tbA gn<v. kfyn`enmf.‛‚Ees`y, s`vAmFn` vhn`s‛ yyf E` sfgAlk gRhptf p<t&yA BAgYvt=n` vhn`es`xpfLfvdn` z<n`en`y. "Well, young householder, listen and bear it well in mind. I shall speak.""Very good, Lord," responded young Sigala.BgvA EtdevAc: yetA eKA ghptfp<t`t, arfysAvks`s ct`tAerA kmZmkfelsA phFNAehAn`tf, ct+hf XAenhf pApkmZm^ n kerAtf, C c eBAgAn^ apAym<KAnf n esvtf,esA Ev^ c<d`dspApkApgetA, Cd`dfsApxfcZCAdF, uByelAkvfjyAy pxfpn`enA ehAtf,ts`s ay^ ecv elAekA aArd`eDA ehAtf perAc elAekA, esA kAys`s eBdAprmZmrNA s<gtf^ sg`g^ elAk^ uppj`jtf.BAgYvt=n` vhn`es` emes` vdAL es`k: gRhptf p<t&y, ymZ klk pxn` ut=mZ V&AvkyA vfsfn` kr~m k`el`V strk`z<r[ krn ld`ed` d, kr[N< strkfn` pvZ kmZ enAeker~ d, vs`t= vfnAVyx eh`t= v<kr[N< sy es`vny enAeker~ d, ehetm emes` dAhtrk` v> lAmk gtfvlfn` evn`v>ey` sy dfVAvn` By n>pdfn es` vsA tbn`enk`v edelAvm jy g[nFm pfNfspfLfpdfn`en` evyf. oh< vfsfn` emelAv d dfnn ld`ed` evyf. prelAv d dfnn ld`ed`evyf. ehetm mrNfn` mt`ethf yhpt` gtf a[tf dfvY elA`keyhf updfn`en`y.And the Exalted One spoke as follows: Inasmuch, young householder, as the noble disciple has eradicated the fourvices in conduct, inasmuch as he commits no evil action in four ways, inasmuch ashe pursues not the six channels for dissipating wealth, he thus, avoiding these 20
  24. 24. fourteen evil things, covers the six quarters, and enters the path leading to victoryin both worlds: he is favoured in this world and in the world beyond. Upon thedissolution of the body, after death, he is born in a happy heavenly realm.kmZmkfelsA – kr~m k`el`V - Vices ktms`s ct`tAerA kmZmkfelsA phFNA ehAn`tf? pANAtfpAetA eKAghptfp<t`t kmZmkfelesA, adfn`nAdAn^ kmZmkfelesA, kAems< mfcZCAcAerAkmZmkfelesA, m<sAvAedA kmZmkfelesA, ims`s ct`tAerA kmZmkfelsA phFNAehAn`tF’tf. idmevAc BgvA. oh< vfsfn` kvr nmZ kr~m k`el`V (apfrfs<z< kf&yA) htrk`` ph krn ld`ed`evyf d? What are the four vices in conduct that he has eradicated?  pANAtfpAetA - st=n` m[rFm – destruction of life  adfn`nAdAn^ - esArkmZ kfrFm – stealing  kAems<mfcZCAcAerA - kAmeyhf vrdvA h[sfrFm – sexual misconduct  m<sAvAedA - ebAr[ kFm – lying yn stryf. oh< vfsfn` emZ apfrfs<z< kf&yA str ph krn ld`ed` evyf’ yyfBAgYvt=n` vhn`es` vdAL es`k. These are the four vices that he has eradicated. Thus spoke the Exalted One.id^ v#vA s<getA, aTApr^ EtdevAc s#TA: pANAtfpAt^ adfn`nAdAn^ m<sAvAedA c v<cZctf prdArgmnJ`ecv np`ps^sn`tf pN`wftA’tf.s<gt v> VAs`tRRn` vhn`es` emes` vdArA, n[vt emes` d p[vs> es`k: st=n` m[rFm, esArkmZ kfrFm, kAmeyhf vrdvA h[sfrFm, ebAr[ kFm yyff kfyn<lbn emZ str pN`wfteyA` p&V^sA enAkrt`’ yyf.And when the Master had thus spoken, he spoke yet again: Killing, stealing, lying and adultery, these four evils the wise never praise.agtfgmnAnf – agtfyx yn pvZkmZ – Harmful actions ktemhf ct+hf XAenhf pApkmZm^ kerAtf? C$dAgtf^ gcZCn`etA pApkmZm^kerAtf, edAsAgtf^ gcZCn`etA pApkmZm^ kerAtf, emAhAgtf^ gcZCn`etA pApkmZm^kerAtf, ByAgtf^ gcZCn`etA pApkmZm^ kerAtf. 21
  25. 25. kvr nmZ kr[N< strkfn` pvZ kmZ eker~d? In which four ways does one commit evil action?  C$dAgtf^ gcZCn`etA pApkmZm^ kerAtf - C$deyn` (a[l`emn`) agtfyx gfey` pvZkmZ kryf - led by desire commits evil action  edAsAgtf^ gcZCn`etA pApkmZm^ kerAtf - d`evZVeyn` agtfyx gfey` pvZkmZ kryf - led by anger commits evil action  emAhAgtf^ gcZCn`etA pApkmZm^ kerAtf - emA`heyn` agtfyx gfey` pvZkmZ kryf - led by ignorance commits evil action  ByAgtf^ gcZCn`etA pApkmZm^ kerAtf - Byfn` agtfyx gfey` pvZkmZ kryf - led by fear commits evil action yetA eKA ghptfp<t`t, arfysAvekA env C$dAgtf^ gcZCtf, n edAsAgtf^gcZCtf, n emAhAgtf^ gcZCtf, n ByAgtf^ gcZCtf, iemhf ct+hf XAenhf pApkmZm^n kerAtF’tf. gRhptf p<t&y, ymZ eh`t=vkfn` aAr~y V&Avk etemZ C$deyn` agtfyxenAgfey` d, d`evZSeyn` agtfyx enAgfey` d, emA`heyn` agtfyx enAgfey` d, Byfn`agtfyx enAgfey` d, emZ kr[N< strfn` pvZ kmZ enAkryf. But inasmuch as the noble disciple is not led by desire, anger, ignorance, andfear, he commits no evil.idmevAc BgvA. id^ v#vA s<getA aTApr^ EtdevAc s#TA: C$dA edAsA ByA emAhA eyA DmZm^ atfvt`ttf nfhFytf ts`s yesA kALpk`eK’v c$dfmA.BAgYvt=n` vhn`es` emes` vdAL es`k. s<gt v> VAs`tRRn` vhn`es` emes` vdArA,n[vt d emes` ed`VnA kL es`k: yemk` C$deyn` d, d`evZSeyn` d, Byfn` d, emA`heyn` d Dr~my ik`mvyf d,E` t[n[t`tAeg` yss kHTvr pOSeyhf c$z&yA emn` pfrfehn`en`y.Thus spoke the Exalted One. And when the Master had thus spoken, he spoke yetagain: Whoever through desire, hate or fear, Or ignorance should transgress the Dhamma, All his glory fades away Like the moon during the waning half. 22
  26. 26. C$dA edAsA ByA emAhA eyA DmZm^ nAtfvt`ttf aAp>rtf ts`s yesA s<k`kpk`eK’v c$dfmA’tf. yemk` C$deyn` d, d`evZSeyn` d, Byfn` d, emA`heyn` d Dr~my enAik`mvAd, E` t[n[t`tAeg` yss p<r pOSeyhf sHd emn` pfern`en`y. Whoever through desire, hate or fear, Or ignorance never transgresses the Dhamma, All his glory ever increases Like the moon during the waxing half.C apAym<KAnf – vs`t= vfnAVm<K sy – The six channels for dissipating wealth ktmAnf C eBAgAn^ apAym<KAnf n esvtf? s<rAemry-mj~jpmAdxZXAnA-n<eyAegA eKA ghptfp<t`t eBAgAn^ apAym<K^. vfkAl-vfsfKA-crfyAn<eyAegAeBAgAn^ apAym<K^. smj~jABfcrN^ eBAgAn^ apAym<K^. j>tp`pmAdxZXAnA-n<eyAegA eBAgAn^ apAym<K^. pApmft`tAn<eyAegA eBAgAn^ apAym<K^.aAls`sAn<eyAegA eBAgAn^ apAym<K^. vs`t=v vfnAVyx eh`t= v> kvr nmZ kr[N< syk` es`vny enAeker~d? What are the six channels for dissipating wealth which he does not pursue?  s<<rAemry-mj~jpmAdxZXAnAn<eyAegA - mt`vFmx hA p&mAdyx kr[N< v> mt`p[n` bFm – indulgence in intoxicants which cause infatuation and heedlessness  vfkAlvfsfKAcrfyAn<eyAegA - n<s<z<s< kAleyhf vFTf s^cAry – sauntering in streets at unseemly hours  smj~jABfcrN^ - n[x<mZ g[y<mZ a[tf t[n`vl h[sfrFm – frequenting theatrical shows  j>tp`pmAdxZXAnAn<eyAegA - p&mAdyx eh`t= v> z> ekLfeyhf eydFm – indulgence in gambling which causes heedlessness  pApmft`tAn<eyAegA - pApmft& es`vny – association with evil companions  aAls`sAn<eyAegA - als bv – the habit of idlenessmj~jpAnAdFnvA – mt`p[n` bFemhf aAdFnv – Evil consequences in indulging inintoxicants C eKA’em ghptfp<t`t, aAdFnvA s<rAemry-mj~jpmAdxZXAnAn<eyAeg:s$dfxZXfkA DnJ`jAnf, klhp`pvwZWnF, erAgAn^ aAytn^, akft`tfs^jnnF, ekApFn^nfd^snF, pJ`JAy z<bZblFkrNFe#v’c CxZX^ pd^ Bvtf. iem eKA ghptfp<t`t, CaAdFnvA s<rAemrymj~jpmAdxZXAnAn<eyAeg. 23
  27. 27. gRhptf p<t&y, mt`vFmx hA p&mAdyx kr[N< v> mt`p[n` bFemhf n[vt n[vteydFemhf emZ edA`S sykf. There are, young householder, these six evil consequences in indulging inintoxicants which cause infatuation and heedlessness.  s$dfxZXfkA DnJ`jAnf - emZ jFvftey`dFm Dny pfrfehyf – loss of wealth  klhp`pvwZWnF - ekA`lAhL v[wfevyf – increase of quarrels  erA`gAn^ aAytn^ - erA`g pFwAvn`x eh`t=evyf – susceptibility to disease  akft`tfs^jnnF - apkFr~tfy a[tfevyf – earning an evil reputation  ekApFn^ nfd^snF - lj~jA n[tfv h[sferyf – shameless exposure of body  pJ`JAy z<bZblFkrNF - n<vN z<r~vl evyf – weakening of intellect gRhptf p<t&y, mt`vFmx hA p&mAdyx kr[N< v> mt`p[n` bFemhf n[vt n[vteydFemhf emZ edA`S sy evZ. Young householder, these are the six evil consequences in indulging inintoxicants which cause infatuation and heedlessness.vfkAlvfsfKAcrfyAdFnvA – enAkl`hf vFTf s^cAreyhf aAdFnv – Evil consequences insauntering in streets at unseemly hours C eKA’em ghptfp<t`t, aAdFnvA vfkAlvfsfKAcrfyAn<eyAeg: at`tApf’s`sag=t`etA ark`KetA ehAtf, p<t`tdAerA’pf’s`s ag=t`etA ark`KfetA ehAtf, fsApetyYmZpf’s`s ag=t`t^ ark`Kft^ ehAtf, s^kfeyA c ehAtf pApeks< XAens<,aB+tvcn^ c ts`mf^ r{htf, bh>n^c z<k`KDmZmAn^ p<rk`KetA ehAtf. iem eKAghptfp<t`t, C aAdFnvA vfkAlvfsfKAcrfyAn<eyAeg. gRhptf p<t&y, enAkl`hf vFTf s^cAreyhf n[vt n[vt eydFemhf emZ edA`Ssykf. There are, young householder, these six evil consequences in sauntering instreets at unseemly hours.  at`tApf’s`s ag=t`etA ark`KfetA ehAtf – oh<eg` jFvfty d p&evZVmZ enAv>ey` anArOSft evyf – he himself is unprotected and unguarded  p<t`tdAerA’pfs`s ag=t`etA ark`KfetA ehAtf – oh<eg` aM< dr[evA` d p&evZVmZ enAv>evA` anArOSft evt` - his wife and children are unprotected and unguarded  sApetyYmZpf’s`s ag=t`t^ ark`Kft^ ehAtf – oh<eg` vs`t=v d p&evZVmZ enAv>ey` anArOSft evyf – his property is unprotected and unguarded  s^kfeyA c ehAtf pApeks< XAens< - pvfx< v> kArNyn`hf s[k kxy<t`et` d evyf – he is suspected of evil deeds 24
  28. 28.  aB+tvcn^ c ts`mf^ r{htf - oh< ekerhf sfz< enAv> kTA d p[n ngF – he is subject to false rumours  bh>n^ c z<k`KDmZmAn^ p<rk`KetA ehAtf - ebAehA` v> z<k` hfrfh[rvlx d m<h<N pAn`enk` evyf – he meets with many troubles gRhptf p<t&y, enAkl`hf vFTf s^cAreyhf n[vt n[vt eydFemhf emZ edA`Ssy evZ. Young householder, these are the six evil consequences in sauntering instreets at unseemly hours.smj~jABfcrNAdFnvA – n[x<mZ pLvl h[sfrFemhf aAdFnv – Evil consequences infrequenting theatrical shows C eKA’em ghptfp<t`t, aAdFnvA smj~jABfcreN: k`v ncZc^, k`v gFt^,k`v vAdft^, k`v ak`KAn^, k`v pANfs`sr^, k`v k=mZBT>Nn`tf? iem eKAghptfp<t`t, C aAdFnvA smj~jABfcreN. gRhptf p<t&y, n[x<mZ pLvl h[sfrFemhf emZ edA`S sykf. There are, young householder, these six evil consequences in frequentingtheatrical shows.  k`v ncZc^ - n[x<mZ ekAhfd? – where is there dancing  k`v gFt^ - gF kFmZ ekAhfd? – where is there singing  k`v vAdft^ - v[yFmZ ekAhfd? – where is there music  k`v ak`KAt^ - kTA p[v[t`vFmZ ekAhfd? – where is there recitation  k`v pANfs`sr^ - kyftAlmZ aAdfy g[sFmZ ekAhfd? – where is there playing with cymbals  k`v k=mZBT>N^ - kl pfMFmZ aAdfy ekAhfd? – where is there pot-blowing aAdfy esAymfn` kAly apet` h[rFmyf. gRhptf p<t&y, n[x<mZ pLvlh[sfrFemhf emZ edA`S sy evZ In this he wastes his time. Young householder, these are the six evilconsequences in frequenting theatrical shows.j>tp`pmAdAdFnvA – z> ekLfeyhf eydFemhf aAdFnv – Evil consequences inindulging in gambling C eKA’em ghptfp<t`t, aAdFnvA j>tp`pmAdxZXAnAn<eyAeg: jy^ evr^psvtf, jfetA cft`tmn<esActf, s$dfxZXfkA DnJ`jAnf, sBAgts`s vcn^ n r{htf,mft`tAmcZcAn^ prfB+etA ehAtf, aAvAhvfvAhkAn^ ap#TfetA ehAtf, ak`KD<t`etA ay^ 25
  29. 29. p<rfsp<g`gelA nAl^ dArhrNAyA’tf. iem eKA ghptfp<t`t, C aAdFnvAj>tp`pmAdxZXAnAn<eyAeg. gRhptf p<t&y, z> ekLfeyhf n[vt n[vt eydFemhf emZ edA`S sykf. There are, young householder, these six evil consequences in indulging ingambling.  jy^ evr^ psvtf - dfn> t[n[t`et` eevryx lk` evyf – the winner begets hate  jfetA cft`tmn<esActf - prdvn< l[b<ey` vs`t=v g[n n[vt n[vt eVA`k kryf – the loser grieves for lost wealth  s$dfxZXfkA DnOd`jAnf - tmn` blA sfxfydFm vs`t=v vfnAV evZ – loss of wealth  sBAgts`s vcn^ n r{htf - sBAvkx p[mfNf oh<eg` vcny enApfLfgnfyf – his word is not relied upon in a court of law  mft`tAmcZcAn^ prfB+etA ehAtf - hHftmft=rn`egn` nfn`dA lbn`enk` evyf – he is despised by his friends and associates  aAvAhvfvAhkAn^ ap#TfetA ehAtf, ak`KD<t`etA ay^ p<rfsp<g`gelA nAl^ dArhrNAy - z> ekLfeyhf eyedn emAh< aM<vn` epA`SNyx n<s<z<s< yyf aAvAh vfvAhkyfn` vfsfn` enAptn ld`ed` evyf – he is not sought after for matrimony, for people would say he is a gambler and is not fit to look after a wife gRhptf p<t&y, z> ekLfeyhf n[vt n[vt eydFemhf emZ edA`S sy evZ. Young householder, these are the six evil consequences in indulging ingambling.pApmft`tAn<eyAgAdFnvA – pvfx< mft=rn` aAV&y kfrFemhf aAdFnv – Evilconsequences in associating with evil companions C eKA’em ghptfp<t`t, aAdFnvA pApmft`tAn<eyAeg: ey D<t`tA, eyesAN`wA, ey pfpAsA, ey enktfkA, ey vHJ`cnfkA, ey sAhsfkA tYAs`s mft`tAehAn`tf, et shAyA, iem eKA ghptfp<t`t, C aAdFnvA pApmft`tAn<eyAeg. gRhptf p<t&y, pvfx< mft=rn` aAV&y kfrFemhf n[vt n[vt eydFemhf emZ edA`Ssykf. There are, young householder, these six evil consequences in associatingwith evil companions, namely:  ey D<t`tA - ymZ ekenk` z> ekLfeyhf eyedt` d, - any gambler 26
  30. 30.  ey esAN`wA - ymZ ekenk` (g[h[N<n` ekerhf) elAl` evt` d, - any libertine  ey pfpAsA - ymZ ekenk` s<rA pfpAseyhf g[lF evest` d, - any drunkard  ey enktfkA - ymZ ekenk` kpxfkmZ ekert` d, - any swindler  ey vJ`cnfkA - ymZ ekenk` v^cA p&eyA`g ekert` d, - any cheat  ey sAhsfkA - ymZ ekenk` m^ p[h[rFmZ aAdF s[h[sfkmZ ekert` d, - any rowdy is his friend and companion. ovZh< oh<eg` mft=erA` evt`. shAykeyA` d evt`. gRhptf p<t&y, pvfx<mft=rn` aAV&y kfrFemhf n[vt n[vt eydFemhf emZ edA`S sy evZ. They are his friends and associates. Young householder, these are the sixevil consequences in associating with evil companions.aAls`sAdFnvA – als b[vZhf aAdFnv – Evil consequences in laziness C eKA’em ghptfp<t`t, aAdFnvA aAls`sAn<eyAeg: atfsFtn`tf kmZm^ nkerAtf, atfuN`hn`tf kmZm^ n kerAtf, atfsAyn`tf kmZm^ n kerAtf, atfpAetA’tfkmZm^ n kerAtf, atfjAetA’s`mFtf kmZm^ n kerAtf, atfDAetA’s`mFtf kmZZm^ nkerAtf. ts`s Ev^ kfcZcApedsbh<ls`s vfhretA an<p`pn`nA ecv eBAgAn>pj~jn`tf, up`pn`nA c eBAgA prfk`Ky^ gcZCn`tf. iem eKA ghptfp<t`t, CaAdFnvA aAls`sAn<eyAeg‛tf. gRhptf p<t&y, als b[vZhf n[vt n[vt eydFemhf emZ edA`S sykf. There are, young householder, these six dangers inherent in laziness:  atfsFtn`tf kmZm^ n kerAtf - itA VFtlyyf v[w enAkryf – he does no work, saying, that it is extremely cold  atfuN`hn`tf kmZm^ n kerAtf - itA uN<s<mZ yyf v[w enAkryf – he does no work, saying, that it is extremely hot  atfsAyn`tf kmZm^ n kerAtf - itA svs` yyf v[w enAkryf – he does no work, saying, that it is too late in the evening  atfpAetA’tf kmZm^ n kerAtf - itA ud{sn yyf v[w enAkryf – he does no work, saying, that it is too early in the morning  atfjAetA’s`mFtf kmZm^ n kerAtf - itA bwgfnf yyf v[w enAkryf – he does no work, saying, that it is extremely hungry  atfDAetA’s`mFtf kmZm^ n kerAtf - k{m k{emn` bw itA br v[wf yyf v[w enAkryf – he does no work, saying, that it is too full emes` v[w enAekAx itfrf v> kxy<t= bh<lv vAsy krn`nA v> oh<x n>pn`nAv> vs`t+h< d n>pdft`. upn`nA v> vs`t+h< d pfrfeht`. gRhptf p<t&y, als b[vZhfn[vt n[vt eydFemhf emZ edA`S sy evZ. 27
  31. 31. Living in this way, with abundance of excuses one leaves many dutiesundone and does not accure new wealth and existing acquired wealth dwindlesaway. Young householder, these are the six dangers in being addicted to laziness. idmevAc BgvA. id^ v#vA s<getA aTApr^ EtdevAc s#TA: ehAtf pAnsKA nAm ehAtf smZmfysmZmfeyA eyA c ae#Ts< jAets< shAeyA ehAtf esA sKA.‛ BAgYvt=n` vhn`es` emes` vdAL es`k. s<gt v> VAs`tRRn` vhn`es` emes`vdArA n[vt d emes` vdAL es`k: mt`p[n` bFmx mft=r[ v> pAnsK nmZ yhl<evk` evyf. idfrfpfx dF pmNk`yhl<km dk`vn smZmfy nmZ yhl<evk` evyf. yemk` tmA hx v[wk` a[tf kl`hfmft&vn`nA v> sK nmZ yhl<evk` d evyf. Thus spoke the Exalted One. And when the Master had thus spoken, hespoke yet again: One is a bottle friend; one says, friend, friend only to ones face; one is afriend and an associate only when it is advantageous. us`s>r esyYA prdAresvnA - evrp`ps^egA c an#TtA c pApA c mft`t^ s<kdrfytA c - Eet C XAnA p<rfs^ D^syn`tf. ir udAvn etk` nfdA g[nFmy, an` aM<vn` es`vny kfrFmy, trh b[Hdg[nFmy, av[w sfz<vn ed` kfrFmy, pvfx< mft=rn` es`vny kfrFmy, td ms<r[ bvyyn emZ kr[N< sy mfnfsA vfnAV kryf. Sleeping till sunrise, adultery, hostility, malevolence, evil companions,avarice. These six causes ruin a person. pApmft`etA pApseKA - pApaAcAregAcerA as`mA elAkA prmZhA c - uByA D^set nerA. pAp mft&yn` a[tf pvfx< yhl<vn` a[tf lAmk p[vt=mZ hA enAh[sfrfy y<t=tn`hf h[sfern`nA v> t[n[t`et` emelAvfn` d prelAvfn` d yn edelAvfn`m pfrfeh`. A person who has bad friends, bad companions, bad practices and spendingtime in evil ways, brings oneself to ruin both in this world and the next. ak`Kf#TfeyA vAr[NF ncZcgFt^ - dfvAesAp`p^ pArfcrfyA akAel pApA c mft`tA s<kdrfytA c - Eet C XAnA p<rfs^ D^syn`tf. 28
  32. 32. s>z< ekLFemhf hA an` aM<vn` es`vny kfrFemhf eydFm, s<rApAny kfrFm, n[x<mZgF kFmZvlx k[m[t`t, dhvl` nfdAg[nfm hA enAkl`hf n<s<z<s< tn`hf h[sfrFm, pApmft&yn` a[tf bv sh td ms<r[km yn emZ kr[N< sy p<r[SyA vfnAV kryf. Dice and women, liquor, dancing and singing, sleeping by day andsauntering at unseemly hours, evil companions and avarice, these six causes ruin aperson. ak`eKhf dfbZbn`tf s<r^ pfvn`tf - yn`tf#TfeyA pANsmA pers^ nfhFnesvF n c v<d`DesvF - nfhFyer kALpk`eK’v ce$dA. ymZ ekenk` (dAz< k[xeyn`) s>z< ekLft` d, s<rApAny ekert` d, an<n`eg`p&ANy emn` rkfn aM<vn` es`vny krt` d, z<sfrfethf g[lF vsn mfnfs<n` es`vnykrt` d, yhpt ayhpt dt` QAnvn`tyfn` es`vny enAkrt` d, ov<n`eg` ysskHTvr pOSeyhf c$z&yA emn` pfrfhFmx p[mfeN`. Who plays with dice and drinks intoxicants, goes to women who are dearunto others as their own lives, associates with the mean and not with elders,declines just as the moon during the waning half. eyA vAr[NF aDenA akfHJ`cenA - pfpAesA pfv^ pAp^ getA udkmfv iN^ vfgAhtf - ak=l^ kAhftf Kfp`pmt`tenA. vs`t=v Dny n[tfv vsn yemk` mt`p[n` bFemhf elAl` v>ey` s<rA s[lxegAs` s<rApAny krn`en` dfeyhf gfeln glk` emn` Ny g[tf bvx b[s gnfyf.oh< vhA tm k=ly (egdr) pfrfh<N< egdrk` krn`en`y. Who is a drunkard, broke, destitute, dragged by thirst from bar to bar, sinksin debt as a stone in water, swiftly brings disrepute to his family. n dfvA esAp`psFeln - rt`tfm<xZXAneds`sfnA nfcZc^ mt`etn esAN`ewn - sk`kA aAvsft=^ Gr^ dhvl` nfdn gtf a[tf, ebAehA` @ vn t=r[ n[gfx sfxfn gtf a[tf, nfetArmt`p[nfn` mt` v>, g[h[N<n` ekerhf elAl` v>, p<d`glyA vfsfn` gfhfegyf vfsFmenAkL h[kfy. Who by habit sleeps by day, and keeps late hours, is ever intoxicated, and islicentious, is not fit to lead a household life. atfsFt^ atfuN`h^ - atfsAymfd^ ah< itf vfs`sxZXkmZmn`et - a#TA acZecn`tf mANev. d[n` itA sFtly, itA uN<s<mZy, itA svs` vF yyf emes` v[w enAkrnmfnfs`s< tm yhpt n[tf kr gnft`. 29
  33. 33. Who says it is too hot, too cold, too late and leaves things undone, theopportunities for good go past such men. eyA’D sFt^c uN`h^c tfNA BFeyYA n mJ`Jtf kr^ p<rfskfcZcAnf esA s<KA n vfhAytF‛tf. Eeht` emelAv yemk= sFtl d, uN<s<m d, tNptk` pmNvt` enAsftA d,ut`sAheyn` v[w krn`nA v> E` mfnfsA s[peyn` enApfrfehn`en`y. But he who does not regard cold or heat any more than a blade of grass andwho does his duties manfully, does not fall away from happiness.mft`tptfr{pkA – mft&p&tfr{pkeyA` - Foes in the guise of friends ct`tAerA em ghptfp<t`t, amft`tA mft`tptfr{pkA evdftbZbA.aJ`Jd#T<herA amft`etA mft`tptfr{pekA evdftbZebA, vcFpremA amft`etAmft`tptfr{pekA evdftbZebA, an<p`pfyBANF amft`etA mft`tptfr{pekA evdftbZebA,apAyshAeyA amft`etA mft`tptfr{pekA evdftbZebA. gRhptf p<t&y, mft=r[ evsfn` h[sfern mft=r[ enAv> emZ str edenk` dty<t=evt`. These four young householder, should be understood as foes in the guise offriends:  aJ`Jd#T<herA amft`etA mft`tptfr{pekA evdftbZebA - E`kAn`teyn` ymk` egn yAmx pmNk` mft=r[ evsfn` h[sfern mft=r[ enAv> t[n[t`tA dty<t=y – he who appropriates a friend‟s possessions should be understood as a foe in the guise of a friend  vcFpremA amft`etA mft`tptfr{pekA evdftbZebA - vcneyn` pmNk` s[lkFmZ krn mft=r[ evsfn` h[sfern mft=r[ enAv> t[n[t`tA dty<t=y – he who renders lip-service should be understood as a foe in the guise of a friend  an<p`pfyBANF amft`etA mft`tptfr{pekA evdftbZebA - tmn` idfrfpfx dF s`t=tf krn !vxflf bs` kfyn mft=r[ evsfn` epnF sfxfn mft=r[ enAv> t[n[t`tA dty<t=y – he who flatters should be understood as a foe in the guise of a friend  apAyshAeyA amft`etA mft`tptfr{pekA evdftbZebA - pvZkmZ sHdhA shAy dk`vn mft=r[ evsfn` h[sfern mft=r[ enAv> t[n[t`tA dty<t=y – he who brings ruin should be understood as a foe in the guise of a friend ct+hf eKA ghptfp<t`t, XAenhf aJ`Jd#T<herA amft`etA mft`tptfr{pekAevdftbZebA. aJ`Jd#T<herA ehAtf, ap`epn bh<mfcZCtf, Bys`s kfcZc^ kerAtf,esvtf a#TkArNA. iemhf eKA ghptfp<t`t, ct+hf XAenhf aJ`Jd#T<herAamft`etA mft`tptfr{pekA evdftbZebA. 30
  34. 34. gRhptf p<t&y, E`kAn`teyn` ymk` egn yAmx pmNk` mft=r[ evsfn`h[sfern mft=r[ enAv> t[n[t`tA kr[N< strkfn` dty<t=y. In four ways young householder, should one who appropriates be understoodas a foe in the guise of a friend:  aJ`Jd#T<herA ehAtf - hfs` atfn` av<t` mft&yAegn` kfsfvk` egnyAmx blAepAerAt`t= evyf – he appropriates his friend‟s wealth  ap`epn bh<mfcZCtf - s<HT edyk` dFemn` elAk= edyk` k[mtf evyf – he gives little and asks much  Bys`s kfcZc^ kerAtf - tmAx bfyk` a[tf kl`hf pmNk` oh<eg` kxy<t= kryf – he does his duty out of fear  esvtf a#TkArNA - tmAeg` p&eyA`jny pfNfs kxy<t= kryf – he associates for his own advantage gRhptf p<t&y, E`kAn`teyn` ymk` egn yAmx pmNk` mft=r[ evsfn`h[sfern mft=r[ enAv> t[n[t`tA emZ kr[N< strfn` dty<t=y. Young householder, these four ways one who appropriates should beunderstood as a foe in the guise of a friend. ct+hf eKA ghptfp<t`t, XAenhf vcFpremA amft`etA mft`tptfr{pekAevdftbZebA. atFetn pxfs$Trtf, anAgetn pxfs$Trtf, nfr#Tekn s^gN`hAtf,pcZc<p`pn`ens< kfcZecs< bYsn^ ds`estf. iemhf eKA ghptfp<t`t, ct+hf XAenhfvcFpremA amft`etA mft`tptfr{pekA evdftbZebA. vcneyn` pmNk` s[lkFmZ krn mft=r[ evsfn` h[sfern mft=r[ enAv>t[n[t`tA kr[N< strkfn` dty<t=y. In four ways young householder, should one who renders lip-service beunderstood as a foe in the guise of a friend:  atFetn pxfs$Trtf – emes` krn`x tfb<Nf yyf kfymfn` atFteyn` s^g&h kryf – he makes friendly profession as regards the past  anAgetn pxfs$Trtf – emes` krn`nmZ yyf kfymfn` anAgteyn` s^g&h kryf – he makes friendly profession as regards the future  nfr#Tekn s^gN`hAtf - nfrr~Tk edyfn` s^g&h kryf – he tries to gain one‟s favour by empty words  pcZc<p`pn`ens< kfcZecs< bYsn^ ds`estf - kxy<t`tk` p[mfN sfxf kl`hf tmnx v> vfpt`tfyk` dk`vmfn` mg hrfyf – when opportunity for service has arisen, he expresses his inability 31
  35. 35. vcneyn` pmNk` s[lkFmZ krn mft=r[ evsfn` h[sfern mft=r[ enAv>t[n[t`tA emZ kr[N< strfn` dty<t=y. Young householder, these four ways, one who renders lip-service should beunderstood as a foe in the guise of a friend. ct+hf eKA ghptfp<t`t, XAenhf an<p`pfyBANF amft`etA mft`tptfr{pekAevdftbZebA. pApkmZpf’s`s an<jAnAtf, klYANmZpf’s`s an<jAnAtf, smZm<KA’s`svN`N^ BAstf, prmZm<KA’s`s avN`N^ BAstf. iemhf eKA ghptfp<t`t, ct+hfXAenhf an<p`pfyBANF amft`etA mft`tptfr{pekA evdftbZebA. gRhptf p<t&y, tmn` idfrfpfx dF s`t=tf krn !vxflf bs` kfyn mft=r[ evsfn`epnF sfxfn mft=r[ enAv> t[n[t`tA kr[N< strkfn` dty<t=y. In four ways young householder, should one who flatters be understood as afoe in the guise of a friend:  pApkmZpf’s`s an<jAnAtf - mft=rAx pvZ kfrfm d an<mt kryf – he approves of his friend‟s evil deeds  klYANmZpf’s`s an<jAnAtf - yhpt kfrFm d an<mt kryf – he approves of his friend‟s good deeds  smZm<KA’s`s vN`N^ BAstf - idfrfeyhf oh<eg` g=N kfyyf – he praises him in his presence  prmZm<KA’s`s avN`N^ BAstf - n[tf t[n oh<eg` ag=N kfyyf – he speaks ill of him in his absence gRhptf p<t&y, emZ kr[N< strfn` tmn` idfrfpfx dF s`t=tf krn !vxflf bs`kfyn mft=r[ evsfn` epnF sfxfn mft=r[ enAv> t[n[t`tA dty<t=y. Young householder, these four ways, one who flatters should be understoodas a foe in the guise of a friend. ct+hf eKA ghptfp<t`t, XAenhf apAyshAeyA amft`etA mft`tptfr{pekAevdftbZebA. s<rAemry-mj~jpmAdxZXAnAn<eyAeg shAeyA ehAtf, vfkAlvfsKA- fcrfyAn<eyAeg shAeyA ehAtf, smj~jABfcreN shAeyA ehAtf, j>tp`pmAdxZXA-nAn<eyAeg shAeyA ehAtf. iemhf eKA ghptfp<t`t, ct+hf XAenhf apAyshAeyAamft`etA mft`tptfr{pekA evdftbZebA’tf. gRhptf p<t&y, pvZkmZ sHdhA shAy vn mft=r[ evsfn` epnF sfxfn mft=r[enAv> t[n[t`tA kr[N< strkfn` dty<t=y. In four ways, young householder, should one who brings ruin be understoodas a foe in the guise of a friend. 32
  36. 36.  s<rAemry-mj~jpmAdxZXAnAn<eyAeg shAeyA ehAtf – mdyx sh p&mAdyx eh`t=vn mt`p[n` pAny pfNfs n[vt n[vt eydFemhf shAy evyf – he is a companion in indulging in intoxicants that cause infatuation and heedlessness  vfkAlvfsfKAcrfyAn<eyAeg shAeyA ehAtf - enAkl`hf vFTf s^cAry sHdhA n[vt n[vt eydFemhf shAy evyf – he is a companion in sauntering in streets at unseemly hours  smj~jABfcreN shAeyA ehAtf - n[x<mZ a[tf t[n`vl h[sfrFemhf shAy evyf – he is a companion in frequenting theatrical shows  j>tp`pmAdxZXAnAn<eyAeg shAeyA ehAtf - s>z< ekLfeyhf n[vt n[vt eydFemhf shAy evyf – he is a companion in indulging in gambling which causes heedlessness gRhptf p<t&y, pvZkmZ sHdhA shAy vn mft=r[ evsfn` epnF sfxfn mft=r[enAv> t[n[t`tA emZ kr[N< strfn` dty<t=y. Young householder, these four ways, one who brings ruin should beunderstood as a foe in the guise of a friend.idmevAc BgvA. id^ v#vA s<getA aTApr^ EtdevAc s#TA: aJ`Jd#T<herA mft`etA eyA c mft`etA vcFperA, an<p`pfyJ`c eyA aAh apAeys< c eyA sbA . Eet amft`et ct`tAerA itf vfJ`JAy pN`wfetA, aArkA prfvj~ejyY mg`g^ pxfBy^ yTA‛tf.BgYvt=n` vhn`es` emy vdAL es`k. s<gt v> VAs`tRRn` vhn`es` emy vdArA,ant=r[v emes` vdAL es`k: yemk` aJ`Jd#T<hr mft& nmZ evZ d, yemk` vcFprm mft& nmZ evZ d, yemk`an<p&fyBANF mft& nmZ evZ d, yemk` Dn vfnAVk k&fyAvn`hf yhl< evZ d, emes` emZst=rn` str edn g[n n<vN[t`et` d[n, uvz<r[ a[tf mAr~gyk` es` z<rfn`m z<r[krn`en`y.‛Thus spoke the Exalted One. And when the Master had thus spoken, he spoke yetagain: The friend who appropriates, The friend who renders lip-service, The friend that flatters, The friend who brings ruin, These four as enemies the wise behold, Avoid them from afar as paths of peril. 33
  37. 37. s<hd mft`tA – s<hd mft&eyA` - Warm-hearted friends ct`tAerA’em ghptfp<t`t, mft`tA s<hdA evdftbZbA: upkAerA mft`etAs<hedA evdftbZebA, smAns<Kz<k`eKA mft`etA s<hedA evdftbZebA, a#Tk`KAyF mft`etAs<hedA evdftbZebA, aAn<kmZpekA mft`etA s<hedA evdftbZebA. gRhptf p<t&y, emZ hft ehAHd mft&eyA` str edenk` dty<t= evt`: These four, young householder, should be understood as warm-heartedfriends:  upkAerA mft`etA s<hedA evdftbZebA - upkArk nmZ v> hft ehAHd mft&yA dty<t=y – he who is a helpmate should be understood  smAns<Kz<k`eKA mft`etA s<hedA evdftbZebA - smAn s<Kz<k`K nmZ hft ehAHd mft&yA dty<t=y – he who is the same in happiness and sorrow should be understood  a#Tk`KAyF mft`etA s<hedA evdftbZebA - at`Tk`KAyF nmZ hft ehAHd mft&yA dty<t=y – he who gives good counsel should be understood  aAn<kmZpekA mft`etA s<hedA evdftbZebA - an<kmZpk nmZ hft ehAHd mft&yA dty<t=y – he who sympathises should be understood ct+hf eKA ghptfp<t`t, XAenhf upkAerA mft`etA s<hedA evdftbZebA.pmt`t^ rk`Ktf, pmt`ts`s sApetyY^ rk`Ktf, BFts`s srN^ ehAtf, up`pn`enkfcZcAkrNFey td`dfg=N^ eBAg^ an<p`pedtf. iemhf eKA ghptfp<t`t, ct+hfXAenhf upkAerA mft`etA s<hedA evdftbZebA. gRhptf p<t&y, upkArk nmZ mft&yA kr[N< strkfn` dty<t=yf. In four ways, young householder, should a helpmate be understood as awarm-hearted friend.  pmt`t^ rk`Ktf - p&mAd v> mft=rA rkfyf – he guards the heedless  pmt`ts`s sApetyY^ rk`Ktf - p&mAd v> mft=rAeg` Dny rkfyf – he protects the wealth of the heedless  BFts`s srN^ ehAtf - Byk` p[mfNf vfx mft=rAx upkAr evyf – he becomes a refuge when you are in danger  up`pn`en kfcZcAkrNFey td`dfg=N^ eBAg^ an<p`pedtf - kxy<t`tk` a[tf kl`hf edg=Nyk` ekAx vs`t=v edyf – when there are commitments he provides you with double the supply needed gRhptf p<t&y, emZ kr[N< strfn` upkArk nmZ mft&yA dty<t=y. 34
  38. 38. Young householder, in these four ways, a helpmate should be understood asa warm-hearted friend. ct+hf eKA ghptfp<t`t, XAenhf smAns<Kz<k`eKA mft`etA s<hedA evdftbZebA:g=y`hms`s aAcfk`Ktf, g=y`hms`s prfg+htf, aApdAs< n vfjhtf, jFvftmZpf’s`s a#TAyprfcZct`t^ ehAtf. iemhf eKA ghptfp<t`t, ct+hf XAenhf smAns<Kz<k`eKA mft`etAs<hedA evdftbZebA. gRhptf p<t&y, smAn s<vz<k` a[tf mft=rA kr[N< strkfn` dty<t=yf. In four ways, young householder, should one who is the same in happiness and sorrow be understood as a warm-hearted friend.  g=y`hms`s aAcfk`Ktf - tmn`eg` rhs` mft=rAx kfyyf – he reveals his secrets  g=y`hms`s prfg+htf - mft=rAeg` rhs` ehLf enAkryf – he conceals one‟s own secrets  aApdAs< n vfjhtf - mft=rAx vfptk` p[mfNf kl`hf at` enAhrfyf – in misfortune he does not forsake one  jFvftmZpf’s`s a#TAy prfcZct`t^ ehAtf - E` mft=rAeg` yhpt sHdhA jfvfty pvA p<dn ld`ed` evyf – his life even he sacrifices for one‟s sake gRhptf p<t&y, emZ kr[N< strfn` smAn s<vz<k` a[tf mft=rA dty<t=yf. Young householder, in these four ways, one who is the same in happinessand sorrow should be understood as a warm-hearted friend. ct+hf eKA ghptfp<t`t, XAenhf a#Tk`KAyF mft`etA s<hedA evdftbZebA:pApA nfvAertf, klYAeN nfevestf, as`s<t^ sAevtf, sg`gs`s mg`g^ aAcfk`Ktf.iemhf eKA ghptfp<t`t, ct+hf XAenhf a#Tk`KAyF mft`etA s<hedA evdftbZebA. gRhptf p<t&y, a#Tk`KAyF nmZ hft v[w kfyn`nA v> mft=rA kr[N< strkfn`dty<t=yf. In four ways, young householder, should one who gives good counsel beunderstood as a warm-hearted friend.  pApA nfvAertf - pvZ kfrFemn` vLk`vyf – he restrains one from doing evil  klYAeN nfevestf - yhpt` kxy<t`ethf eyAdvyf – he encourages one to do good  as`s<t^ sAevtf - enAa[s> edy as`vyf – he informs one of what is unknown to oneself 35
  39. 39.  sg`gs`s mg`g^ aAcfk`Ktf - edvZelAv mg kfyyf – he points out the path to heaven gRhptf p<t&y, emZ kr[N< strfn` a#Tk`KAyF nmZ hft v[w kfyn`nA v> mft=rAdty<t=yf. Young householder, in these four ways, one who gives good counsel shouldbe understood as a warm-hearted friend. ct+hf eKA ghptfp<t`t, XAenhf aAn<kmZpekA mft`etA s<hedA evdftbZebA:aBevns`s n n$dtf, Bevns`s n$dtf, avN`N^ BNmAn^ nfvAertf, vN`N^BNmAn^ ps^stf. iemhf eKA ghptfp<t`t, ct+hf XAenhf aAn<kmZpekA mft`etAs<hedA evdftbZebA. gRhptf p<t&y, an<kmZpA krn hft ehAHd mft=rA kr[N< strkfn` dty<t=yf. In four ways, young householder, should one who sympathises beunderstood as a warm-hearted friend.  aBevns`s n n$dtf - mft=rAeg` pfrfhFmx st=x< enAevyf – he does not rejoice in one‟s misfortune  Bevns`s n$dtf - oh<eg` dfy<N<vx st=x< evyf – he rejoices in one‟s prosperity  avN`N^ BNmAn^ nfvAertf - mft=rAeg` n<g=N kfyn`nv<n` vLk`vyf – he restrains others speaking ill of oneself  vN`N^ BNmAn^ ps^stf - g=N kfyn`nn`x p&V^sA kryf – he praises those who speak well of oneself gRhptf p<t&y, emZ kr[N< strfn` an<kmZpA krn hft ehAHd mft=rA dty<t=yf. Young householder, in these four ways, one who sympathises should beunderstood as a warm-hearted friend. idmevAc BgvA, id^ v#vA s<getA aTApr^ EtdevAc s#TA: upkAerA c eyA mft`etA eyA c mft`etA s<eK z<eK a#Tk`KAyF c eyA mft`etA eyA c mft`etA’n<kmZpekA. Eet’pf mft`et ct`tAerA itf vfJ`JAy pN`wfetA sk`kcZc^ pyfr[pAesyY mAtA p<t`t^’v ors^. BAgYvt=n` vhn`es` emy vdAL es`k. s<gt v> VAs`tRRn` vhn`es` emyvdArA, ant=r[v emes` d vdAL es`k: 36
  40. 40. ymZ upkArF mft=erk`` evZ d, s<vz<k` edk`hfm yemk` yhHP d, ymZ mft=erk`edelA` v[wx mHg kfyn`en` d, ymZ mft=erk` an<kmZpA krn`en` d, emZ mft=rn` strednA n<vN[t`et` emes` d[n h[Hdfn mvZ ekenk` s`vkFy p<tk= es`vny krn`nAk`emn` mnA ekAx es`vny krn`en`y. Thus spoke the Exalted One. And when the Master had thus spoken, hespoke yet again: The friend who is a helpmate, the friend in happiness and woe, the friendwho gives good counsel, and the friend who sympathises. The wise will knowthese four are truly friends and cherish them devotedly like a mother does her ownchild. pN`wfetA sFlsmZpn`enA jl^ ag`gF v BAstf eBAeg s^hrmAns`s Bmrs`es’v irFyetA eBAgA sn`nfcy^ yn`tf vmZmfekA’v<pcFytf. n<vN[tf sfl`vt` t[n[t`et` dflfesn gfn`nk` es` bblyf. ml enAtlA ml`p[Nf !s` krn bmrk= emn` eBA`g !s` krn`nAeg` eBA`g smZpt`h< v[wFmx eyt`.k&meyn` ps`k[x !s` krmfn` t=Msk` bHdfn`nAk` emnf. The wise and virtuous shine forth like a blazing fire. He who acquires hiswealth in harmless ways like a bee collecting only the honey, without harming theflower. Riches mount up for him like ant hill‟s rapid growth. Ev^ eBAeg smAh#vA almt`etA k=el gfhF ct=DA vfBej eBAeg s ev mft`tAnf g$Ttf. Eekn eBAeg B=J`ejyY d`vFhf kmZm^ peyAjey ct=#TJ`c nfDAepyY aApdAs< Bvfs`stF’tf. emes` d[h[mfn` vs`t=v !s`ekAx gfhfegyf vfsFmx smr~T v> p<d`gl etemZvs`t=v str ekAxskx ebdn`en`y. eh` E`kAn`teyn` mft=rn` b[HdgnF. Ehf Ek`ekAxskfn` smZpt` an<Bv krn`en`y. edekAxsk` kr~mAn`t pfNfs eyAdn`en`y.strvn ekAxs vfpt` p[mfNf kl`hf p&eyA`jn vn`en` yyf nfdn` ekAx tbn`en`y. With wealth acquired this way, a layman fit for household life. In fourportions he divides his wealth, thus he will win the friendship. He uses one portionfor his wants. He spends two portions on his business. He keeps aside the fourthagainst future misfortunes.Cd`dfsA pxfcZCAdn^ - sdfVA aAvrNy (v[HdFm) – Covering the six quaters kTJ`c ghptfp<t`t, arfysAvekA Cd`dfsApxfcZCAdF ehAtf? CyfmAghptfp<t`t dfsA evdftbZbA: p<r#TfmA dfsA mAtApfterA evdftbZbA. dk`KfNA dfsAaAcrfyA evdftbZbA. pcZCfmA dfsA p<t`tdArA evdftbZbA. ut`trA dfsA mft`tAmcZcA 37
  41. 41. evdftbZbA. ehxZXfmA dfsA dAskmZmkArA evdftbZbA. uprfmA dfsA smNb&Ah`mNAevdftbZbA. gRhptf p<t&y, ekes` nmZ aAr~y V&Avk etemZ sdfVAvn` aAvrNy krn`en`(vHdn`en`) evZ d? gRhptf p<t&y, emZ dfVA syk` dty<t=y. f And how, young householder, does a noble disciple cover the six quarters?The following should be looked upon as the six quarters.  p<r#TfmA dfsA mAtApfterA evdftbZbA - mvZpfeyA` n[egnhfr dfVAv yyf dty<t=y – the parents should be looked upon as the East  dk`KfNA dfsA aAcrfyA evdftbZbA - g=r[vr[ dk=N< dfVAv yyf dty<t=y – teachers as the South  pcZCfmA dfsA p<t`tdArA evdftbZbA - aM<dr[evA` bs`nAhfr dfVAv yyf dty<t=y – wife and children as the West  ut`trA dfsA mft`tAmcZcA evdftbZbA - yhl< mft&eyA` ut=r[ dfVAv yyf dty<t=y – friends and associates as the North  ehxZXfmA dfsA dAskmZmkArA evdftbZbA - d[sf ds` kmZkr[evA` yx dfVAv yyf dty<t=y – servants and employees as the Nadir  uprfmA dfsA smNb&Ah`mNA evdftbZbA - mhN bm<eNA` uw dfVAv yyf dty<t=y – ascetics and Brahmins as the Zenith pJ`chf eKA ghptfp<t`t, XAenhf p<t`etn p<r#TfmA dfsA mAtA pfterApcZc<pxZXAtbZbA: BetA en Brfs`sAmf, kfcZc^ ens^ krfs`sAmf, k=lv^s^ Xeps`sAmf,dAyj~j^ pxfpj~CAmf, aT vA pn eptAn^ kAlktAn^ dk`KfN^ an<p`pds`sAmF’tf.iemhf eKA ghptfp<t`t, pJ`chf XAenhf p<t`etn p<r#TfmA dfsA mAtA pfterApcZcpxZXftA, < gRhptf p<t&y, n[egnhfr dfVAv v> mvZpfeyA` p<t&yA vfsfn` kr[N< pskfn`ups`TAn kxy<t= evt`. In five ways, young householder, a child should minister to his parents as theEast.  BetA en Brfs`sAmf - ov<n` vfsfn` epA`Sft v> mm mhl<v sfxfn ov<n` epA`SNy krn`enmf – having supported me I shall support them  kfcZc^ ens^ krfs`sAmf - ov<nx p[mfNf kxy<t= mm krn`enmf – I shall do their duties  k=lv^s^ Xeps`sAmf - k=l prp<r !kgn`enmf – I shall keep the family tradition  dAyj~j^ pxfpj~jAmf - mA pfyn`egn` lt` dAyAd B=k`tf vfHdfn`enmf – I shall make myself worthy of my inheritance 38
  42. 42.  eptAn^ kAlktAn^ dk`KfN^ an<p`pds`sAmf - prelAv gfy mApfynx pfn` edn`enmf – I shall offer alms in honour of my departed relatives gRhptf p<t&y, emZ kr[N< pesn` p<t&yAegn` ups`TAn ld n[egnhfr dfVAvv> mvZpfeyA`, Young householder, in these five ways a child should minister to his parentsas the East. pJ`chf XAenhf p<t`t^ an<kmZpn`tf: pApA nfvAern`tf, klYAeN nfevesn`tf,sfp`p^ sfk`KAepn`tf, ptfr{epn dAern s^eyAejn`tf, smey dAyj~j^ nfyYAedn`tf.iemhf eKA ghptfp<t`t, pJ`chf XAenhf p<t`etn p<r#TfmA dfsA mAtApfterApcZc<pxZXftA iemhf pJ`chf XAenhf p<t`t^ an<kmZpt`tf. Evms`s EsA p<r#TfmAdfsA pxfcZCn`nA ehAtf eKmA ap`pxfByA. kr[N< pskfn` dr[vn`x an<kmZpA krt`. In five ways, the parents show their compassion.  pApA nfvAern`tf - pvfn` vLk`vt` - they restrain them from evil  klYAeN nfevesn`tf - yhpethf eyAdvt` - they encourage them to do good  sfp`p^ sfk`KAepn`tf - Vfl`p VAs`t&y ugn`vt` - they train them for a profession  ptfr{epn dAern s^eyAejn`tf - s<z<s< v> BAr~yAvk` esAyA edt` (smHg Ekt= krvt`) - they arrange a suitable marriage  smey dAyj~j^ nfyYAedn`tf - s<z<s< kAleyhf dAyAdy pvrA edt` - at the proper time they hand over their inheritance to them gRhptf p<t&y, emkF kr[N< psfn` p<t&yA vfsfn` p>r~v dfVAv v> mApfeyA`uvx[n` l[b<vAh<, ps<v kF kr[N< psfn` sfy p<t=x an<g&h krt`. emes` oh< vfsfn`emZ p>r~v dfVAv upz&v rhft ekAx By rhft ekAx aAvrNy krn ld`ed` evyf. In these five ways do children minister to their parents as the East and theparents show their compassion to their children. Thus is the East covered by themand made safe and secure. pJ`chf eKA ghptfp<t`t, XAenhf an`etvAsfnA dk`KfNA dfsA aAcrfyApcZcpxZXAtbZbA: < uxZXAenn, upxZXAenn, s<s`s>sAy, pArfcrfyAy, sk`kcZc^sfp`ppxfg`gheNn. gRhptf p<t&y, kr[N< pskfn` atv[s`sA vfsfn` dk=N< dfVAv v> g=r[vreyA`ups`TAn kxy<t= evt`. 39
  43. 43. In five ways, young householder, a pupil should minister to a teacher as theSouth.  uxZXAenn - d[k, un` aAsneyn` n[gfxFemn` – by rising from the seat in salutation  upxZXAenn - ups`TAn kfrFemn` – by attending on them  s<sssAy - g=r[vryAeg` vcn ehAHdfn` a[sFemn` – by eagerness to learn ` >  pArfcrfyAy - kxy<t= vt` pfLfevt` kfrFemn` – by personal service  sk`kcZc^ sfp`ppxfg`gheNn - sks`ekAx Vfl`p iegnFemn` – by respectful attention while receiving instructions iemhf eKA ghptfp<t`t, pJ`chf XAenhf an`etvAsfnA dk`KfNA dfsA aAcrfyApcZc<pxZXftA, pJ`chf XAenhf an`etvAsf^ an<kmZpn`tf: s<vfnFt^ vfenn`tf,s<g`ghft^ gAhAepn`tf, sbZbsfp`ps<t^ smk`KAyfenA Bvn`tf, mft`tAmcZecs<pxfyAedn`tf, dfsAs< prft`tAn^ kerAn`tf. iemhf eKA ghptfp<t`t, pJ`chf XAenhfan`etvAsfnA dk`KfNA dfsA aAcrfyA pcZc<pxZXftA, iemhf pJ`chf XAenhf an`etvAsf^an<kmZpn`tf. Evms`s EsA dk`KfNA dfsA pxfcZCn`nA ehAtf eKmA ap`pxfByA. gRhptf p<t&y, atv[sfyA vfsfn` emZ kr[N< psfn` ups`TAn ld dk=N< dfsAvv> g=r[vr[ kr[N< pskfn` atv[sfyAx an<kmZpA krt`. In five ways, young householder, do teachers thus ministered to as the Southby their pupils, show their compassion.  s<vfnFt^ vfenn`tf - yhpt` ekAx hfk`mvt` - they train them in the best discipline  s<g`ghft^ gAhAepn`tf - ehAHdfn` ugn`vt` - they see that they grasp their lessons well  sbZbsfp`ps<t^ smk`KAyfenA Bvn`tf - sfyl< Vfl`pVAs`t& hA Dr~my mnAv kfyA edn`nAh< evt` - they instruct them in the arts and sciences  mft`tAmcZecs< pxfyAedn`tf - mft&jnyAx hHz<n`vA edt` - they introduce them to their friends and associates  dfsAs< prft`tAn^ kerAn`tf - dfVAvn`hf aArk`SAv a[tf ekert` - they provide for their safety in every quarter gRhptf p<t&y, emkF kr[N< psfn` atv[sfyA vfsfn` dk=N< dfVAv v> g=r[vr[uvx[n` krn< l[b<vAh<, ps<v kF kr[N< psfn` atv[sfyAx an<g&h krt`. emes`oh< vfsfn` emZ dk=N< dfVAv upz&v rhft ekAx, By rhft ekAx aAvrNy krnld`ed` evZ. The teachers thus ministered to as the South by their pupils, show theircompassion towards them in these five ways. Thus is the South covered by themand made safe and secure. 40
  44. 44. pJ`chf eKA ghptfp<t`t, XAenhf sAmfekn pcZCfmA dfsA BrfyApcZc<pxZXAtbZbA: smZmAnnAy, anvmAnnAy, antfcrfyAy, is`srfyevAs`sg`egn,al^kArAn<p`pdAenn. iemhf eKA ghptfp<t`t pHOd`chf XAenhf sAmfekn pcZCfmAdfsA BrfyA pcZc<pxZXftA, gRhptf p<t&y, kr[N< pskfn` s[mfyA vfsfn` bs`nAhfr dFVAv v> BAr~yAetAemA` ups`TAn kxy<t`tFy. In five ways, young householder, should a wife as the West be ministered bya husband.  smZmAnnAy - b<h<mn` kfrFemn` - by being courteous to her  anvmAnnAy - avmn` enAkfrFemn` - by not despising her  antfcrfyAy - an` aM<vn` es`vny enAkfrFemn` - by being faithful to her  is`srfyevAs`sg`egn - s[pis<r[ pAvA dFemn` - by handing over authority  al^kArAn<p`pdAenn - al^kAr aABrN aAdfy spyA dFemn` - by providing her with adornments gRhptf p<t&y, emZ kr[N< psfn` s[mfyAegn` ups`TAn ld bs`nAhfr dfVAv v>BAr~yAv, Young householder, the wife as the west ministered by a husband in thesefive ways, pJ`chf XAenhf sAmfk^ an<kmZptf: s<s^vfhftkmZmn`tA c ehAtf,s<s^ghftprfjnA c, antfcArfnF c, smZBt^ an<rk`Ktf, sk`KA c ehAtf anlsAsbZbkfcZecs<. iemhf eKA ghptfp<t`t, pJ`chf XAenhf sAmfekn pcZCfmA dfsABrfyA pcZc<pxZXftA, iemhf pJ`chf XAenhf sAmfk^ an<kmZptf. Evms`s EsApcZCfmA dfsA pxfcZCn`nA ehAtf eKmA ap`pxfByA. kr[N< pskfn` s[mfyAx an<kmZpA kryf. show her compassion in five ways to her husband.  s<s^vfhftkmZmn`tA c ehAtf - ehAHdfn` kxy<t= pfLfeyl kryf – she performs her duties well  s<s^ghftprfjnA c - pfrfvr jnyAx ehAHdfn` s^g&h kryf – she is hospitable to relations and attendants  antfcArfnF c - prp<r[Syn` es`vny enAkryf – she is faithful  smZBt^ an<rk`Ktf - s`vAmfyA !s`kL vs`t=v aArk`SA kryf – she protects what he brings 41
  45. 45.  sk`KA c ehAtf anlsA sbZbkfcZecs< - sfyl< kxy<t=vl dk`S v>vA als enAevyf – she is skilled and industrious in discharging her duties emkF kr[N< psfn` s`vAmfyA vfsfn` bxhfr dfVAv v> BAr~yAv uvx[n` ld`dF,ps<v kF kr[N< psfn` sfy s[mfyAx an<g&h kryf. emAh< vfsfn` emes` bs`nAhfrdfVAv upz&v rhft ekAx, By rhft ekAx aAvrNy krn ld`ed` evZ. The husband thus ministered to as the West by his wife, show hercompassion towards him in these five ways. Thus is the West covered by him andmade safe and secure. pJ`chf eKA ghptfp<t`t, XAenhf k=lp<t`etn ut`trA dfsA mft`tAmcZcApcZcpxZXAtbZbA: dAenn, epyYvj~ejn, a#TcrfyAy, smAnt`ttAy, avfs^vAdntAy. <iemhf eKA ghptfp<t`t, pJ`chf XAenhf k=lp<t`etn ut`trA dfsA mft`tAmcZcApcZcpxZXftA, < gRhptf p<t&y, kr[N< pskfn` vnAhF k=l p<t&yA vfsfn` ut=r[ dfVAv v> mft=r[jneyA` ups`TAn kxy<t`tAh. In five ways, young householder, should a clansman minister to his friendsand associates as the North.  dAenn - dFemn` - by liberality  epyYvj~ejn - p&fy vcneyn` - by courteous speech  a#TcrfyAy - hftv[w s[lsFemn` - by being helpful  smAnt`ttAy - smAnAt`mtAveyn` - by being impartial  avfs^vAdntAy - enA!vxFemn` - by sincerity emZ ps` kr[Nfn` k=lp<t&yA vfsfn` ut`tr dfVAv v> mft& amAtYeyA` ups`TAnkrn ld`dAh<, Young householder, the friends and associates as the North ministered byclansman, pJ`chf XAenhf k=lp<t`t^ an<kmZpn`tf: pmt`t^ rk`Kn`tf, pmt`ts`ssApetyY^ rk`Kn`tf, BFts`s srN^ ehAn`tf, aApdAs< n vfjhn`tf, aprpjAcs`spxfp>ejn`tf. iemhf eKA ghptfp<t`t, pJ`chf XAenhf k=lp<t`etn ut`trA dfsAmft`tAmcZcA pcZc<pxZXftA, iemhf pJ`chf XAenhf k=lp<t`t^ an<kmZpn`tf. Evms`sEsA ut`trA dfsA pxfcZCn`nA ehAtf eKmA ap`pxfByA. kr[N< pskfn` k=lp<t&yAx an<kmZpA krt`. show their compassion to clansman in five ways. 42
  46. 46.  pmt`t^ rk`Kn`tf - p&mAd v>vAh< rkft` - they protect him when he is heedless  pmt`ts`s sApetyY^ rk`Kn`tf - pmAd v> k=lp<t&yAeg` vs`t=v rkft` - they protect his property when he is heedless  BFts`s srN^ ehAn`tf - By v>vh<x pfhfx evt` - they become a refuge when he is in danger  aApdAs< n vfjhn`tf - vfpt` p[mfNf kl`hf at` enAhrft` - they do not forsake him in his troubles  aprpjAcs`s pxfp>ejn`tf - E` k=lp<t&yAeg` anfk` pfrfsx d, s[lkflf krt` - they show consideration for his family gRhptf p<t&y, emkF kr[N< psfn` k=lp<t&yA vfsfn` ut=r[ dfVAv v> mft=r[jnyA uvx[n` krn< l[b<vAh<, ps<v kF kr[N< psfn` k=lp<t&yAx an<g&h krt`.emes` oh< vfsfn` emZ ut=r[ dfVAv upz&v rhft ekAx, By rhft ekAx aAvrNykrn ld`ed` evZ. The friends and associatees thus ministered to as the North by a clansmanshow their compassion towards him in these five ways. Thus is the North coveredby him and made safe and secure. pJ`chf eKA ghptfp<t`t, XAenhf ayfrekn ehxZXfmA dfsA dAskmZmkArApcZcpxZXAtbZbA: < yTAbl^ kmZmn`ts^vfDAenn, Bt`tevtnAn<p`pdAenn,gflAn<pxZXAenn, acZCrfyAn^ rsAn^ s^vfBAegn, smey evAs`sg`egn. iemhf eKAghptfp<t`t, pJ`chf XAenhf ayfrekn ehxZXfmA dfsA dAskmZmkArA pcZc<pxZXftA, gRhptf p<t&y, kr[N< pskfn` s`vAmfyA vfsfn` yx dfVAv v> d[sf ds` kmZkr[jneyA` ups`TAn kxy<t`tAh. In five ways should a master minister to his servants and employees as theNadir.  yTAbl^ kmZmn`ts^vfDAenn - Vk`tf v> prfd`edn` kxy<t= nfym kfrFemn` - by assingning them work according to their ability  Bt`tevtnAn<p`pdAenn - bt` v[x<p` dFemn` - by supplying them with food and with wages  gflAn<pxZXAenn - gfln` v> kl ups`TAn kfrFemn` - by tending them in sickness  acZCrfyAn^ rsAn^ s^vfBAegn - am<t= rsvt` aAhAr ebdA dFemn` - by sharing with them any delicacies  smey evAs`sg`egn - s<z<s< kl dfyy<t= ed` dFemn` - by granting them leave at times 43
  47. 47. gRhptf p<t&y, emZ kr[N< psfn` s`vAmfyA vfsfn` yx dfVAv yyf kfyn ld d[sfds` kmZkr[evA` ups`TAn krn ld`dAh<, Young householder, the servants and employees as the Nadir ministered by amaster, pJ`chf XAenhf ayfrk^ an<kmZpn`tf: p<bZb<xZXAyfenA c ehAn`tf,pcZCAnffpAtfenA c, dfn`nAdAyfenA c, s<ktkmZmkrA c, kft`tfvN`NBrA c. iemhfeKA ghptfp<t`t, pJ`chf XAenhf ayfrekn ehxZXfmA dfsA dAskmZmkArApcZc<pxZXftA iemhf pJ`chf XAenhf ayfrk^ an<kmZpn`tf. Evms`s EsA ehxZXfmAdfsA pxfcZCn`nA ehAtf eKmA ap`pxfByA. kr[N< pskfn` s`vAmfyAx an<kmZpA krt`. show their compassion to their master in five ways.  p<bZb<xZXAyfenA c ehAn`tf - pLm< ekAx n[gF sfxfn`nAh< d evt` - they rise before him  pcZCAnfpAtfenA c - ps<v nfdn`nAh< d evt` - they go to sleep after him  dfn`nAdAyfenA c - z<n` edy pmNk` gn`nAh< d evt` - they take only what is given  s<ktkmZmkrA c - ehAHdfn` kr~~mAn`t krt` - they perform their duties well  kft`tfvN`NhrA c - g=N kFr~tfy ptL kr hrfn`nAh< d evt` - they uphold his good name and fame emkF kr[N< psfn` s`vAmfyA vfsfn` yx dfVAv v> d[sfds` kmZkr[vn` uvx[n`krn< l[b<vAh<, ps<v kF kr[N< psfn` sfy s`vAmfyAx an<g&h krt`. emes` emAh<vfsfn` emZ yx dfVAv upz&v rhft ekAx, By rhft ekAx aAvrNy krn ld`ed`evZ. The servants and employees thus ministered to as the Nadir show theircompassion towards him in these five ways. Thus is the Nadir covered by him andmade safe and secure. pJ`chf eKA ghptfp<t`t, XAenhf k=lp<t`etn uprfmA dfsA smNb&Ah`mNApcZc<pxZXAtbZbA: emt`etn kAykmZemn, emt`etn vcFkmZemn, emt`etnmenAkmZemn, anAvxd`vArtAy, aAmfsAn<p`pdAenn. iemhf eKA ghptfp<t`t,pJ`chf XAenhf k=lp<t`etn uprfmA dfsA smNb&Ah`mNA pcZc<pxZXftA, gRhptf p<t&y, kr[N< pskfn` k=l p<t&yA vfsfn` uw dfVAv v> mhN bm<eNA`ups`TAn kxy<t`tAh. 44

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