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Comparative Study between Indian and Western Education

Made as a part of a semester course 'Sociology of Knowledge' at IIT Delhi.

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Comparative Study between Indian and Western Education

  1. 1. Comparative study between Indian and Western educational system NIMESH K VERMA AKSHAY KULKARNI GAURAV
  2. 2.  Western Education System equals Education System in United States  Salient Features of Indian Education System  Salient Features of U.S Education System  Comparison between the two  The Results of our Survey
  3. 3. India has a long history of organized education. The Gurukul system of education in which students were taught orally and the knowledge was passed from one generation to the next.
  4. 4. The first millennium and the few centuries preceding it saw the flourishing of higher education at Nalanda, Takshashila University, Ujjain, & Vikramshila Universities. Art, Architecture, Painting, Logic, mathematics, Grammar, Philosophy, Astronomy, Literature, Buddhism, Hinduism, Arthashastra (Economics & Politics), Law, and Medicine were among the
  5. 5. Under British Rule East India Company, with its policy of maximizing land revenue, discarded the traditional educational Systems and thus starved the Indian education system of its financial resources. The British established many colleges like St. Xavier's College, Sydenham College, Wilson College and Elphinstone College in India. In 1901 the literacy rate in India was only about 5% though by Independence it was nearly 20%("Literacy Scenario in India (1901–1991) Report")
  6. 6.  Education in India falls under the control of both the Union Government and the states, with some responsibilities lying with the Union and the states having autonomy for others.  The various articles of the Indian Constitution provide for education as a fundamental right  Most universities in India are Union or State Government controlled.
  7. 7. Education system in India can be divided mainly into following stages. Pre- Primary It consists of children of 3-5 years of age studying in nursery, lower kindergarten and upper kindergarten. At this stage student is given knowledge about school life and is taught to read and write some basic words. Primary It includes the age group of children of 6-11 years studying in classes from first to fifth. Middle
  8. 8. Secondary It includes students studying in classes ninth and tenth. Higher Secondary Includes students studying in eleventh and twelfth classes. Undergraduate Here, a student goes through higher education, which is completed in college. This course may vary according to the subject pursued by the student. For medical student this stage is of four and a half years plus one year of compulsory internship, while a simple graduate degree can be attained in three years. Postgraduate After completing graduation a student may opt for post graduation to further add to his qualifications.
  9. 9. Education Governing Bodies  The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE).  The Council of Indian School Certificate Examination (CISCE).  The State Government Boards  The National Open School.  The International School.
  10. 10.  Education is mainly provided by the public sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: Federal State and Local  School curricula, funding, teaching, employment, and other policies are set through locally elected school boards with jurisdiction over school districts with many directives from state legislatures.  Educational standards and standardized testing decisions are usually made by state governments.
  11. 11. Main stages in Education system of U.S.A Pre-Primary Education Elementary education ( Primary Education) Secondary Education Higher education
  12. 12. Comparing an education in India vis-a-vis one in the US
  13. 13.  In India, from the elementary classes itself the stress is given more on memorizing concepts like memorizing the table of number till 15 , various algorithms to add multiply numbers etc.  In US the stress in given more on logical and rational thinking which in turns lays the foundation of independent and lateral thinking.
  14. 14.  The American school system lays stress on individual ability development and encourages kids to express themselves and their opinions from an early age. As a result, most Americans are way better at getting their point across as compared to people from other countries.  In the Indian system, individuals are not asked to stand up in front of the whole class and recite something. Instead, the whole class reads books out aloud together in unison. This allows more timid students to participate and overcome their
  15. 15. Elective subjects for all levels in US  Visual Arts  Performing Arts  Technical Education  Computers  Athletics  Publishing  Foreign Language  Health Education
  16. 16. Examinations  The semester system is widely adopted in India with a final exam at the end of each semester that accounts for around 75-80% of the total marks. The remaining 20-25% is awarded in frequent session tests, 2-3 in number per semester. Indian colleges follow a strict examination pattern common for all.  American institutions have a different evaluation system. Students are tested throughout the semester in midterms and the marks distribution (which is more or less even) is in the hands of teacher. Hence, there is nothing like a final test and one must be sound in the subject throughout. Some tests may even be comprehensive and it is the teacher who sets the rules of the test,
  17. 17. Assignments Assignments are not that common in India as compared to US where these have significant value and can help the student in improving the overall score. Students are given assignments regularly, maybe weekly or after every fifteen days. Indian teachers are not terribly enthusiastic about giving assignments and like to judge their students by the session tests
  18. 18. Projects Group as well as individual projects are weighted heavily in US. These are accountable for 20-40% of the grade. This is for the practical implementation of the subject. Group comprises of 2-5 member as per the requirement of the project. Indian students too have to submit projects, but mainly in the final years of their courses. Projects are not part of curriculum in every semester but only the final year whereas US educational institutions, have plenty of these
  19. 19. Percentage/Grading The GPA (grade point average) system is widely used in American educational institutions, while in India they’re not popular yet. Indian systems stick to percentage marks obtained whereas in GPA relative marking is implemented and student is provided a grade point on the scale of 4 or 5. It helps the student to evaluate where does he/she stand with respect to rest of the class. Few Indian institutes too have switched to this system on the scale of 10,
  20. 20.  The American college education system is industry-oriented and hence, is structured so that it produces people who can do a certain type of job efficiently. So it is like a custom-design factory which produces engineers/workers who can do one or two jobs very well but require massive retraining if they have to do something new.  In contrast, the education in India (and Europe) is more towards teaching the basic concepts and a broader mass of information. The products of this education
  21. 21. The Results of our Survey  We created a Google form having about 6 Multiple Choice Question to get the opinion of the students regarding education system in India and the west.  The form was circulated through email to all the contacts we knew i.e to about 3000 people.  About 237 people gave response to the form.
  22. 22. 1st Question
  23. 23. 2nd Question
  24. 24. 3rd Question
  25. 25. 4th Question
  26. 26. 4.a ) Engineering: 4.b ) Medical: 4.c ) Literature:
  27. 27. 4.d ) Science: 4.e ) Commerce & Finance: 4.f ) Arts:
  28. 28. 4.g ) Music: 4.h ) Management:
  29. 29. 5th .a ) Question
  30. 30. 5th .b ) Question
  31. 31. 6th Question
  32. 32. 7th Question Suggest ways to improve Indian education system.  Focus should be on research facilities . In a holistic manner both teacher & student can enjoy their part respectively. More freedom in choosing courses at an earlier stage in life should be given. Hiking pay scale of teachers and inviting foreign teachers to India by giving better salaries... Don't force students to go for particular professional degree, let them make their own choice .  Practical approach should be used while teaching as well as studying. Flexibility to choose the major degree should be there.
  33. 33. References     statistics-on-education-levels-and-achievements/      