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Selection of Slides Green Building Summit, Istanbul


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This is a compilation of some interesting slides from a recent conference in Istanbul. All credits to the presenters.

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Selection of Slides Green Building Summit, Istanbul

  1. 1. New York City’sEnergy Efficiency PoliciesAn In-Depth Look at NYC’s Greener,Greater Buildings PlanFebruary 20, 2012
  2. 2. By 2030, nearly one million more people will live in NYC
  3. 3. New York City also faces challenges from climate change NYC Projected Mean Annual Temperature NYC Projected Sea Levels Source: NYC Panel on Climate Change
  4. 4. In 2007, Mayor Bloomberg released a comprehensivesustainability plan to create a greener, greater city PlaNYC focused on nine issues: 1 Housing Open Space Brownfields Water Quality Water Network Transportation Energy Air Quality Climate Change
  5. 5. Buildings dominate NYC’s carbon footprint…
  6. 6. New York City has launched three major energy efficiencypolicies • The City launched a task force to “green” the city’s codes. 51 of the 111 regulatory proposals would result in reduced energy use in buildings • NYC has issued requirements for progress inspections in ramping up Energy Code enforcement • The most comprehensive energy efficiency policy launched by any American municipality • Impacts properties over 50,000 sf, and includes required benchmarking and disclosure; audits and retro-commissioning, lighting upgrades and sub- meters • Will reduce citywide CO2 emissions by at least 5% 30 x 17 & The • Accelerated energy efficiency in sectors poised to Mayoral Challenges move more quickly: municipal operations, to Hospitals & universities, and hospitals Universities • All pledged 30% CO2 reductions in 10 years
  7. 7. The central policy addresses existing buildings
  8. 8. The next three laws address the largest buildings New York has 1 million buildings, But the largest 16,000 properties (less than 2%) account for almost half of the city’s overall emissions
  9. 9. Large buildings will measure their efficiency annually Why Benchmark? • Transparency • Market Transformation • Large scale source of data on building efficiency Requirements • All buildings over 50,000 square feet • Annually submit energy and water consumption using EPA’s Portfolio Manager Public Disclosure • September 1, 2011 – City government buildings • September 1, 2012 – Non-residential buildings • September 1, 2013 – Residential buildings
  10. 10. And perform an energy audit and retro-commissioningevery 10 years Why conduct an energy audit or perform retro-commissioning? • To identify cost effective energy efficiency upgrades • Re-tune systems in an existing building to achieve better performance, energy savings, and quick paybacks Requirements • ASHRAE Level 2 Energy Audit • Retro-commissioning according to check-list provided by the City • Include all “base” building systems – HVAC, electrical and lighting, domestic hot water, building envelope and conveying systems Schedule • Every 10 years starting in 2013 on a staggered schedule
  11. 11. Non-residential space will have to upgrade lighting andinstall sub-meters Why upgrade lighting or install sub-meters? • Lighting accounts for over 22% of energy use in buildings citywide and upgrades have proven to pay for themselves within 6-18 months • Since many tenants are unaware of how much energy they are consuming, sub-metering and providing information can help tenants take action to reduce their energy consumption Requirements • Upgrade lighting systems in all space types, except residential, to meet the requirements of the energy code • Install sub-meters on all floors over 10,000 square feet and for all tenants, except residential, over 10,000 square feet • Submit monthly electrical statements to tenants Schedule • To be completed by January 1, 2025
  12. 12. Impacts of Greener, Greater Buildings Plan by 2030 • Reducing citywide carbon emissions • The laws will cut greenhouse gas emissions by more than 5% -- the greatest impact of any individual policy • Job creation • 20,000 skilled, local jobs, and making NYC a knowledge center for energy efficiency • Cost savings • Reduced annual energy costs of $750 million citywide
  13. 13. Buildings in the 21st Century: Roland RisserInnovative Technologies and Strategies to Significantly Program ManagerIncrease Building Related Energy Efficiency Building Technologies Program February 21, 20121Lighting Phase-In
  14. 14. Building Energy Use in the U.S.… Projected Total U.S. Energy Use Total U.S. Energy Consumption 22% 28% 40% 18% 32% Industrial / Transportation Source: Building Energy Data Book Source: Energy Information Agency Buildings also account for 73% of U.S. Electricity Consumption and 55% of Natural Gas Consumption 2Buildings in the 21st Century
  15. 15. DOE Building Technologies Program (BTP) Pursues an Overarching Goal Reduce Building-Related Energy Use 50% by 2030 40.000 CommercialMELs 30% 50% 70% 80% Commercial Lighting 35.000 CommercialWashing & drying Commercial Cooking 30.000 Commercial Refrigeration 2030 annual energy consumption Commercial Water Heating 25.000 CommercialVentilation Primary TBTUs Commercial Space Cooling 20.000 Commercial Space Heating ResidentialMELs 15.000 Residential Lighting ResidentialWashing & drying 10.000 Residential Cooking Residential Refrigeration 5.000 Residential Water Heating Residential Space Cooling - Residential Space Heating BAU Current Our goal Technical Thermodynamic consumption economic (with R&D) potential limit potential Source: BTP Prioritization tool, NAS, McKinsey. 3Buildings in the 21st Century
  16. 16. The Building Technologies Program Uses anIntegrated Approach to Deliver Value • Research & Development – Develop technology roadmaps – Solicit/select technology solutions – Solve technical barriers and test innovations to prove effectiveness • Market Stimulation – Identify barriers to adoption – Increase product/service use – Work through policy, adoption, and financial barriers – Provide technical assistance and training • Codes and Standards – Establish minimum energy use – Protect consumer interests – Reduce market confusion BTP’s three key approaches interact with each – Enhance competitiveness and other to make energy efficient technologies and profitability practices widely available and create lasting – Expand portfolio of energy efficient changes in the market. appliances and equipment 4Buildings in the 21st Century – International Green Building Summit
  17. 17. DOE’s Portfolio of Research in Advanced Technologies – Whole Building Approach Advanced windows Solid state lighting Advanced refrigerator Window air technology conditioning Low global warming Advanced heat pump potential refrigerants technology: • Air source heat pumps • Ground source heat pumps • Heat exchangers Heating, ventilating, Building Envelope: air conditioning, Next generation attic water heating, and and roof systems working fluids 6Buildings in the 21st Century – International Green Building Summit
  18. 18. Envelope Technologies Yield Big EnergySavings Cool Roofs Pitched, cool & colored: ~5% Pitched & white: ~10% air Flat & white: ~15% air air conditioning savings conditioning savings conditioning savings Next Generation Windows Attics/Roofs Dynamic glass: better day lighting; HVAC energy savings, unobstructed Next generation attic/roof glare control system 7Buildings in the 21st Century – International Green Building Summit
  19. 19. Opportunity to Reduce Global Warming withWhite or Cool Roofs • How much CO2 equivalent is offset if all • Example: Walmart store in Northern eligible urban flat roofs were white? California • Answer: 24 Gigatonnes (LBNL) – Equivalent to taking 300 million cars off the road for 20 years • 600 million passenger cars world wide (each emit ~4t CO2/year) – Equivalent to emissions from 500 medium-sized coal fired power plants or 1,000 medium-sized gas fired power plants 8Buildings in the 21st Century – International Green Building Summit
  20. 20. Pursuing Transformational Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) OWENS CORNING ATTACHMENT PANEL SOLEXEL SHINGLEBIPV roofing membranes, for flat BIPV roof shingles that utilize BIPV roof shingles utilizing highroofs, utilize high efficiency, high efficiency (>21%), flexible efficiency (28%), thin-film GaAsflexible CIGS or thin-film mono-crystalline-Si cells; very- cells, heat management andcrystalline-Si cells low-cost distributed circuitry at recovery, and integrated power the cell level; integrated micro- electronics inverters 11Buildings in the 21st Century – International Green Building Summit
  21. 21. Advanced Windows May Eventually“Produce” Energy Single Glaze U-factor (W/m2 K)/ SHGC (-) 4.77/ 0.64 Heating and Cooling Energy Use Energy Loss Double Clear Cold Climate 2.78/ 0.56 Double Low-e 2.1/ 0.53 Triple Low-e Improved Frame - Triple Low-e 0.68/ 0.44 1.0/ 0.40 0 Dynamic Triple + 0.68/ 0.16-0.44 Energy Gain 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 12Buildings in the 21st Century
  22. 22. HVAC, Water Heating, and Working FluidsMake the Push for Big Energy Savings Working Fluids Low- Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Heat Pump & Non-Vapor Compression HVAC (Res Central A/C (Split)): 26 SEER 50% to 65% Water HVAC Energy Heating Savings Info Technology: Sensors & Controls Systems with Predictive Algorithms and Smart Grid Integration Manage Thermal & Dehumidification Loads 14Buildings in the 21st Century
  23. 23. High Performance, Air Source, ColdClimate Heat Pumps • Goal: Develop an advanced air-source heat pump system with enhanced heating capacity at low ambient temperatures • Residential activities: – Develop a high performance cold climate heat pump with Purdue University and Emerson Climate Technologies – DOE lab project: High performance cold climate multi-stage heat pump – Future activities will focus on Commercial Rooftop Applications 15Buildings in the 21st Century – International Green Building Summit
  24. 24. Ground Source Heat Pump Projects • Goals: – Lower installation costs up to 36% by 2020 – Increase customer confidence with an installer certification standard – Reduce energy expenses • Current Activities: – Installer certification – Analysis and data collection – 26 awards for technology demonstrations • Outcomes: – Industry knowledge improves predictability of costs for future projects – 26 projects expected to collectively save more than $4 million in energy expenses annually for the next 25 years 16Buildings in the 21st Century – International Green Building Summit
  25. 25. Heat Exchangers will Significantly ImpactMany End Uses • Crosscutting technology: Heat exchangers are not only used in refrigeration, heating, and air conditioning, but also in nearly every application that generates waste heat • 30x improvement vs. current technology • Potential impact: 21 quadrillion BTUs or 53% of building energy use • First application - data center cooling loads Source: “A Fundamentally New Approach to Air- Cooled Heat Exchangers” Sandia National Laboratories 17Buildings in the 21st Century – International Green Building Summit
  26. 26. The Global Warming Potential of WorkingFluids • Goal: maintain or improve the efficiency of the HVAC system while switching to lower global warming potential working fluids • Evaluation of thermodynamic properties of possible fluids – Predict the thermodynamic properties based on molecular structure – Evaluate effect of refrigerant’s thermodynamic performance in a 2nd cut-off criteria variety of refrigeration cycles (by simulation) 1st cut-off criteria 18Buildings in the 21st Century – International Green Building Summit
  27. 27. A Next Generation Window Air-Conditioner(WAC) that can Deliver 30% Energy Savings • Goal: WAC unit in 1.5 – 3.5 kW cooling capacity range with an energy efficiency ratio (EER) of 13 • 30% energy savings over current U.S. minimum efficiency standard • Market & Energy Saving Potential – U.S. has ~57 million units in use – Current DOE minimum EER is 9.8 – Replacement of existing units with advanced WACs could save ~2.5 quads of energy over next 20 years 19Buildings in the 21st Century – International Green Building Summit
  28. 28. Solid State Lighting (SSL) Applications willProvide Significant Energy Savings Energy Savings Potential of SSL in General Illumination Applications, Source: DOE Report “Energy Savings Potential of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications” January 2012 21Buildings in the 21st Century – International Green Building Summit
  29. 29. High pressure sodium street lighting (left) compared to LED street lighting (right) in a DOE demonstration project. San Francisco, CaliforniaLighting Phase-In
  30. 30. Commercial Building Energy Alliance (CBEA)HVAC Roof Top Unit (RTU) Challenge Working with Industry to Drive Innovation: The RTU Challenge • Package units like RTUs use ~ 50% of the cooling energy in commercial buildings • ~40,000 ten ton RTUs sold/year in the U.S. • Challenge U.S. manufacturers to build and deliver innovative, competitively priced, energy-saving RTUs that meet high- performance specifications: – Efficiency from baseline 11.0 EER to 18 IEER – Decrease air flow by specifying variable over constant air volume – Increase fan efficiency from 45% to at least 60% with variable volume or multi-stage operation capability 24Buildings in the 21st Century – International Green Building Summit
  31. 31. The DOE Building Performance Database(BPD): A National, Comprehensive Standard 3 Energy Performance 2 Forecasting Tool Data Management 3 Cleansing, Validation, 1 and Ingestion Financial Risk Processes Management Tool External 4 Data Sources API Third Party Tools – 1 Common taxonomy: a standardized “data model” to organize energy use and building characteristic data – Data management: processes and tools to support the on-boarding and validation of data from multiple 2 sources – 3 Applications: web-enabled tools that leverage data to forecast energy savings and related cash flows. As more use-cases are identified, additional tools will be created and released to the market – 4 3rd party tool support: API allows 3rd parties to create new applications to use the data in the database 25Buildings in the 21st Century – International Green Building Summit
  32. 32. International Cooperation: Super-Efficient Equipmentand Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative Standards and Labeling Over 50 countries, collectively representing ~80% of the world’s population, have standards and labeling. 36Buildings in the 21st Century – International Green Building Summit
  33. 33. Harmonized Policy Allows Harmonized andConvergent Energy and Economic Savings 500 2000 Energy Use Declines Life Cycle Cost Declines Cycle Cost - 2008 Euro (kwh) Life (2008 Austria PPP Euro) 450 1800 Annual Energy UseUse 1600 Life-Cycle Cost 400 (kWh/year) Annual Energy 1400 350 1200 300 1000 250 800 200 600 1994 1999 2004 2009 1994 1999 2004 2009 Average Spain Sweden Germany Average Spain Sweden Germany 0.30 (2008 Austria PPP - 2008 Euro Electricity Prices by Country Electricity Price Euro/kWh) 0.25 Electricity Price 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 1994 1999 2004 2009 Average Spain Sweden Germany 39Buildings in the 21st Century – International Green Building Summit
  34. 34. TAIPEI 101Previously theworld’s  tallest  building 22
  35. 35. BUILDING ENVELOPE8 Non-reflective Double Low-E Glass Curtain Wall
  36. 36. Monitoring: - VAC Related - Lighting - Fire Management - Generators - Tenant PowerVentilation Air-Con System- Ice Storage Tank- AHU w/ CO2 sensor on mechanical fls- VAV boxes on each floor9 EMCS Energy Management and Control System
  37. 37. WATER CONSERVATION Rainwater Harvesting / Grey Water System10
  38. 38. TYPICAL FLOOR Public area lighting 7:30 am till 7:30 pm, motion sensor for basic lighting for off hours Off hour toilet lights by pushing button at lift lobby Garbage chute inlet Window blinds provided T5 light tube throughout Pantry with drinking water / boiler11
  39. 39. WASTE PROGRAMGarbage Sorting / Recycling Station55% Recycle ratio 13 Garbage Collection System
  40. 40. ENERGY SAVING EFFORTS • Focus: VAC System & Lighting • Goal: 5% saving every year System 2007 2008 2009 VAC 52% 51% 52% systems Lighting 31% 33% 34% Elevators 11% 10% 8% Others 6% 6% 6%14
  41. 41. SAVING FROM AIR-CON • Adjust public area temperature to 25-26℃ • Adjust AHU cool air temperature to 13-14℃ • Fix VAV thermostat to 23-25℃ • Modify chiller plant operating schedule (for ice storage/melting) • Modify chilled water distribution according to actual tenant requirements • Regular cleansing of AHU valves • Re-fix door frame to keep doors shut or add air curtain15
  42. 42. SAVING FROM LIGHTING • Review all public lighting, no. of tubes and schedule • Mechanical floors changed to two way switch • Parking lot lights from halogen to T5 tubes and relocating to proper location • Refuge room installed motion detector • Staircase floor indicator lights changed to T5 tubes and reduced no. of tubes • Service lift lobby installed switch16
  43. 43. ENERGY SAVING – whole complexYear 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Consumption(KWH) 95,820,200 96,048,000 90,993,080 89,858,598 85,103,600Area in Use M2 318,372 339,707 344,915 346,396 351,929EUI (KWH/M2) 300.97 282.74 263.81 259.41 241.82Saving from 6.1% 6.7% 1.7% 6.8%previous year 2011/2007 20% saving 2008 & 2009 Total Investment US$391,000; Saving: US$1.5 million Compared to 2007 EUI, 2008-2011 4 years Saved 54.23 mil KWH power = US$4.4 millions Reduced 36,877 tons carbon emission *EUI – Energy Use Intensity 17
  44. 44. ENERGY SAVING – Office TowerYear 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Consumption(KWH) 41,140,800 41,548,800 41,167,280 41,058,398 41,880,000Area in Use M2 141,094 162,866 170,395 171,064 178,131EUI (KWH/M2) 291.59 255.11 241.60 240.02 235.11Saving from 12.5% 5.3% 0.7% 2.1%previous year 2011/2007 19% saving • Public power saving from 2007 to 2011 is 26% ! • Energy Star performance rating for 2010 reached 86 ! *EUI – Energy Use Intensity 18
  45. 45. USGBC LEED SYSTEM • LEED  is  US  Green  Building  Council’s  standard • LEED has been for 12 years and took off in 2008 • LEED is the most recognized rating system in the world • LEED – Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design • CS – Core and Shell • NC – New Construction • EBOM – Existing Building Operation and Maintenance 2009 version • Commercial Interior • Neighborhood • Hotel19
  46. 46. LANDLORD’S  CONSIDERATION Benefits: - Actual Cost Saving - Third party verification / health checkup - Competitive Advantage in Leasing - Corporate Image - Corporate Social Responsibility Challenges: - Shareholders Endorsement - Allocate Sufficient Funding - Staff Commitment - Tenant Participation - Quality of Consultants20
  47. 47. FOR LEASING Tenant’s  Benefits: Current Status in Asia: - Actual Operational Cost - Governments have yet to Saving request such standards - Better Indoor Environment - Tenants love the idea good for work efficiency - MNCs have yet to make it a - Good PR and feel good for relocation criteria employees - Landlords need to sell the benefits to tenants better21
  48. 48. LEED EBOM POINTSCategory and Points Projects Identified1. Sustainable Site 26 - Prerequisites 9 331K2. Water Efficiency 14 - Low / no cost 32 13K3. Energy and Atmosphere 35 - Moderate cost 4 600K4. Materials and Resources 10 - High cost 6 909K5. Indoor Environmental Quality 15 Total: 51 projects6. Innovation in Operations 6 Actual cost: < US$2,000,0007. Regional Priority Credits 4 Level Total: 110 - Platinum 80-110 - Gold 60-79 - Silver 50-59 - Certified 40-4922
  49. 49. PROJECT EXAMPLES Energy and Atmosphere - VAV sensors calibration - Chiller plant optimization program - Sub-metering plants and equipment - Implement energy audit and verification Water Efficiency - Replace toilet flush valve, urinal flush valve, install aerators in sink - Alter irrigation system and utilize rain water Indoor Environment Quality - Air flow measurement - Install humidity sensors - Install more CO2 sensors23
  50. 50. PERFORMANCE Sustainable Site (SS) - All parking spaces are in basement - 84% building occupiers take public transportation to work every day. Energy and Atmosphere (EA) - Over 30% better in energy performance than average building - Monitoring and recording 40% of total energy usage Water Efficiency (WE) - Decrease potable water usage by 30% - 625 SM of on-site landscape uses 100% rainwater24
  51. 51. PERFORMANCE Indoor Environment Quality (IEQ) - Utilizes CRI* approved vacuum cleaners for better cleaning efficiency and healthier environment, an average score of 1.61 Orderly Spotlessness. - Over 65% of tenant occupied space enjoy exterior view - Smoke free and applies high levels of outdoor filtered air Material and Resources (MR) - Waste management program recycle rate up to 71% - Low-mercury and no-mercury lamp fixtures with only 58.5 picograms (standard is 90)25
  52. 52. LEED - EBOM  June 2009 LEED Registration  Whole 2010 Alteration projects and documentation  Nov. 2010 – Jan. 2011 Performance Period  April 2011 Submission  July 2011 Achieved LEED EBOM Platinum26
  53. 53. TAIPEI 101 LEED CertificationExisting Building Operation & MaintenancePlatinum 59 5%Gold 421 38%Silver 365 33%Certified 255 23% Total: 1100- Only 5% are Platinum- Only 2 Platinum buildings are over 100,000 s.m.LEED EBOM is the trend!27