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An introduction of serotonin

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An introduction of serotonin

  1. 1. 1 An introduction to Serotonin, the chemical of well being A presentation by Subarnam Oli Roll No-57 Central Department of Chemistry, Tribhuwan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu
  2. 2. Contents Introduction History Synthesis Inactivation Sources Importance
  3. 3. Introduction Serotonin (5-HT) is a basically a neurotransmitter. It is believed to play a central role in modulation of vasoconstriction, anger, aggression, body temperature, mood, sleep, sexual desire, and appetite as well as stimulation of vomiting reflex etc.
  4. 4. Serotonin can affect the functioning of cardiovascular system, muscles, the endocrine system. Serotonin - a chemical manifestation of personality: High level of serotonin: obsessive-compulsive disorders e.g. compulsive hand-washing Low levels of serotonin: depression, suicide.  Structurally it contains indole ring, hydroxy group and ethyl amine group being attached to the ring.
  5. 5. History Discovered by: Vittorio Erspamer (Rome, Italy 1937) Isolated by: •Maurice Rapport, Arda Greene and Irvine Page (Caveland clinic, 1948) Structure was ilucidated by: Irvine Page (Director of Division of Research at Cleveland Clinic 1952)
  6. 6. Synthesis Serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid L-Tryptophan (an amino acid) which is found profoundly in proteinaceous animal products, and in plant proteins as well. Tryptophan is taken up by serotonergic neurons in restricted brain areas such as the raphe nucleus.
  7. 7. Tryptophan hydroxylase, an enzyme catalyses tryptophan, to forms 5-hydroxytryptophan. This enzyme requires for its activity the presence of tetrahydrobiopterine as cofactor, O2 , NADPH2 and a metal, iron or copper. Decarboxylation of 5-hydroxytryptophan is catalyzed by Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase with pyridoxal- phosphate as coenzyme.
  8. 8. Inactivation Serotonin is converted into inactive molecules by biotransformations: Oxidative deamination of the lateral amino chain by monoamine oxidase, leading to 5-hydroxy-indol- acetaldehyde which is then oxidized into 5-hydroxy-indol- acetic acid (5-HIAA) found in urines in quantities normally lower than 10 mg/24 hrs. Conjugation by glucuronic acid or sulfate of the hydroxyl group in 5-position.
  9. 9. Diagram: Main pathway of serotonin catabolism
  10. 10. Sources The serotonin is found abundantly in gut and blood plasma, but it can not enter the brain. Meat and banana are the direct sources of serotonin. The main source of serotonin is L-tryptophan, an amino acid, which is found in proteins. So proteins are the main sources of serotonin:  meat, eggs, milk, fishes  pulses, Enough calcium, magnesium and oxygen are also needed for serotonin production. Besides these vitamin B6 also promotes its production.
  11. 11. Importance of Serotonin Alone among organs of the body, the gut is able to mediate reflexes in the absence of input from the brain or spinal cord. This ability appears to be caused by the secretion of serotonin by enterochromaffin (EC) cells. It also regulates bowel movements in the GI tract. When we have enough Serotonin we have: Emotional stability Reduces aggression Sensory input Sleep cycle Appetite control
  12. 12. Serotonin Deficiencies result in:  Irritability  Irrational emotions  Sudden unexplained tears  Sleep disturbances Optimum serotonin level are also supposed to have positive impact on learning and cognition.
  13. 13. References 1) Gershon M.D.,2000, Curr Opin Gastroenterol, 16(2), 113- 120. 2) Lovinger D.M., 1997, Alcohol Health & Res. World, 21(2), 114-120. 3) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/serotonin 4) Motando R.B. et al, 2007, Ame. J Physiol. Gastrointest liver physicol., 296(4), 963-968.
  14. 14. Acknowledgement I express my deep gratitude to respected teachers Associate Professor Dr. Susan Joshi, Associate Professor Dr. Surya Kanta Kalauni, Associate professor Dr. Bimala Subba for their constant guide and support to prepare this presentation. I am thankful to Central Department of Chemistry for making this opportunity available. I am also grateful to my friends for constant courage, support and help.
  15. 15. 15 THANK YOU FOR KEEPING PATIENCE & PROVIDING YOUR VALUABLE TIME 

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