Dependency Structure Caste Hinduism System Hierarchy UpperPower Governan ce CasteWome Other Lower Lower n Religion Class Caste
Formation of contemporary conflict in the history 1743 to 1775 King Prithvi Narayan Shah united Nepal; 1760s minority in Government 1816 Treaty of Sugauli ; a political power games- ending the entire ethnic clan 1846-1950 Rana Regime; A complete exclusion from outer world, policies strictly governed by Hindu Caste Laws 1950 Democracy Movement against autocratic Rana Regime 1950-1990 Hinduism as a state religion, Partyless Panchayat System
Anger of repression or poverty is nota sufficient condition ofinsurgency.- Cynthia Mc Clinton
1990s people‟s movement and its failed promises 1990s -the Jana Andolan, multiparty democracy was restored in May 1991, Constitutional Monarchy Politically, Structured in the same way , continued abuse of power suppressions of other parties and candidates, acceptance of the constitution formed by the king Economically, Nepal remained in extremely poor conditions despite a degree of growth and progress. Socially, many issues of class, class, ethnicity, gender, inequality and discrimination continued to exist in the democratic period, which led to further alienation of the marginalized people. Land ownership had remained a lingering unresolved issue from the Nepali land reform economics.
Maoist Insurgency In March 1995 the newly named Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) (“CPN (Maoist)”) began to draw up plans to launch an armed struggle, the so-called “People‟s War”, against the State. On 4 February 1996, the CPN Maoist submitted a 40-point demand to the Government which addressed a wide range of social, economic and political agendas, and warned that a militant struggle would follow if the demands were not met. (Nationalism, people‟s democracy and livelihood- youth unemployment, Land reform, Ethinicity, Development, Governance, Class struggle, Caste system) On 13 February 1996 the Maoist conflict began which ended on 2006 killing more than 13,000 people and more than 1,500 people missing.(it would appear that the population should not have supported the insurgency in 1990 because the nation had just emerged from a long period of absolute monarchy and was practicing parliamentary democracy under a liberal constitution).
Maoist Insurgency and strategies• Maoists„ Strategy was based on the Mao‟s call- Elimination of Class enemies, capturing the state power through armed struggle, experiences of Naxalities in India and mainly „the Shining Path‟ movement in Peru.• Funding: Capturing local agricultural banks, abduction etc• Revisiting Maoism and political flexibility• operating as the de-facto government in captured area and also the „people‟s court‟• Ideologies that persuaded the people who were left behind
Armed force involved during the Conflict Nepal Police (NP) was the only force that was mobilized during the initial days of Maoist conflict. (Operation Romeo and Operation Kilo Sierra II) The Armed Police Force (APF), a paramilitary police force established in January 2001reflected the Government‟s need to deploy additional forces against the Maoists given the ongoing escalation of the conflict. on 26 November 2001, a state of emergency was declared and the Nepal Army was ordered to deploy against the Maoists. The People‟s Liberation of Army(PLA) was formally announced on September 2001 under the leadership of the CPN (Maoist) Party, though the
1996-2006 Despite the mobilization of the Nepalese Army against the insurgents, the Maoists were able to extend their influence in 31 of the 75 districts in Nepal. The Royal Massacre: 1 June 2001 The state of emergency was in place for nine months beginning in November 2001 and for three months beginning in February 2005. Issuance of the Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Control and Punishment) Ordinance (TADO) in November 2001, and the mobilization of the RNA against the Maoists in November 2001. the Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Control and Punishment) Act (TADA) passed in 2002. The TADA widened
Muktinath Adhikaris body lies Maina Sunuwars mother clutching oncrumpled near his village in Lamjung to a photo of her 15-year-oldafter he was tortured and killed by daughter who was tortured and killed in 2004Maoists in 2002. Photos Gopal Chitrakar
Bodies of policemen who were killed in the trenches of Satbaria after a Maoist raid in April 2002.Parbati Duwadi of Thanti in Lamjunglies in a pool of blood after beingkilled in a crossfire while her brother-in-law holds her infant son.Photos Gopal Chitrakar
1996-2006 October 2002, Removal of Prime Minister February 2005, Absolute power with backing of the army November 2005, 12 point agreement by parliamentary political parties and the Maoists on ending the monarchy and finding a peaceful solution________________________________________________ ______ April 2006, People‟s movement Comprehensive Peace Accord (CPA) on 21 November 2006, agreed for Land Reform, Military reform, Drafting new constitution, forming a Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) and a Commission on Disappeared
Violent Maoist Insurgency and equally violentcounter insurgency The data available indicates that children, i.e. girls under 18 years old, were particularly vulnerable during the conflict period. More than one third of the victims of sexual violence were children, with many under 15 years old. There are even cases where the victim was under ten. The research also found that rape was a “common practice” adopted by the RNA to punish female Maoist cadres and sympathizers. Documentation examined in the course of compiling this Report indicates that up to 9,000 serious violations of IHRL or IHL may have been committed during the decade-long
Peace Accord and beyond Women Empowerment; 30% participation of women in the Maoist insurgency Land Reform; Eliminating Kamalari Pratha Caste System; Promoting Ethnic Federalism Military reform Truth and reconciliation commission Disappearance cases Maoist as a largest party International Political Actors
Till date Political anarchy Ethnic Identity Movement Increasing king‟s supporter Mushrooming civil society organizations Foreign Investment or interfere?
A chapter of continuous struggle of Nepali people has ended but the struggle continues…