An IntroductiontoIntegrated Marketing Communications
Definition of IntegratedMarketing CommunicationsA concept of marketing communications planning thatrecognizes the added value of a comprehensive plan thatevaluates the strategic roles of a variety of communicationdisciplines and combines these disciplines to provideclarity, consistency and maximum communicationsimpact (through the seamless integration of discretemessages).2
IDEAS INVOLVED IN IMCAPPROACHDespite the increasing use of the term IMC approach by bothpractitioners and academics in recent years, there is littleagreement on what the term actually means. According toone recent review, at least two related ideas are involved :One-voice Marketing CommunicationsIntegrated CommunicationsThe different elements of the communications mix have tobe used in a way that the strengths of one are used to offsetthe weakness of another.3
One-voice Marketing Communications As consumersincreasingly being to be addressed by the samemarketer in a variety of different ways ( i.e. through 5tools of promotion) - there is a need to ensure aconsistency of positioning, message, and tone acrossthese different media. These different communicationsmust reach consumers with one voice.4
II. Integrated CommunicationsA marketer’s consumer communications need not only to raise brandawareness, or create or change brand preference and image, or to getsales trial or repurchase, but to do all of the above at the same time.Increasing image without getting a sales result is not good enough andgetting short-term sales (e.g. via sales promotion) at the expense of abrand’s long-term image is also courting disaster. Thus , all marketingcommunications should attempt to simultaneously achieve targetedcommunication goals (e.g. raising attitudes or building image) and leadto some behavioral action (e.g. trial or repurchase).5
The Marketing & Promotional MixesMarketing Mix:• Product or Service• Pricing• Channels of Distribution• PromotionPromotional Mix:• Advertising• Direct Marketing• Interactive/internet marketing• Sales Promotion• Publicity/Public Relations• Personal Selling6
Communication LevelsCorporate LevelMessages sent by a company’s overall business practicesand philosophies such as mission, labor practices,philanthropies, culture and other processesMarketing LevelMessages sent by or inferred from by various aspects ofmarketing mix such as product performance, design,appearance, pricing and distributionMarketing Communication LevelStrategic and executional consistency among all forms ofmarketing communication8
Reasons For Growing Importance of IMCShift from media advertising to other forms of marketingcommunicationMovement away from advertising focused- approachesthat emphasize mass mediaShift in power from manufacturers to retailersRapid growth of database marketingDemands for greater ad agency accountabilityChanges in agency compensationRapid growth of the InternetIncreasing importance of branding9
IMC Communication Tools10IMC Communication ToolsAdvertisingDirectMarketingInteractive/Internet MarketingSalesPromotionPublicity/PublicRelationsPersonalSelling
Any paid form of non-personal communication about anorganization, product, service, idea or cause by an identifiedsponsor.Any paid form of non-personal communication about anorganization, product, service, idea or cause by an identifiedsponsor.AdvertisingDisadvantages ofadvertisingHigh costs of producing andrunning adsCredibility problems andconsumer skepticismClutterDifficulty in determiningeffectiveness11 Advantages of advertisingAdvantages of advertising– Advertiser controls theAdvertiser controls themessagemessage– Cost effective way toCost effective way tocommunicate with largecommunicate with largeaudiencesaudiences– Effective way to create brandEffective way to create brandimages and symbolicimages and symbolicappealsappeals– Often can be effective way toOften can be effective way tostrike responsive chord withstrike responsive chord withconsumersconsumers
Classifications of AdvertisingAdvertising to Consumer MarketsNational advertisingRetail/local advertisingAdvertising to increase demandPrimary demand for the product categorySelective demand for a specific brandAdvertising to Consumer MarketsNational advertisingRetail/local advertisingAdvertising to increase demandPrimary demand for the product categorySelective demand for a specific brand12Business & professional advertising•Business-to-business advertising•Professional advertising•Trade advertisingBusiness & professional advertising•Business-to-business advertising•Professional advertising•Trade advertising
A system of marketing by which organizations communicatedirectly with target customers to generate a response and/or atransaction.A system of marketing by which organizations communicatedirectly with target customers to generate a response and/or atransaction.Direct MarketingDisadvantages of direct marketingLack of customer receptivity and verylow response ratesClutter (too many messages)Image problems – particularly withtelemarketing13 Advantages of direct marketingAdvantages of direct marketing Changes in society have madeChanges in society have madeconsumers more receptive to direct-consumers more receptive to direct-marketingmarketing Allows marketers to be very selectiveAllows marketers to be very selectiveand target specific segments ofand target specific segments ofcustomerscustomers Messages can be customized forMessages can be customized forspecific customers.specific customers. Effectiveness easier to measureEffectiveness easier to measure
Direct MarketingDirect marketing methodsDirect mailCatalogsTelemarketingDirect response adsDirect sellingInternet14
A form of marketing communication through interactive media whichallow for a two-way flow of information whereby users can participatein and modify the content of the information they receive in real time.A form of marketing communication through interactive media whichallow for a two-way flow of information whereby users can participatein and modify the content of the information they receive in real time.Interactive/Internet MarketingDisadvantages of interactive/internet marketingInternet is not yet a mass mediumas many consumers lack accessAttention to Internet ads is very lowGreat deal of clutter on the InternetAudience measurement is a problemon the Internet15 Advantages of interactive/ internetmarketing Can be used for a variety of IMCfunctions Messages can be tailored to specificinterests and needs of customers Interactive nature of the Internet leads tohigher level of involvement Can provide large amounts of informationto customers.
Interactive/Internet MarketingUse of the Internet as an IMC ToolAs an advertising medium to inform, educateand persuade customersAs a direct sales toolTo obtain customer database informationTo communicate and interact with buyersTo provide customer service and supportTo build and maintain customer relationshipsAs a tool for implementing sales promotionAs a tool for implementing publicity/publicrelations programs16
Marketing activities that provide extra value or incentives to thesales force, distributors, or ultimate consumers and canstimulate immediate sales.Marketing activities that provide extra value or incentives to thesales force, distributors, or ultimate consumers and canstimulate immediate sales.Sales PromotionTrade-orientedTargeted toward marketingintermediaries such asretailers, wholesalers, ordistributors Promotion allowances Merchandise allowances Price deals Sales contests Trade shows17 Consumer-orientedConsumer-oriented– Targeted to the ultimateTargeted to the ultimateusers of a product orusers of a product orserviceservice CouponsCoupons SamplingSampling PremiumsPremiums RebatesRebates ContestsContests SweepstakesSweepstakes POP materialsPOP materials
Sales Promotion UsesIntroduce new productsGet existing customers to buy moreAttract new customersCombat competitionMaintain sales in off seasonIncrease retail inventoriesTie in advertising & personal sellingEnhance personal selling efforts18
PublicityAdvantages of publicityCredibilityLow cost (although not totally free)Often results in word-of-mouthDisadvantages of publicityNot always under control oforganizationCan be negative 19Nonpersonal communication regarding an organization,product, service, or idea not directly paid for or rununder identified sponsorship.Nonpersonal communication regarding an organization,product, service, or idea not directly paid for or rununder identified sponsorship.
Publicity VehiclesNews Releases:Single-page news stories sent to media who might print orbroadcast the content.Feature Articles:Larger manuscripts composed and edited for a particular medium.Captioned Photos:Photographs with content identified and explained below thepicture.Press Conferences:Meetings and presentations to invited reporters and editors.Special Events:Sponsorship of events, teams, or programs of public value.20
TAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PROMOTIONALNENTS21(***Packaging and public relations also play Imp.role in promotion mix.)onalo.Scope Cost Advantages Dis -Advantagesg Mass RelativityInexpensive percontactAllowsexpressivenessand control overmessageHard to measureresultsMass Inexpensive Has high degreeof credibilityNot as easilycontrolled as otherformselling Personal Expensive percontactPermits flexiblepresentation &gains immediateresponseCosts more than allother forms percontactMass Can be costly Gains attentionand hasimmediate effectEasy for others toimitate
ublic RelationsTools used by Public RelationsPublicitySpecial publicationsCommunity activity participationFund-raisingSpecial event sponsorshipPublic affairs activities22The management function which evaluates public attitudes,identifies the policies and procedures of an individual ororganization with the public interest, and executes a programof action to earn public understanding and acceptance.The management function which evaluates public attitudes,identifies the policies and procedures of an individual ororganization with the public interest, and executes a programof action to earn public understanding and acceptance.
Direct person-to-person communication whereby a sellerattempts to assist and/or persuade perspective buyers to topurchase a product or service.Direct person-to-person communication whereby a sellerattempts to assist and/or persuade perspective buyers to topurchase a product or service.Personal SellingDisadvantages of personalsellingHigh costs per contactExpensive way to reach largeaudiencesDifficult to have consistentand uniform messagedelivered to all customers23 Advantages of personal sellingAdvantages of personal selling– Direct contact between buyer andDirect contact between buyer andseller allows for more flexibilityseller allows for more flexibility– Can tailor sales message toCan tailor sales message tospecific needs of customersspecific needs of customers– Allows for more direct andAllows for more direct andimmediate feedbackimmediate feedback– Sales efforts can be targeted toSales efforts can be targeted tospecific markets and customersspecific markets and customerswho are best prospects.who are best prospects.
Coordinating the promotional mix elements to develop acontrolled, integrated program of effective marketingcommunications.Coordinating the promotional mix elements to develop acontrolled, integrated program of effective marketingcommunications.Promotional ManagementConsiderations for developing thepromotional program include:Type of productBuyer’s decision processStage of product life cycleChannels of distribution24
Models That Help to Conceptualize theBuying ProcessTwo very specific models that aidin understanding the buyingprocess, as well as in framingcommunication are:-(1) A I D A Model(2) Hierarchy–of–effects model25
A I D A MODELAttention (awareness)InterestDesireActionAccording to ‘AIDA’ model, A marketer should beginby winning attention or gaining awareness, creatinginterest, inspiring desire and precipitating the actionfor purchase, in the prospects in order to enable itsproduct to be adopted by the target public.26