Computer fundamental mba


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ihi ths is nilesh mishra

Computer fundamental mba

  2. 2. What is a ComputerA computer is a programmable machine.The word “computer” comes from theword “compute”, which means tocalculate. A computer may be defined asa device, which operates upon data (Bio-data of various applicants when thecomputer is used for recruiting personnel)
  3. 3. Data & InformationThe input to computers is data. Datameans facts, the raw material forinformation. Data are represented bysymbols, but they are not informationexcept in a limited sense. Information isdata arranged in an understandable form,that is useful to the people who receive it.
  4. 4. Input-Process-Output CycleEvery activity follows the pattern of Input-Process-Output. For every activity, thereis an input, a process and output.
  5. 5. Input-Process-Output Cycle INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT(Data) Calculating, Sorting, (Information) Merging, Retrieving Communicating data
  6. 6. COMPUTER PROCESSING OPERATIONS Essential activities of a data processor :• Collecting data from various sources• Converting data into machine readable form• Reading data into Computer• Converting data into human readable form• Distributing data to actual users.
  7. 7. CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTER • Automatic • Speed • Accuracy • Diligence • Versatility • Power of Remembering • No I.Q. • No Feelings
  8. 8. Anatomy of Computer• Computer Hardware (Computer equipment that is mechanical, electrical and electronic parts)• Computer Software (Programs that instruct a computer how to process the data and generate reqd infn)• Computer Heart ware People who prepares data for computerized input, write computer programs, monitors computer operations & distribute the output.
  9. 9. Block Diagram of Computer CPUProgram INPUT Information • ALU OUTPUT& Data UNIT (Results) • CU UNIT Memory • Primary • Secondary• ALU• CU CPU components• Memory Unit
  10. 10. Storage Unit Secondary StorageProgram & Input Unit Output Unit Information Data Result Primary Storage Control Unit Arithmetic Logic Unit Block Diagram of Computer
  11. 11. Functional Components of ComputerHardware of any Computer System can beclassified into :-• CPU (Central Processing Unit) Is the brain of the computer system. Responsible for activating & controlling operations of the computer System. The CPU functions in a fetch- execute cycle.• Peripheral Devices Input Devices Output Devices Data Storage Devices
  12. 12. CPU performs :1. Arithmetic Operations2. Input-Output Operations3. Internal data movements4. Data Manipulation (accepting data, sortingit, processing it, generating the results)
  13. 13. CPU has various components : • Arithmetic-logic Unit (ALU) • Control Unit (CU) • Memory Unit
  14. 14. ALU : Calculations (+, -,/, x,<, >, =, positive, negative& zero). The output from ALU is fetched by the ControlUnit and sent to various parts of the computer.Control Unit :Coordinates the operations of hardware & flow &execution of data and instructions that are fed into thememory via CPU.
  15. 15. Memory Unit : Also known as the primary storageor main memory - is a part of the microcomputer thatholds data for processing, instructions for processingthe data (the program) and instructions (processeddata).It can be divided into primary & secondary memory.There are several types of memory :• RAM• ROM
  16. 16. RAM (Random Access Memory)(a) This is volatile memory.(b) Its consists of some Integrated circuits chips (IC Chips) on the motherboard.(c) Motherboard is designed in such a manner that its memory capacity can be easily increased by adding more memory chips in empty memory slots on the motherboard.
  17. 17. ROM (Read only memory)(a) Non-volatile memory chip.(b) Data is stored permanently and cannot be altered by the programmer.(c) The data stored in ROM chip can be read and used but cannot be changed.(d) Essential functions that computer performs when the computer is switched on, special programs are written to perform them, called as microprogram (system boot program)
  18. 18. Peripheral DevicesIt can be classified as :• Input Devices• Output Devices• Data Storage Devices
  19. 19. Input DevicesIt can be classified as :• Keyboard Devices• Mouse• Scanner
  20. 20. Output DevicesIt can be classified as :• Monitors• Printers• Screen Image Projector
  21. 21. Evolution of Computer• 1ST Mechanical machine was invented by Blaise Pascal in 1642.• Charles Babbage is considered the father of modern digital computers. (19th Century)
  22. 22. Well Known Early Computers• The Mark I Computer (1937-44).• The Atanasoff-Berry Computer (1939-42)• The ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator) (1943-46)• The EDVAC Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (1946-52)• The EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator) (1947-49)• The UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer) (1951)
  23. 23. Mini , Micro , Mainframecomputers & their features
  24. 24. Classification of computers• On the basis of size & capabilities Mini computer Micro computer Mainframe computer
  25. 25. Micro Computer• Smallest type of computer , least expensive of all type• Known as Personal computer• Introduced by IBM• Low cost of development• Arithmetic & control unit combined• Uses : by single person for single activity• Microcomputer can be grouped in five categories Workstation, Desktop, Server , Laptop , Notebooks• Desktop : used by business people for Word processing ,spreadsheeting & physically placed on desk.
  26. 26. • Workstation : intensive calculation on design such as architecture & buildings• Actually, a workstation is a place where work gets done. It refers to a computer (and often the surrounding area) that has been configured to perform a certain set of tasks, such as photo editing, audio recording, or video production. An office may have several workstations for different purposes, which may be assigned to certain employees. For example, one workstation may be used for scanning and importing images, while another is used for editing images. Because workstations often work together like in the example above, they are commonly networked together.
  27. 27. Mini Computer• First introduced in 1960’s• Faster than micro computer• More storage space & more input & output devices• Smaller than mainframe computer• More expensive But in general, a minicomputer is a multiprocessing system capable of supporting from 4 to about 200 users simultaneously. (they r also used as servers in LANS).• Business use : Large supermarket
  28. 28. Mainframe computer• More powerful• More access to input & output device.• High degree storage• Can process large volume of data (More powerful processor)• Act as host for smaller computers• Business use : Large overseas Banks
  29. 29. The Mark I Computer (1937-44)Known as Automatic Controlled calculator, this wasthe first fully automatic calculating machinedesigned by Howard A. Aiken of Harvard University• Was an electromechanical device• Developed for punched card machinery.• It was complex in design & huge in size• performing addition, subtraction, multiplication, division at speed of 0.3 sec to add 4.5 sec for multiply (machine was very slow as compared to today’s computers).
  30. 30. The Atanasoff-Berry Computer (1939- 42)Electronic machine developed for solvingmathematical equations.• Used 45 vacuum tubes for internal logic and capacitors for storage.
  31. 31. The ENIAC (1943-46)The Electronic Numerical Integrator andCalculator was the first electronic computer.• Used 18,000 vacuum tubes• Programs were wired on boards (cant be changed)• It took wall space of 20 x 40 square feet room• addition – 200 microseconds• Multiplication – 2000 ms.
  32. 32. The EDVAC (1943-46)Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer wasdesigned on Stored program concept, it wasintroduced by Dr. John Von Neumann. It influencedthe modern digital computers.• Different programs can be loaded and executed on the same computer.• storing both instructions & data in binary form (two digits – 0 & 1 which represents all characters)
  33. 33. The EDSAC (1947-49)Electronic Delay Storage AutomaticCalculator was developed by Britishers. Thismachine executed its first program in May1949.• addition – 1500 microseconds• Multiplication – 4000 ms.
  34. 34. The UNIVAC I (1951)The Universal Automatic Computer was the firstdigital computer installed in the Census Bureau,continuously used for 10 years• First business use - UNIVAC I, was by General Electrical Corporation in 1954.• In 1952, IBM Corporation introduced the 701 commercial computer. IBM produced the IBM- 650 and sold over 1000 of these machines.
  36. 36. WHAT IS HARDWAREThis includes the computerequipment that can be seen,touched (physical entity) andperipheral devices such askeyboards, monitors, printers,floppy drives, pen drives and otherequipment that are connected tocomputer
  38. 38. WHAT IS SOFTWARESoftware is a set of programs,documents, procedures associatedwith the operations of a computersystems.( Computer Instructions &Data)
  39. 39. Computer Software can be divided into : • System Software • Application Software
  40. 40. System Software Functions of System Software :• It supports the development of other application software.• Execution of other application software.• Monitors the effective use of CPU, memory, peripheral etc.• It helps the hardware components work together.
  41. 41. Types of system software• Operating systems.• Utility Programs (Utilities)• Compilers and Interpreters (Inbuilt programs)• Communication software
  42. 42. Operating systemsOS software performs basic tasks such as :• Recognizing input from the keyboard• Sending output to the display screen• Keeping track of files & directories on the disk & controlling peripheral devices. Most commonly used operating systems are DOS, Microsoft windows, UNIX, Linux etc.
  43. 43. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE Hardware Software Operating System Pathway between Hardware and SoftwareA computer can not produce output/results unlesshardware and software works together
  44. 44. Utilities Programs (Utilities)These are a set of programs, which helpusers in system maintenance task of routinenature. For example formatting of hard diskor floppy disk, taking backup of files storedon hard disk on to a CD or floppy or pendrive, creating files. directories, folders etc.
  45. 45. Compilers and Interpreters (Translating Programs)Computer don’t understand our language. Itonly reads machine language. So thecompilers and interpreters are the set ofprograms which converts our language intomachine language and process it.Eg. Spell check, grammar checking in aword document.
  46. 46. Communication softwareIn Network (where multiple computers areinterconnected together) It enables totransfer the data and programs from onecomputer to another, to share the devicesand data.
  47. 47. Application SoftwareApplication software is a set of one or moreprograms, to do specific task, to solvespecific problem and to complete the enduser task as per requirement. Therequirement is customized as per our needand application.Eg. Ms-Word, Excel, Powerpoint,Paintbrush, Computer games etc.
  48. 48. Most commonly application software are : • Word-Processing Software • Spreadsheet Software • Database Software • Graphics Software • Personal Assistance Software • Education Software
  49. 49. Word-Processing SoftwareIt enables us to make use of a computersystem for creating, editing, viewing,formatting, storing, retrieving and printingdocuments.For eg. letters, reports, books etc.
  50. 50. Spreadsheet SoftwareThis software is a numeric data analysistool, it allows us to create a kind ofcomputerized manual ledger having rows &columns, mostly used by accountants forkeeping a record of financial transactions,and for preparing financial statements.For Eg. Payroll, Mark sheet, trackingstocks & keeping records of investor bystock brokers.
  51. 51. Database Software• A database software is a collection ofrelated data stored for information retrievalpurpose. It enables us to create adatabase, maintain it (add, delete andupdate its records) organize data indesired format (sort its recordsalphabetically name wise)
  52. 52. Graphics SoftwareIt enables us to use a computer system forcreating, editing, viewing, storing, retrievingand printing designs, drawings, pictures,graphs and anything that can be drawn inthe traditional manner.
  53. 53. Personal Assistance SoftwareIt allows us to use personal computers forsorting and retrieving our personalinformation and planning, scheduling, Setalarms, contacts, financial and inventory ofimportant items.
  54. 54. Education SoftwareIt allows a computer to be used as ateaching and learning tool. For eg.Applications are those that teach youngchildren to do mathematics, recognizealphabets and to read whole words andsentences
  55. 55. Entertainment SoftwareIt allows a computer system to be used asan entertainment tool. For eg. Videogames, media player etc.
  56. 56. Computer Aided Design (CAD)It deals with the integration of computersand graphics design packages for thepurpose of automating the design anddrafting process.
  58. 58. Operating SystemOperating System (OS) is an integrated set ofprograms that controls the resources (the CPU,Memory, I/O devices etc.) of a computer system.Two main objectives of an operating system are :-• Making a computer system convenient to use.• Managing the resources of an operating System:
  59. 59. • Making a computer system convenient to use. It manages all parts of the system and presents to the user with an interface or virtual machine, which is easier to program and use. It hides the details about the hardware resources from the programmer and provides the programmer with a convenient interface for using the computer system. It acts as an intermediary between the hardware and its users, providing a high level interface to low level hardware resources and making it easier for the programmer and other user to access and use those resources.
  60. 60. • Managing the resources of an operating System. To manage the various resources of the computer system. It involves keeping track of who is using which resource, granting resource requests, accounting for resource usage and mediating conflicting requests from different users.
  61. 61. Single-User Operating System A single-user operating system providesaccess to the computer system by a singleuser at a time. If another user needs access tothe computer system, they must wait till thecurrent user finishes what they are doing andleaves. We are all familiar with the concept ofsitting down at a computer system and writingdocuments or performing some task such aswriting a letter. In this instance there is onekeyboard and one monitor that you interactwith.
  62. 62. Multi-User Operating SystemWhen referring to a network, a multi-usersystem is a term commonly used to define acomputer capable of allowing multiple usersto connect to a network.When referring to a computer OperatingSystem, a multi-user system is a computerwith an Operating system that supportsmultiple users at once and/or different times.
  63. 63. Disk Operating System (DOS) DOS is a Program which acts as user-interface between you, your applicationprograms and the computer. None of theprograms would work without it, becauseDOS controls every part of the computersystem.
  64. 64. Disk Operating System (DOS) DOS is a Program which acts as user-interface between you, your applicationprograms and the computer. None of theprograms would work without it, becauseDOS controls every part of the computersystem.
  65. 65. Process ManagementA process (also called job) is a program inexecution. The main objective of the processmanagement module of operating system is tomanage the process submitted to the system in amanner to minimize the idle time of the variousprocessors (CPU, I/O processors, etc.) of thecomputer system.