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Supply Chain Management
                    (3rd Edition)

                      Chapter 1
            Understanding the Supply Chain


© 2007 Pearson Education                     1-1
Traditional View: Logistics in the
             Economy (1990, 1996)
         Freight Transportation       $352, $455 Billion
         Inventory Expense            $221, $311 Billion
         Administrative Expense       $27, $31 Billion
         Logistics Related Activity   11%, 10.5% of GNP




       Source: Cass Logistics



© 2007 Pearson Education
Traditional View: Logistics in the
               Manufacturing Firm

         Profit               4%        Profit
                                      Logistics
                                        Cost
         Logistics Cost       21%
                                     Marketing
                                       Cost
         Marketing Cost       27%

         Manufacturing Cost   48%
                                    Manufacturing
                                        Cost



© 2007 Pearson Education
Supply Chain Management: The
       Magnitude in the Traditional View
         Estimated that the grocery industry could save $30
         billion (10% of operating cost) by using effective
         logistics and supply chain strategies
          – A typical box of cereal spends 104 days from factory to sale
          – A typical car spends 15 days from factory to dealership


         Laura Ashley turns its inventory 10 times a year, five
         times faster than 3 years ago



© 2007 Pearson Education
Supply Chain Management:
                 The True Magnitude
         Compaq estimates it lost $.5 billion to $1 billion in
         sales in 1995 because laptops were not available when
         and where needed
         When the 1 gig processor was introduced by AMD,
         the price of the 800 mb processor dropped by 30%
         P&G estimates it saved retail customers $65 million
         by collaboration resulting in a better match of supply
         and demand



© 2007 Pearson Education
Outline
         What is a Supply Chain?
         Decision Phases in a Supply Chain
         Process View of a Supply Chain
         The Importance of Supply Chain Flows
         Examples of Supply Chains




© 2007 Pearson Education
What is a Supply Chain?
         Introduction
         The objective of a supply chain




© 2007 Pearson Education
What is a Supply Chain?
         All stages involved, directly or indirectly, in fulfilling
         a customer request
         Includes manufacturers, suppliers, transporters,
         warehouses, retailers, and customers
         Within each company, the supply chain includes all
         functions involved in fulfilling a customer request
         (product development, marketing, operations,
         distribution, finance, customer service)
         Examples: Fig. 1.1 Detergent supply chain (Wal-
         Mart), Dell
© 2007 Pearson Education
What is a Supply Chain?
         Customer is an integral part of the supply chain
         Includes movement of products from suppliers to
         manufacturers to distributors, but also includes
         movement of information, funds, and products in both
         directions
         Probably more accurate to use the term “supply
         network” or “supply web”
         Typical supply chain stages: customers, retailers,
         distributors, manufacturers, suppliers (Fig. 1.2)
         All stages may not be present in all supply chains
         (e.g., no retailer or distributor for Dell)
© 2007 Pearson Education
What is a Supply Chain?
                                                             Customer wants
    P&G or other           Jewel or third      Jewel
                                                            detergent and goes
    manufacturer             party DC       Supermarket
                                                                 to Jewel



                                                           Chemical
        Plastic               Tenneco
                                                        manufacturer
       Producer              Packaging
                                                     (e.g. Oil Company)


      Chemical
                             Paper               Timber
   manufacturer
                           Manufacturer         Industry
(e.g. Oil Company)


© 2007 Pearson Education
Flows in a Supply Chain


                           Information

                            Product
                                         Customer
                            Funds




© 2007 Pearson Education
The Objective of a Supply Chain
         Maximize overall value created
         Supply chain value: difference between what the final
         product is worth to the customer and the effort the
         supply chain expends in filling the customer’s request
         Value is correlated to supply chain profitability
         (difference between revenue generated from the
         customer and the overall cost across the supply chain)




© 2007 Pearson Education
The Objective of a Supply Chain
         Example: Dell receives $2000 from a customer for a
         computer (revenue)
         Supply chain incurs costs (information, storage,
         transportation, components, assembly, etc.)
         Difference between $2000 and the sum of all of these
         costs is the supply chain profit
         Supply chain profitability is total profit to be shared
         across all stages of the supply chain
         Supply chain success should be measured by total
         supply chain profitability, not profits at an individual
         stage
© 2007 Pearson Education
The Objective of a Supply Chain
         Sources of supply chain revenue: the customer
         Sources of supply chain cost: flows of information,
         products, or funds between stages of the supply chain
         Supply chain management is the management of
         flows between and among supply chain stages to
         maximize total supply chain profitability




© 2007 Pearson Education
Decision Phases of a Supply Chain
         Supply chain strategy or design
         Supply chain planning
         Supply chain operation




© 2007 Pearson Education
Supply Chain Strategy or Design
         Decisions about the structure of the supply chain and
         what processes each stage will perform
         Strategic supply chain decisions
          –   Locations and capacities of facilities
          –   Products to be made or stored at various locations
          –   Modes of transportation
          –   Information systems
         Supply chain design must support strategic objectives
         Supply chain design decisions are long-term and
         expensive to reverse – must take into account market
         uncertainty
© 2007 Pearson Education
Supply Chain Planning
         Definition of a set of policies that govern short-term
         operations
         Fixed by the supply configuration from previous
         phase
         Starts with a forecast of demand in the coming year




© 2007 Pearson Education
Supply Chain Planning
         Planning decisions:
          –   Which markets will be supplied from which locations
          –   Planned buildup of inventories
          –   Subcontracting, backup locations
          –   Inventory policies
          –   Timing and size of market promotions
         Must consider in planning decisions demand
         uncertainty, exchange rates, competition over the time
         horizon


© 2007 Pearson Education
Supply Chain Operation
         Time horizon is weekly or daily
         Decisions regarding individual customer orders
         Supply chain configuration is fixed and operating
         policies are determined
         Goal is to implement the operating policies as
         effectively as possible
         Allocate orders to inventory or production, set order
         due dates, generate pick lists at a warehouse, allocate
         an order to a particular shipment, set delivery
         schedules, place replenishment orders
         Much less uncertainty (short time horizon)
© 2007 Pearson Education
Process View of a Supply Chain
         Cycle view: processes in a supply chain are divided
         into a series of cycles, each performed at the
         interfaces between two successive supply chain stages
         Push/pull view: processes in a supply chain are
         divided into two categories depending on whether
         they are executed in response to a customer order
         (pull) or in anticipation of a customer order (push)




© 2007 Pearson Education
Cycle View of Supply Chains
                                                   Customer
                           Customer Order Cycle

                                                   Retailer
                             Replenishment Cycle

                                                   Distributor

                           Manufacturing Cycle

                                                   Manufacturer
                            Procurement Cycle
                                                   Supplier
© 2007 Pearson Education
Cycle View of a Supply Chain
         Each cycle occurs at the interface between two successive
         stages
         Customer order cycle (customer-retailer)
         Replenishment cycle (retailer-distributor)
         Manufacturing cycle (distributor-manufacturer)
         Procurement cycle (manufacturer-supplier)
         Figure 1.3
         Cycle view clearly defines processes involved and the
         owners of each process. Specifies the roles and
         responsibilities of each member and the desired outcome
         of each process.
© 2007 Pearson Education
Push/Pull View of Supply Chains
           Procurement,                    Customer Order
           Manufacturing and               Cycle
           Replenishment cycles




             PUSH PROCESSES               PULL PROCESSES



                                  Customer
                                  Order Arrives

© 2007 Pearson Education
Push/Pull View of
                   Supply Chain Processes
         Supply chain processes fall into one of two categories
         depending on the timing of their execution relative to
         customer demand
         Pull: execution is initiated in response to a customer
         order (reactive)
         Push: execution is initiated in anticipation of customer
         orders (speculative)
         Push/pull boundary separates push processes from
         pull processes

© 2007 Pearson Education
Push/Pull View of
                   Supply Chain Processes
         Useful in considering strategic decisions relating to
         supply chain design – more global view of how
         supply chain processes relate to customer orders
         Can combine the push/pull and cycle views
          – L.L. Bean (Figure 1.6)
          – Dell (Figure 1.7)
         The relative proportion of push and pull processes can
         have an impact on supply chain performance



© 2007 Pearson Education
Supply Chain Macro Processes in
                  a Firm
         Supply chain processes discussed in the two views can
         be classified into (Figure 1.8):
          – Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
          – Internal Supply Chain Management (ISCM)
          – Supplier Relationship Management (SRM)
         Integration among the above three macro processes is
         critical for effective and successful supply chain
         management



© 2007 Pearson Education
Examples of Supply Chains
         Gateway
         Zara
         McMaster Carr / W.W. Grainger
         Toyota
         Amazon / Borders / Barnes and Noble
         Webvan / Peapod / Jewel



    What are some key issues in these supply chains?
© 2007 Pearson Education
Gateway: A Direct Sales Manufacturer
         Why did Gateway have multiple production facilities in the
         US? What advantages or disadvantages does this strategy offer
         relative to Dell, which has one facility?
         What factors did Gateway consider when deciding which
         plants to close?
         Why does Gateway not carry any finished goods inventory at
         its retail stores?
         Should a firm with an investment in retail stores carry any
         finished goods inventory?
         Is the Dell model of selling directly without any retail stores
         always less expensive than a supply chain with retail stores?
         What are the supply chain implications of Gateway’s decision
         to offer fewer configurations?
© 2007 Pearson Education
7-Eleven
       What factors influence decisions of opening and closing stores?
       Location of stores?
       Why has 7-Eleven chosen off-site preparation of fresh food?
       Why does 7-Eleven discourage direct store delivery from vendors?
       Where are distribution centers located and how many stores does
       each center serve? How are stores assigned to distribution centers?
       Why does 7-Eleven combine fresh food shipments by temperature?
       What point of sale data does 7-Eleven gather and what information
       is made available to store managers? How should information
       systems be structured?


© 2007 Pearson Education
W.W. Grainger and McMaster Carr
         How many DCs should there be and where should they be
         located?
         How should product stocking be managed at the DCs? Should
         all DCs carry all products?
         What products should be carried in inventory and what
         products should be left at the supplier?
         What products should Grainger carry at a store?
         How should markets be allocated to DCs?
         How should replenishment of inventory be managed at various
         stocking locations?
         How should Web orders be handled?
         What transportation modes should be used?

© 2007 Pearson Education
Toyota
         Where should plants be located, what degree of
         flexibility should each have, and what capacity should
         each have?
         Should plants be able to produce for all markets?
         How should markets be allocated to plants?
         What kind of flexibility should be built into the
         distribution system?
         How should this flexible investment be valued?
         What actions may be taken during product design to
         facilitate this flexibility?

© 2007 Pearson Education
Summary of Learning Objectives
         What are the cycle and push/pull views of a supply
         chain?
         How can supply chain macro processes be classified?
         What are the three key supply chain decision phases
         and what is the significance of each?
         What is the goal of a supply chain and what is the
         impact of supply chain decisions on the success of the
         firm?



© 2007 Pearson Education
Amazon.com
         Why is Amazon building more warehouses as it grows? How
         many warehouses should it have and where should they be
         located?
         What advantages does selling books via the Internet provide? Are
         there disadvantages?
         Why does Amazon stock bestsellers while buying other titles
         from distributors?
         Does an Internet channel provide greater value to a bookseller like
         Borders or to an Internet-only company like Amazon?
         Should traditional booksellers like Borders integrate e-commerce
         into their current supply?
         For what products does the e-commerce channel offer the greatest
         benefits? What characterizes these products?
© 2007 Pearson Education

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Chopra3 ppt ch01

  • 1. Supply Chain Management (3rd Edition) Chapter 1 Understanding the Supply Chain © 2007 Pearson Education 1-1
  • 2. Traditional View: Logistics in the Economy (1990, 1996) Freight Transportation $352, $455 Billion Inventory Expense $221, $311 Billion Administrative Expense $27, $31 Billion Logistics Related Activity 11%, 10.5% of GNP Source: Cass Logistics © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 3. Traditional View: Logistics in the Manufacturing Firm Profit 4% Profit Logistics Cost Logistics Cost 21% Marketing Cost Marketing Cost 27% Manufacturing Cost 48% Manufacturing Cost © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 4. Supply Chain Management: The Magnitude in the Traditional View Estimated that the grocery industry could save $30 billion (10% of operating cost) by using effective logistics and supply chain strategies – A typical box of cereal spends 104 days from factory to sale – A typical car spends 15 days from factory to dealership Laura Ashley turns its inventory 10 times a year, five times faster than 3 years ago © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 5. Supply Chain Management: The True Magnitude Compaq estimates it lost $.5 billion to $1 billion in sales in 1995 because laptops were not available when and where needed When the 1 gig processor was introduced by AMD, the price of the 800 mb processor dropped by 30% P&G estimates it saved retail customers $65 million by collaboration resulting in a better match of supply and demand © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 6. Outline What is a Supply Chain? Decision Phases in a Supply Chain Process View of a Supply Chain The Importance of Supply Chain Flows Examples of Supply Chains © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 7. What is a Supply Chain? Introduction The objective of a supply chain © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 8. What is a Supply Chain? All stages involved, directly or indirectly, in fulfilling a customer request Includes manufacturers, suppliers, transporters, warehouses, retailers, and customers Within each company, the supply chain includes all functions involved in fulfilling a customer request (product development, marketing, operations, distribution, finance, customer service) Examples: Fig. 1.1 Detergent supply chain (Wal- Mart), Dell © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 9. What is a Supply Chain? Customer is an integral part of the supply chain Includes movement of products from suppliers to manufacturers to distributors, but also includes movement of information, funds, and products in both directions Probably more accurate to use the term “supply network” or “supply web” Typical supply chain stages: customers, retailers, distributors, manufacturers, suppliers (Fig. 1.2) All stages may not be present in all supply chains (e.g., no retailer or distributor for Dell) © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 10. What is a Supply Chain? Customer wants P&G or other Jewel or third Jewel detergent and goes manufacturer party DC Supermarket to Jewel Chemical Plastic Tenneco manufacturer Producer Packaging (e.g. Oil Company) Chemical Paper Timber manufacturer Manufacturer Industry (e.g. Oil Company) © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 11. Flows in a Supply Chain Information Product Customer Funds © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 12. The Objective of a Supply Chain Maximize overall value created Supply chain value: difference between what the final product is worth to the customer and the effort the supply chain expends in filling the customer’s request Value is correlated to supply chain profitability (difference between revenue generated from the customer and the overall cost across the supply chain) © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 13. The Objective of a Supply Chain Example: Dell receives $2000 from a customer for a computer (revenue) Supply chain incurs costs (information, storage, transportation, components, assembly, etc.) Difference between $2000 and the sum of all of these costs is the supply chain profit Supply chain profitability is total profit to be shared across all stages of the supply chain Supply chain success should be measured by total supply chain profitability, not profits at an individual stage © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 14. The Objective of a Supply Chain Sources of supply chain revenue: the customer Sources of supply chain cost: flows of information, products, or funds between stages of the supply chain Supply chain management is the management of flows between and among supply chain stages to maximize total supply chain profitability © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 15. Decision Phases of a Supply Chain Supply chain strategy or design Supply chain planning Supply chain operation © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 16. Supply Chain Strategy or Design Decisions about the structure of the supply chain and what processes each stage will perform Strategic supply chain decisions – Locations and capacities of facilities – Products to be made or stored at various locations – Modes of transportation – Information systems Supply chain design must support strategic objectives Supply chain design decisions are long-term and expensive to reverse – must take into account market uncertainty © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 17. Supply Chain Planning Definition of a set of policies that govern short-term operations Fixed by the supply configuration from previous phase Starts with a forecast of demand in the coming year © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 18. Supply Chain Planning Planning decisions: – Which markets will be supplied from which locations – Planned buildup of inventories – Subcontracting, backup locations – Inventory policies – Timing and size of market promotions Must consider in planning decisions demand uncertainty, exchange rates, competition over the time horizon © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 19. Supply Chain Operation Time horizon is weekly or daily Decisions regarding individual customer orders Supply chain configuration is fixed and operating policies are determined Goal is to implement the operating policies as effectively as possible Allocate orders to inventory or production, set order due dates, generate pick lists at a warehouse, allocate an order to a particular shipment, set delivery schedules, place replenishment orders Much less uncertainty (short time horizon) © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 20. Process View of a Supply Chain Cycle view: processes in a supply chain are divided into a series of cycles, each performed at the interfaces between two successive supply chain stages Push/pull view: processes in a supply chain are divided into two categories depending on whether they are executed in response to a customer order (pull) or in anticipation of a customer order (push) © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 21. Cycle View of Supply Chains Customer Customer Order Cycle Retailer Replenishment Cycle Distributor Manufacturing Cycle Manufacturer Procurement Cycle Supplier © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 22. Cycle View of a Supply Chain Each cycle occurs at the interface between two successive stages Customer order cycle (customer-retailer) Replenishment cycle (retailer-distributor) Manufacturing cycle (distributor-manufacturer) Procurement cycle (manufacturer-supplier) Figure 1.3 Cycle view clearly defines processes involved and the owners of each process. Specifies the roles and responsibilities of each member and the desired outcome of each process. © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 23. Push/Pull View of Supply Chains Procurement, Customer Order Manufacturing and Cycle Replenishment cycles PUSH PROCESSES PULL PROCESSES Customer Order Arrives © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 24. Push/Pull View of Supply Chain Processes Supply chain processes fall into one of two categories depending on the timing of their execution relative to customer demand Pull: execution is initiated in response to a customer order (reactive) Push: execution is initiated in anticipation of customer orders (speculative) Push/pull boundary separates push processes from pull processes © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 25. Push/Pull View of Supply Chain Processes Useful in considering strategic decisions relating to supply chain design – more global view of how supply chain processes relate to customer orders Can combine the push/pull and cycle views – L.L. Bean (Figure 1.6) – Dell (Figure 1.7) The relative proportion of push and pull processes can have an impact on supply chain performance © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 26. Supply Chain Macro Processes in a Firm Supply chain processes discussed in the two views can be classified into (Figure 1.8): – Customer Relationship Management (CRM) – Internal Supply Chain Management (ISCM) – Supplier Relationship Management (SRM) Integration among the above three macro processes is critical for effective and successful supply chain management © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 27. Examples of Supply Chains Gateway Zara McMaster Carr / W.W. Grainger Toyota Amazon / Borders / Barnes and Noble Webvan / Peapod / Jewel What are some key issues in these supply chains? © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 28. Gateway: A Direct Sales Manufacturer Why did Gateway have multiple production facilities in the US? What advantages or disadvantages does this strategy offer relative to Dell, which has one facility? What factors did Gateway consider when deciding which plants to close? Why does Gateway not carry any finished goods inventory at its retail stores? Should a firm with an investment in retail stores carry any finished goods inventory? Is the Dell model of selling directly without any retail stores always less expensive than a supply chain with retail stores? What are the supply chain implications of Gateway’s decision to offer fewer configurations? © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 29. 7-Eleven What factors influence decisions of opening and closing stores? Location of stores? Why has 7-Eleven chosen off-site preparation of fresh food? Why does 7-Eleven discourage direct store delivery from vendors? Where are distribution centers located and how many stores does each center serve? How are stores assigned to distribution centers? Why does 7-Eleven combine fresh food shipments by temperature? What point of sale data does 7-Eleven gather and what information is made available to store managers? How should information systems be structured? © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 30. W.W. Grainger and McMaster Carr How many DCs should there be and where should they be located? How should product stocking be managed at the DCs? Should all DCs carry all products? What products should be carried in inventory and what products should be left at the supplier? What products should Grainger carry at a store? How should markets be allocated to DCs? How should replenishment of inventory be managed at various stocking locations? How should Web orders be handled? What transportation modes should be used? © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 31. Toyota Where should plants be located, what degree of flexibility should each have, and what capacity should each have? Should plants be able to produce for all markets? How should markets be allocated to plants? What kind of flexibility should be built into the distribution system? How should this flexible investment be valued? What actions may be taken during product design to facilitate this flexibility? © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 32. Summary of Learning Objectives What are the cycle and push/pull views of a supply chain? How can supply chain macro processes be classified? What are the three key supply chain decision phases and what is the significance of each? What is the goal of a supply chain and what is the impact of supply chain decisions on the success of the firm? © 2007 Pearson Education
  • 33. Amazon.com Why is Amazon building more warehouses as it grows? How many warehouses should it have and where should they be located? What advantages does selling books via the Internet provide? Are there disadvantages? Why does Amazon stock bestsellers while buying other titles from distributors? Does an Internet channel provide greater value to a bookseller like Borders or to an Internet-only company like Amazon? Should traditional booksellers like Borders integrate e-commerce into their current supply? For what products does the e-commerce channel offer the greatest benefits? What characterizes these products? © 2007 Pearson Education

Editor's Notes

  1. Introductions – Names, prior work experience including summer, what do students hope to get from class? Mention some prototypical supply chains we will use repeatedly in class – Wal-Mart, 7-Eleven, Dell and Compaq, Amazon and Borders, Supermarket and e-grocer, W.W. Grainger and McMaster Carr - our goal is to identify factors that drive supply chain success and make a comparison between different supply chains. Administration of course - We will discuss concepts and methodologies for supply chain management. The context within which both will be learnt and discussed is provided by cases. Discuss role of case packet readings, cases and book. 5 cases due - 10% for each case 25% for final project 20% for final exam 5% for electronic posting Discuss key dates for submitting project. Three groups will be selected to present. Show course web page and its organization
  2. Notes: Traditionally logistics and supply chain management has been measured in terms transportation and inventory costs and the administration required to manage both. Traditionally firms would have an inventory manager and a transportation manager. This view is very narrow and causes significant problems in the proper functioning of the supply chain.
  3. Notes: Key message here is that logistics costs are a significant fraction of the total value of a product. The problem here is that this a purely cost based view of the supply chain and drives a firm to simply reducing logistics costs. This is an incomplete picture.
  4. Notes: Supply chain involves everybody, from the customer all the way to the last supplier. Key flows in the supply chain are - information, product, and cash. It is through these flows that a supply chain fills a customer order. The management of these flows is key to the success or failure of a firm. Give Dell & Compaq example, Amazon & Borders example to bring out the fact that all supply chain interaction is through these flows.
  5. The supply chain is a concatenation of cycles with each cycle at the interface of two successive stages in the supply chain. Each cycle involves the customer stage placing an order and receiving it after it has been supplied by the supplier stage. One difference is in size of order. Second difference is in predictability of orders - orders in the procurement cycle are predictable once manufacturing planning has been done. This is the predominant view for ERP systems. It is a transaction level view and clearly defines each process and its owner.
  6. In this view processes are divided based on their timing relative to the timing of a customer order. Define push and pull processes. They key difference is the uncertainty during the two phases. Give examples at Amazon and Borders to illustrate the two views
  7. Dell has three production sites worldwide and builds to order. Compaq does both. Consider some decisions involved - where to locate facilities? How to size them? Where is the push/pull boundary? What modes of transport to use? How much inventory to carry? In what form? Where to source from?