Antelope is a term referring to many even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa
There are 91 species, most of which are native to Africa, in about 30 genera.
The antelope's horn is prized for medicinal and magical powers in many places.
Their meat, milk, and hides are all of excellent quality, and experimental eland husbandry has been
going on for some years in both the Ukraine and Zimbabwe.
Fun Antelope Facts
- The largest population of pronghorns lives in Wyoming.
- The eland is the world's largest and slowest antelope. However, it can jump an 8 foot fence from a
- Some antelope horns can grow to almost 5 ft (1.5 m) long.
- The saiga from Asia has a distinctive trunk-like muzzle, with downward-pointing nostrils.
- The only antelope known to become extinct is the South African blue buck, which disappeared around
- There are about 90 species of antelope.
An alpaca (Vicugna pacos) is a domesticated species of South American camelid. It resembles a
small llama in appearance. Alpaca are woolly mammals related to camels and llamas.
Alpacas are kept in herds that graze on the level heights of the Andes of southern Peru, northern
Bolivia, Ecuador, and northern Chile at an altitude of 3,500 m (11,500 ft) to 5,000 m (16,000 ft)
above sea level, throughout the year. Alpacas are considerably smaller than llamas, and unlike
llamas, they were not bred to be beasts of burden, but were bred specifically for their fiber.
Alpaca fiber is used for making knitted and woven items, similar to wool. These items include
blankets, sweaters, hats, gloves, scarves, a wide variety of textiles and ponchos in South
America, and sweaters, socks, coats and bedding in other parts of the world. The fiber comes in
more than 52 natural colors as classified in Peru, 12 as classified in Australia and 16 as classified
in the United States.
In the textile industry, "alpaca" primarily refers to the hair of Peruvian alpacas, but more broadly
it refers to a style of fabric originally made from alpaca hair, but now often made from similar
fibers, such as mohair, Icelandic sheep wool, or even high-quality English wool. In
trade, distinctions are made between alpacas and the several styles of mohair and luster.
An adult alpaca generally is between 81 and 99 cm in height at the withers. They usually weigh
between 48 and 84 kg (106 and 185 lbs).[
Alpaca fleece is a lustrous and silky natural fiber. While similar to sheep’s wool, it is warmer,
not prickly, and bears no lanolin, which makes it hypoallergenic. Without lanolin, it does
not repel water. It is also soft and luxurious. In physical structure, alpaca fiber is somewhat akin
to hair, being very glossy. The preparing, carding, spinning, weaving and finishing process of
alpaca is very similar to the process used for wool. Alpaca fiber is also flame-resistant, and meets
the US Consumer Product Safety Commission's standards.
Unlike large Crocodiles, Alligators do not immediately regard a Human upon encounter as prey, but the
Alligator may still attack in self-defence if provoked. Alligator attacks are uncommon but Alligators have
definitely been known to attack Humans if the Human is in the Alligator's territory and particularly if the
animal feels threatened. They are however known to commonly prey on domestic animals including pets
and sometimes livestock when they are close to Human settlements. Hunting towards the end of the last
century almost completely obliterated the entire American Alligator population (and has pretty much done
so to the Chinese Alligator). Fortunately the gravity of the situation in the USA was realised before it was
too late, with the protection of the species having led to an increase in population numbers now.
Bears are large dog like mammals found all around the world. There are eight different species of bear
that are found in a wide range of habitats in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, mainly the
Americas, Europe and Asia.
Bears in captivity have been trained to dance, box, or ride bicycles
Asian black bears are the most typically used species in areas where bears are either used in
performances or as pets. Asian black bears have an outstanding learning ability in captivity, and are
among the most common species used in circus acts
Bears skins are used for making fur products
Black bear meat is also edible
The African buffalo is one of the most successful grazers in Africa. The buffalo inhabits swamps and
floodplains as well as the grasslands and forests of the major mountains of Africa. Buffalo can be found
from the highest mountains to sea level areas, and the buffalo tends to prefer habitat with dense cover
such as reeds and thickets. Herd of buffalo have also been found in open woodland and grassland.
cups, fire carriers, powder horn, spoons, ladles, headdresses, signals, toys (wedges to split wood,
tips, curing blood diseases, blood-sucking cups, scrapers with a blade inserted into them, parts of
(MEAT) (every part eaten)
Pemmican (A mixture of jerky that is pounded or ground into a meal-like consistency, berries,
and melted fat. Ground and dried nut meats like Pinion Pine Nuts were good additions. Honey
was occasionally added to the mixture when available. Eaten raw or fried)
hump ribs eaten immediately
Jerky (air dried, thin strips of meat)
Liver was eaten immediately by the hunters, sprinkled with gall fluid and considered the trophy
of the hunt.
were used for tools. Needles. Awls were made to puncture the skins for sewing. Shoulder blades
made digging hoes. Large leg bones were used as ground pegs. Bones were shaped as tools to
flatten porcupine quills used in decoration. Skulls used in religious ceremonies.
Dried, it was collected and used for fuel in fires to cook and provide heat. Finely powdered dung was
used as a prevention of diaper rash.
Bulls are male counterpart of Cow. Bulls are much more muscular than cows
Aside from their reproductive duties, bulls are also used in certain sports, including bullfighting and bull
riding. They are also incorporated into festivals and folk events such as the Running of the Bulls and
were seen in ancient sports such as bull-leaping. Though less common than castrated males, bulls are
used as draught oxen in some areas. The once-popular sport of bull-baiting, in which a bull is
attacked by specially bred and trained dogs (which came to be known as bulldogs), was banned in
England by the
bull has long been an important symbol in many cultures, and plays a significant role in both beef and
dairy farming, and in a variety of other cultural activities.
We all know that cats enjoy mouse hunting, and for any home with a rodent problem, cats are
Cats are small, tame, furry mammals that are often kept as pets and farm animals.
There are over 30 different breeds of tame cats, with different body shapes and
sizes, coloring, fur length, eye color, tail length, voice, and temperament. House cats
do not enjoy swimming. Cats were domesticated over 7,000 years ago.
cats are also used in the international fur trade, for making coats, gloves, hats, shoes, blankets and
Major Contributions: Rodent Control and stress release.
A camel is a cud-chewer and vegetarian, preferring dates, grass and grain, but when food is scarce, it
becomes an omnivore, making a meal out of anything it can find, including thorns, bones, meat and
even its owners tent. Camels need salt in their diet and can drink brackish water that would make other
animals ill. A thirsty camel can drink up to 30 gallons of water in less than 15 minutes. Camels are intelligent and
possess good eyesight and wonderful hearing.
A camel can live for 50 years.
A camel's hump is full of fat, not water. The hump will get smaller if the camel doesn't
Did you know that a baby camel is born without a hump?
A camel gulps down food without chewing. Then the camel spits the food back up so it
can chew it.
Camels can travel up to 30 miles a day with 500 pounds on their backs.
Camels have been used for thousands of years by people both for transporting goods across the desert
and as a good source of milk and meat. Their woolly hair can also be used to make clothing along with
their leathery hides. Like other domestic animals, there are now numerous breeds of Camel but not all
have been bred for truly practical uses with faster and faster breeds appearing that are then used for
Camel racing. Their placid nature though, has meant that they can live alongside people and other
livestock without hardly any problems.
The cow (Bos taurus) is one of the most common animals found in most countries around the world. In fact, the cow
supplies about 90 percent of the dairy needs for the world population. Cows are raised in many different countries around
the world, mainly for the cows natural resources such as milk, meat and leather. In India the cow is seen as a sacred animal.
There are thought to be nearly 1.5 million cows worldwide, most of the cows are sadly kept by farmers but there is sure to be
the odd rouge escaped wild cows somewhere!
A cow produces about 200,000 glasses of milk in its lifetime.
- A cow can’t produce milk until after it gives birth for the first time.
Although the cow is a popular source of milk and meat, it’s also a sacred animal in many religions and
cultures, such as the Hindu religion in India. The cow has also been used to measure wealth in various
Major Contribution: Dairy, meat, and hide production
There are more than 700 types of pure breed dogs. The common belief that dogs are
colour blind is false. Dogs can see colour but it is not as vivid as we see; it is like
our vision at twilight. Dogs and cats, like people, are either right-handed
Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have been “man’s best friend” for over 10,000 years. However, due to
recent DNA evidence, dogs may have been domesticated as early as 150,000 years ago. Most likely,
they were the first tame animals. There are hundreds of different domestic dog breeds, some of which
could never survive in the wild. However, they have a lot in common with their wild relatives. Both wild
and domestic dogs descended from the South Asian wolf. Domestic dogs also share similar behavioral
traits. They defend their territories and mark them with urination, sending off a warning to other dogs.
They also bury bones and toys, just like a wild dog would bury a kill for later meals.
Dogs use scent and physical appearance to communicate with one another. Their body position,
movement and facial expressions can portray a message that even humans can recognize. Dogs also
use barking, growling and whining to communicate vocally. Apart from offering humans companionship,
many dogs do a lot of work herding livestock, guarding homes, helping with police or rescue work and
guiding the blind.
Generally, most species of caterpillar are considered to be agricultural pests
The donkey has been used as a working animal for at least 5000 years. There
are more than 40 million donkeys in the world, mostly in
underdeveloped countries, where they are used principally as draught or
pack animals. Working donkeys are often associated with those living at
or below subsistence levels. Small numbers of donkeys are kept for
breeding or as pets in developed countries.
Donkeys are the smallest members of the equine family which also includes horses, zebras, and mules. Since their domestication over 4000
years ago, they have been an important part of human civilization and culture. Donkeys are also known as burros, jackstocks and asses, but
regardless of name, all donkeys are descended from the African Wild Ass, which is now critically endangered.
The majority of donkeys today still do the same burdening tasks that the donkeys did thousands of years ago, in a similar
way to the pack-mules in the Asian mountains that transport burdening goods through the mountain passes.
to guard sheep,[
Of the more than 40 million donkeys in the world, about 96% are in underdeveloped countries, where
they are used principally as pack animals or for draught work in transport or agriculture.
Elephants are very emotional they cry, laugh, and remember other
elephants they haven't seen in decades. They grieve over dead family
members and bury them with tree branches. If a baby elephant cries out,
the entire family rushes over to care for it. Like us, they are happy, sad,
moody, and capable of jealousy and fits of rage. Also like us, they can be
immensely gentle and compassionate with each other
- Jumbo, a circus elephant, has entered the English language as a synonym for "large."
- Elephants are herbivores, spending 16 hours a day collecting plant food. Their diet is at least 50% grasses, supplemented with leaves,
bamboo, twigs, bark, roots, and small amounts of fruits, seeds and flowers.
- Walking at a normal pace an elephant covers about 2 to 4 miles an hour (3 to 6 km/h) but they can reach 24 miles an hour (40 km/h) at full
- An elephant's skin is extremely tough around most parts of its body and measures about 2.5 cm (1 in) thick.
- Both male and female African elephants have large tusks that can reach over 10 ft (3 m) in length and weigh over 200 lb (90 kg).
There are two primary species of elephant:
Elephants are also commonly exhibited in zoos and wild animal parks.
War elephants were used by armies in the Indian subcontinent,
Elephants have also been used as mounts for safari-type hunting, especially Indian shikar
(mainly on tigers), and as ceremonial mounts for royal and religious occasions, while Asian
elephants have been used for transport and entertainment.
An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented animal that is commonly found living in soil. Good soil can
have as many as as 1,000,000 (a million) worms per acre. Its digestive system runs straight through its
body, it conducts respiration through the cuticle covering its skin, and it has a simple, closed blood
Earthworms are very important animals that expose the soil with their burrowing action and enrich the
soil with their waste products.
earthworms play a major role in converting large pieces of organic matter (e.g. dead leaves) into rich
humus, and thus improving soil fertility
Earthworms may very well be the gardener’s best friend. They burrow into the ground, creating small
narrow hole. These holes allow air and water to easily reach plant roots. As they dig, they also leave
excrement behind which serves as a powerful fertilizer. These fascinating animals are, in fact, more
helpful than any man-made fertilizer.
They are the world’s first gardeners, and the more earthworms in soil the healthier the soil will be. Studies
have compared soil “invested” with earthworms to those with none, and study after study shows the
earthworms create more productive soil, helping our soil and our lives.
Fish are found in every ocean, lake, river and stream in all corners of the globe, in many
sizes, colours and species. Most fish (depending on size) tend to eat plankton in
the water, insects and smaller fish
Many people today now keep all kinds of fish in tanks and ponds.
There are over 300 distinct breeds of goat.  Goats are one of the oldest
domesticated species, and have been used for their milk, meat, hair, and
skins over much of the world.
A goat is useful to humans when it is living and when it is dead, first as a renewable provider of milk,
manure, and fiber, and then as meat and hide. In addition, goats are used for driving and packing
purposes. The horn of the goat, which signifies plenty and wellbeing (the cornucopia), is also used to
Milk, butter and cheese
Land clearing : Goats have been used by humans to clear unwanted vegetation for centuries.
Hen commonly refers to a female animal: a chicken. It is also a slang term for a woman.
The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the Red
Junglefowl. As one of the most common and widespread domestic animals, and with a
population of more than 24 billion in 2003, there are more chickens in the world than any other
species of bird
Humans keep chickens primarily as a source of food, consuming both their meat and their eggs. Humans
first domesticated chickens of Indian origin for the purpose of cockfighting in Asia, Africa, and Europe.
Chickens are sometimes kept as pets and can be tamed by hand feeding
There are thought to be more than 300 different breeds of horse found around the world today, each
being bred for a purpose. Horse breeds are loosely divided into three categories based on general
temperament: spirited "hot bloods" with speed and endurance; "cold bloods", such as draft horses and
some ponies, suitable for slow, heavy work; and "warmbloods", developed from crosses between hot
bloods and cold bloods, often focusing on creating breeds for specific riding purposes, particularly in
Europe. There are more than 300 breeds of horses in the world today, developed for many different uses.
Miniature horses (30" and under) are primarily pets, though some have been used to guide blind people.
Horses have remarkable hearing and are almost able to have 360 degree hearing.
The modern horse has been domesticated around the world for many reasons including transportation
and battle. Enormous draft horses such as Clydesdales pull heavy wagons, lighter saddle horses are for
riding, and pony breeds are suitable for children and small adults.
In one of the most efficient societies in the world – the beehive – bees spend their days producing the
food not only for themselves but also for us. Millions of dollars worth of honey is collected every year from
the beehives and distributed across the globe. But the bees aren’t done yet...
Bees can fly up to 15 mph and will sometimes travel several miles from the hive in search of food.
Beehives are one of the most organized societies in the world, containing up to 20,000 members.
Major Contribution: Pollinization & honey production.
The Impala (Aepyceros Melampusis) is an African antelope, who lives close to water in grassland and
near woodlands. Impalas are grazers and browsers. In the wet season they eat young grass shoots.
Other times they eat herbs and shrubs. When available, impalas will eat acacia pods and fruits.
Known for their leaps, impala can jump about 10 feet high and when running, about 33 feet ahead!
Impala are an endangered species.
The female impala does not have horns. The male has lyre or S-shaped horns 18 to 37 inches long, which
are very thin compared to most horned animals.
The Jaguar is the largest feline on the American continent, and is the only one of the world's 'big' cats to
be found in the New World. Jaguars are closely related to Leopards and have a number of similar
characteristics including the distinctive spotted pattern on their fur. The Jaguar is the third biggest Cat in
the world behind the Tiger and the Lion and is well known for it's immense power and agility. In fact, the
name Jaguar is said to come from the Native American word yaguar which means "he who kills with one
leap". Despite their incredible power however, Jaguars have been hunted through the ages mainly for
their staggeringly beautiful fur. Although hunting for Jaguar fur is now prohibited, population numbers
have declined throughout much of their natural range, with Jaguars having completely disappeared from
a number of areas.
- Jaguars hunt mainly at night.
- The jaguar’s name means “a beast that kills its prey with a single bound.”
- A jaguar’s roar sounds like a deep, chesty cough.
- Melanistic jaguar have been mistakenly called “black panthers.” Black panthers do not exist.
- The jaguar, who swims well, likes to live near water.
Kangaroos have a deep pouch on their front in which to carry their young. A baby kangaroo is called a
joey. Kangaroos eat plants, nuts, berries and insects that the kangaroos rummage for in the arid
Kangaroos are most well known for their ability to jump a phenomenal distance.
There are three main species of kangaroo in existence today
1. red kangaroo, which is the largest and most well-known of all the kangaroo species.
2. The Eastern grey kangaroo is known to be the heaviest species of kangaroo
3. western grey kangaroo can be found in large numbers and can be anywhere in colour from grey
Although kangaroos are not commercially farmed, wild kangaroos are often pursued by human hunters
for sport, meat, fur and when farmers are conserving their grazing land for their sheep and cows.
The Lion is one of the largest, strongest and powerful felines in the world second only in size to the
Siberian Tiger. They are the largest cats on the African continent
Lions are the only cats to live in groups
There are 2 surviving species of lions: African and Asian. Though the latter is endangered with less than
300 alive in the wild in a reserve in the Gir Forest in India. There are 6 subspecies of African lions.
- Male lions begin to grow their manes at about 18 months old. It continues to grow until they are 5.
- The Barbary lion and Cape lion, both subspecies of the African Lion, are extinct.
- The Swahili word for lion is simba. It also means king, strong, and aggressive.
- Lionesses are more agile and faster than male lions. Both male and female lions roar.
- Lions lie around for 21 hours a day. Baiting and taming
- Lions can go 5 to 6 days without drinking water.