Vernacular architecture

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Vernacular architecture

  1. 1. Asia South America North America Africa Europe Australia Antarctica
  2. 2.  Tropical zone:  it lies between tropic of cancer at 23 .5˚S.  Since direct ray of sun fall through out year in this zone.  Therefore it is temperate zone.  Sub tropical zone:  South temperate zone lies between tropic of Capricorn and Antarctic circle.  North temperate zone lies between tropic of cancer and arctic circle.  It is slightly temperate zone.
  3. 3. Polar zone South polar zone lies between Antarctica circle and south pole. North polar zone lies between arctic circle and north pole. Day and night are of six months here.
  4. 4. A country is divided into five major climatic zones: 1. Hot and dry climate 2. warm and humid climate 3. Composite climate 4. Moderate climate 5. Cold climate
  5. 5.  The word vernacular derived from ‘vernaculus’ means ‘native’.  Hence vernacular architecture – native science of building.
  6. 6.  The term "vernacular architecture" in general refers to the informal building of structures through traditional building methods by local builders without using the services of a professional architect. It is the most widespread form of building.  The builders of this structure are unschooled in formal architectural design and their work reflects the rich diversity of India's climate, locally available material and the intricate variation in social custom and craftsman.
  7. 7.  This zone lies in western and central part of India, jaisalmer, jodhpur, etc.  This region is usually flat, sandy, rocky ground with spares vegetation of cacti thorny bushes.  Water level is very low here.  The diurnal variation in temperature is quite high more than 10˚C.
  8. 8.  The climate is dry because relative humidity is generally very low.  The hot and dry regions receive less rainfall- the annual precipitation being less than 500mm.  Hot winds blow during summer and sand storms are also seen.  The absorbed radiation are dissipated to atmosphere at night. Mud hut of Rajasthan.
  9. 9.  Due to low water level and spares vegetation the houses are made using twigs, mud , clay, stone. The air is cool at night.
  10. 10.  The warm and humid zone covers the coastal region.  Mumbai , Chennai, Kolkata lies under this region.  The high humidity encourages abundant vegetation.  The main design criteria in warm and humid region are to reduce heat gained by providing shading.  The relative humidity is high about 70%-90% in year.
  11. 11. Here tropical cyclones and hurricanes are common when wind speed are 45 to 70m/s. High salt contents of atmosphere corrodes the building material. Vegetation is lighter green colour as per amount of rainfall. In most parts of the zone, summer will be rainy.
  12. 12. The temperate climate has mild to warm summers and cool winters. The need for winter home heating is greater than the need for summer cooling.  It is a relatively comfortable climate, especially near the coast, where summers are cooler and winters warmer than further inland.
  13. 13. In the mountains of the Great Dividing Range, winters are cold and summers are pleasantly mild. Few opening on external side other than door. Cooking and sleeping outdoor in summer were as inside in winter.
  14. 14.  The composite zone covers the central part of India.  Cities like Allahabad, Kanpur, new Delhi experience this climate.  A variable landscape and seasonal vegetation characterize this zone.
  15. 15. Cold climate Cold and cloudyCold and sunny
  16. 16. This type of climate is experienced in Leh (ladakh). The region is mountainous and little vegetation considered as a cold desert. The solar radiation is generally intense with very low percentage of diffuse radiation.
  17. 17. Mud and clay house in ladak The building is an innovative articulation of material like stone mud clay. In ladak houses are very close to each other.
  18. 18. Such climate prevails in Kashmir , Sikkim, upper part of Assam hill station from the southern India. Srinagar ,shimla, dalhouse are best represented by this climate. Located at shimla at above 2000m above sea level in middle Himalayas. The climate requires building to be heated through out the year.
  19. 19. Thin mud and bamboo wall for upper floor and for ground floor brick or bamboo. Roof is out of thick stone slab or country tiles. Roof over hang from all the sides protecting the core spaces effectively.

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