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it lies between tropic of cancer at 23 .5˚S.
Since direct ray of sun fall through out year in this zone.
Therefore it is temperate zone.
Sub tropical zone:
South temperate zone lies between tropic of Capricorn and
North temperate zone lies between tropic of cancer and
It is slightly temperate zone.
South polar zone lies between Antarctica
circle and south pole.
North polar zone lies between arctic circle
and north pole.
Day and night are of six months here.
A country is divided into five
major climatic zones:
1. Hot and dry climate
2. warm and humid climate
3. Composite climate
4. Moderate climate
5. Cold climate
The word vernacular derived from
‘vernaculus’ means ‘native’.
Hence vernacular architecture – native science
The term "vernacular architecture" in general refers to the
informal building of structures through traditional building
methods by local builders without using the services of a
professional architect. It is the most widespread form of
The builders of this structure are unschooled in formal
architectural design and their work reflects the rich diversity of
India's climate, locally available material and the intricate
variation in social custom and craftsman.
This zone lies in western and central part of India, jaisalmer,
This region is usually flat, sandy, rocky ground with spares
vegetation of cacti thorny bushes.
Water level is very low here.
The diurnal variation in temperature is quite high more than
The climate is dry because relative humidity is generally
The hot and dry regions receive less rainfall- the annual
precipitation being less than 500mm.
Hot winds blow during summer and sand storms are also
The absorbed radiation are dissipated to atmosphere at
Mud hut of
Due to low water level and spares vegetation the
houses are made using twigs, mud , clay, stone.
The air is cool at night.
The warm and humid zone covers the coastal region.
Mumbai , Chennai, Kolkata lies under this region.
The high humidity encourages abundant vegetation.
The main design criteria in warm and humid region are to
reduce heat gained by providing shading.
The relative humidity is high about 70%-90% in year.
Here tropical cyclones and hurricanes are common
when wind speed are 45 to 70m/s.
High salt contents of atmosphere corrodes the
Vegetation is lighter green colour as per amount of
In most parts of the zone, summer will be
The temperate climate has mild to warm summers and cool
The need for winter home heating is greater than the need
for summer cooling.
It is a relatively comfortable climate, especially near the
coast, where summers are cooler and winters warmer than
In the mountains of the Great Dividing Range,
winters are cold and summers are pleasantly
Few opening on external side other than door.
Cooking and sleeping outdoor in summer were
as inside in winter.
The composite zone covers the central part of India.
Cities like Allahabad, Kanpur, new Delhi experience this
A variable landscape and seasonal vegetation characterize
This type of climate is experienced in Leh (ladakh).
The region is mountainous and little vegetation considered
as a cold desert.
The solar radiation is generally intense with very low
percentage of diffuse radiation.
Mud and clay house in ladak
The building is an innovative articulation of material
like stone mud clay.
In ladak houses are very close to each other.
Such climate prevails in
Kashmir , Sikkim, upper
part of Assam hill station
from the southern India.
dalhouse are best
represented by this climate.
Located at shimla at above
2000m above sea level in
The climate requires building
to be heated through out the
Thin mud and bamboo wall for upper floor and for
ground floor brick or bamboo.
Roof is out of thick stone slab or country tiles.
Roof over hang from all the sides protecting the core