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How search engines work<br />Early search engines<br />WebCrawler<br />Excite<br />Lycos<br />Etc.<br />Found pages based ...
How Search Engines Work- Google<br />In 1998 Google was publically launched<br />Innovative pagerank algorithm<br />
How Search Engines Work<br />Crawling and indexing the web<br />Crawlers follow links to find interconnected documents<br ...
How Search Engines Work<br />Rankings<br />When a user types in a query the search engine returns results based on relevan...
Why is SEO important<br />Nearly 400 million searches performed each day (over 15 billion per month) – comscore, april 201...
Why is SEO important<br /><ul><li>36% of users agreed that "seeing a company listed among the top results on a search engi...
Why is SEO important<br />Takeaways:<br />Search is extremely popular (15 billion searches per month)<br />Position in ser...
How do you improve your rankings?<br />3 core components of SEO<br />Site architecture (on-site)<br />Content (on-site)<br...
Site Architecture<br />Indexable content<br />Page title<br />meta data<br />Headers<br />Text<br />URLs<br />alt tags<br ...
Site Architecture<br />Problematic content<br />Text vs images<br />Use alt tag for images<br />flash<br />Java<br />Video...
Site architecture<br />How search engines view sites<br />Seo-browser.com<br />Lynx (text-based browser) http://lynx.isc.o...
Site architecture<br />Crawlable link structure<br />Anatomy of a link<br />Anchor text<br />Absolute vs relative links<br />
Site architecture<br />Site hierarchy<br />3 click rule<br />
Site architecture<br />What prevents links from being crawled?<br />Form based navigation<br />Javascript (google is can p...
Site architecture<br />URLs<br />Best practices<br />Descriptive<br />Short<br />No variables<br />Consistent hierarchy<br...
content<br />Anatomy of a search result<br />Targeting keywords<br />Use in title, on-page copy, url, meta description<br />
content<br />Title tags<br />Most important on-page factor for targeting keywords<br />best practices<br />70 characters o...
content<br />Meta tags<br />Meta description<br />Used for click thru rate (ctr)<br />Google sometimes chooses to use a mo...
content<br />Best practices for targeting chosen keywords/phrases<br />Use keyword in title once, and one variation<br />U...
content<br />Latent semantic indexing<br />Analyzes relationships between words & phrases<br />Places additional weight on...
content<br />Duplicate content<br />Same content appears in multiple locations on site—which one should search engine serv...
content<br />Duplicate content<br />Pages targeting the same keywords compete with each other<br />Remedies<br />301 redir...
Keyword research<br />Crucial component of SEO<br />Knowing which keywords to target<br />
Keyword research<br />Keyword research tools<br />Adwords keyword tools<br />https://adwords.google.com/select/KeywordTool...
Keyword research<br />Testing<br />Use googleadwords (or yahoo search marketing or microsoftadcenter)<br />
Keyword research<br />Short tail vs long tail<br />chart<br />
Keyword research<br />Types of queries<br />Informational<br />Obtaining information is goal of user<br />E.g. regions in ...
links<br />Serve as “votes”<br />Democracy of the web representing what’s important<br />Most important element of how pag...
links<br />Types of link acquisition<br />Editorial-best<br />Non-solicited<br />Linkbait-bordering on manual<br />Usually...
links<br />How links are valued by search engines<br />Link popularity of linking page/site<br />Pagerank<br />Topicality ...
links<br />Strategies<br />Linkbait<br />“Interesting enough to catch people’s attention” – matt cutts<br />Encourages nat...
links<br />Linkbait best practices<br />Email relevant blogs and other sites<br />Make it easily sharable<br />Submit to s...
links<br />Directory submissions<br />Most general directories created over the past few years are built for SEO purposes,...
links<br />Directory submissions<br />Some general directories are still valuable (editorial policies in place)<br />Yahoo...
links<br />Directories<br />Niche directories<br />Can be very effective<br />Search for “directory” + keyword, “add link”...
links<br />Solicitations<br />Stroke webmasters’ egos<br />You’ve won!<br />Awards, top resource lists, etc.<br />General ...
links<br />Guest blog posts/articles<br />Link in attribution<br />Content distribution/licensing<br />Very powerful sites...
links<br />Leverage relationships<br />Include links as part of other business deals<br />Create custom content if need be...
links<br />Profile links<br />Blog comments<br />Forum signatures<br />Low quality, but can help with content discovery an...
links<br />Buying links<br />Beware of link brokers<br />Text link ads<br />Text link brokers<br />Linkworth<br />Conducto...
links<br />Buying links<br />Advanced link brokers<br />Iacquire<br />Expensive<br />Leased links<br />Can be very useful ...
links<br />Buying links<br />Negotiating purchases yourself*****<br />Be very careful<br />Make link placements look natur...
links<br />Types of links to avoid<br />Link exchanges<br />Including 3 way link exchanges<br />Free for all pages<br />Bl...
links<br />Competitive link analysis<br />See who links to your competitors<br />Yahoo site explorer<br />Linkdomain:site....
links<br />Competitive link analysis<br />Seomoz tools<br />Use their own index<br />Linkscape<br />Opensiteexplorer.org<b...
Measure and refine<br />Use analytics to track relevant metrics<br />Search engine traffic<br />Referrals<br />Direct traf...
Measure and refine<br />Analytics software<br />Google analytics<br />Free and good<br />Most popular<br />Coremetrics<br ...
Measure and refine<br />Other useful analytic software<br />Google website optimizer<br />a/b testing, multivariate testin...
Measure and refine<br />Rank checking—track movement of top keywords<br />Advanced web ranking<br />Paid<br />Don’t freak ...
Other useful SEO software<br />Seachstatus for firefox<br />My “can’t live without” tool<br />Check pagerank, compete, ale...
Other useful SEO software<br />SEOmoz tools<br />Many provide a quick and easy way to get relative score on SEO metrics<br...
Other useful SEO software<br />Aaron wall’s tools<br />Seo for firefox<br />Shows pagerank, links, site age, and other seo...
Other useful SEO tools<br />Google webmaster central<br />Must approve site before having access<br />Check your top keywo...
Other useful SEO tools<br />Web developer toolbar for firefox<br />Useful tool for front-end developers<br />Some features...
SEO myths<br />Pagerank reflects how highly your site can rank<br />
SEO myths<br /><ul><li>Meta keywords</li></li></ul><li>SEO myths<br /><ul><li>Xml sitemaps help with rankings</li></li></u...
SEO myths<br /><ul><li>Hidden/small text</li></li></ul><li>SEO myths<br /><ul><li>Submitting your site to search engines</...
SEO 101 | New York University
SEO 101 | New York University
SEO 101 | New York University
SEO 101 | New York University
SEO 101 | New York University
SEO 101 | New York University
SEO 101 | New York University
SEO 101 | New York University
SEO 101 | New York University
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SEO 101 | New York University

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SEO 101 lecture at New York University

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SEO 101 | New York University

  1. 1.
  2. 2.
  3. 3. How search engines work<br />Early search engines<br />WebCrawler<br />Excite<br />Lycos<br />Etc.<br />Found pages based on on-page content<br />Easily manipulated results<br />
  4. 4. How Search Engines Work- Google<br />In 1998 Google was publically launched<br />Innovative pagerank algorithm<br />
  5. 5. How Search Engines Work<br />Crawling and indexing the web<br />Crawlers follow links to find interconnected documents<br />Store relevant information for future retreival<br />Data is stored on over 1 million servers spread over at least 36 datacenters around the world<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7. How Search Engines Work<br />Rankings<br />When a user types in a query the search engine returns results based on relevance and importance<br />Relevance=topic<br />Early search engines focused primarily on this step<br />Importance=links (pagerank)<br />And hundreds of other signals<br />
  8. 8. Why is SEO important<br />Nearly 400 million searches performed each day (over 15 billion per month) – comscore, april 2010<br />Google captures 65% of share (10 billion)<br />Yahoo 18%<br />Microsoft 12%<br />
  9. 9. Why is SEO important<br /><ul><li>36% of users agreed that "seeing a company listed among the top results on a search engine makes me think that the company is a top one within its field." iProspect & Juniper Research</li></ul>90% of users click on a first page result<br />34% click on the 1st result<br />17% click 2nd result<br />#1 ranking earns 2x the clicks as #2<br />#1 ranking earns 13x the clicks as #10<br />
  10. 10. Why is SEO important<br />Takeaways:<br />Search is extremely popular (15 billion searches per month)<br />Position in serps is critical (90% of clicks are 1st page)<br />
  11. 11. How do you improve your rankings?<br />3 core components of SEO<br />Site architecture (on-site)<br />Content (on-site)<br />Links (off-site)<br />
  12. 12. Site Architecture<br />Indexable content<br />Page title<br />meta data<br />Headers<br />Text<br />URLs<br />alt tags<br />Images*<br />
  13. 13. Site Architecture<br />Problematic content<br />Text vs images<br />Use alt tag for images<br />flash<br />Java<br />Video<br />Audio<br />
  14. 14. Site architecture<br />How search engines view sites<br />Seo-browser.com<br />Lynx (text-based browser) http://lynx.isc.org<br />Turn off images, javascript, css in browser (web developer extension in firefox)<br />
  15. 15.
  16. 16. Site architecture<br />Crawlable link structure<br />Anatomy of a link<br />Anchor text<br />Absolute vs relative links<br />
  17. 17. Site architecture<br />Site hierarchy<br />3 click rule<br />
  18. 18. Site architecture<br />What prevents links from being crawled?<br />Form based navigation<br />Javascript (google is can parse javascript, but it’s still questionable)<br />Flash<br />Java<br />Iframes & frames<br />Blocked by robots.txt, rel=nofollow, meta nofollow<br />Too many variables in URLs<br />
  19. 19. Site architecture<br />URLs<br />Best practices<br />Descriptive<br />Short<br />No variables<br />Consistent hierarchy<br />Separate with hyphens<br />lowercase<br />
  20. 20. content<br />Anatomy of a search result<br />Targeting keywords<br />Use in title, on-page copy, url, meta description<br />
  21. 21. content<br />Title tags<br />Most important on-page factor for targeting keywords<br />best practices<br />70 characters or fewer<br />Important keywords first<br />Use target keyword once with one variation<br />Plurals, alternate usage<br />
  22. 22. content<br />Meta tags<br />Meta description<br />Used for click thru rate (ctr)<br />Google sometimes chooses to use a more appropriate on-page snippet, depending on the search query<br />No influence on rankings<br />
  23. 23. content<br />Best practices for targeting chosen keywords/phrases<br />Use keyword in title once, and one variation<br />Use keyword (or variation) in header<br />Use in body copy<br />Multiple times and variations<br />Keep it natural<br />Use in meta description<br />Use in URL<br />If possible & natural—don’t force it<br />
  24. 24. content<br />Latent semantic indexing<br />Analyzes relationships between words & phrases<br />Places additional weight on words in content<br />Correlates surprisingly well with how a human might interpret a document<br />Apple vs apple<br />
  25. 25. content<br />Duplicate content<br />Same content appears in multiple locations on site—which one should search engine serve to users?<br />Standardize, choose one URL for each piece, and stick to it<br />Widgets.html and widgets.html?key=test are seen as two different pages<br />Site.com/index.html, www.site.com, www.site.com/index.html can all be seen as separate pages<br />
  26. 26. content<br />Duplicate content<br />Pages targeting the same keywords compete with each other<br />Remedies<br />301 redirects<br />Canonical tag<br /><link rel="canonical" href="http://www.site.com/page.html" /> <br />Meta noindex<br />
  27. 27. Keyword research<br />Crucial component of SEO<br />Knowing which keywords to target<br />
  28. 28. Keyword research<br />Keyword research tools<br />Adwords keyword tools<br />https://adwords.google.com/select/KeywordToolExternal - google.com and all affiliated search properties (youtube, gmail, chrome, news, etc.)<br />www.google.com/sktool/ - solely on searches on google.com<br />Wordtracker – paid<br />Trellian keyword discovery – paid<br />Google suggest<br />Google related searches<br />Competitors<br />
  29. 29.
  30. 30.
  31. 31.
  32. 32.
  33. 33. Keyword research<br />Testing<br />Use googleadwords (or yahoo search marketing or microsoftadcenter)<br />
  34. 34. Keyword research<br />Short tail vs long tail<br />chart<br />
  35. 35. Keyword research<br />Types of queries<br />Informational<br />Obtaining information is goal of user<br />E.g. regions in italy<br />Navigational<br />User has pre-determined destination in mind<br />E.g. facebook<br />Transactional<br />Complete a task<br />E.g. pay nyc parking ticket<br />
  36. 36. links<br />Serve as “votes”<br />Democracy of the web representing what’s important<br />Most important element of how pages are ranked<br />SEs rank pages based on the quantity and quality of links pointing to them<br />Most difficult element of SEO<br />
  37. 37. links<br />Types of link acquisition<br />Editorial-best<br />Non-solicited<br />Linkbait-bordering on manual<br />Usually cannot control anchor text<br />Manual<br />Link solicitations, directory submissions, content distribution, blog comments, guest blog posts/articles, profile links<br />
  38. 38. links<br />How links are valued by search engines<br />Link popularity of linking page/site<br />Pagerank<br />Topicality of linking page<br />Anchor text<br />Location of link<br />
  39. 39. links<br />Strategies<br />Linkbait<br />“Interesting enough to catch people’s attention” – matt cutts<br />Encourages natural, editorial links<br />Create sensational content<br />Infographics<br />Interesting research<br />Top * lists<br />Anything users would find interesting<br />
  40. 40.
  41. 41.
  42. 42.
  43. 43. links<br />Linkbait best practices<br />Email relevant blogs and other sites<br />Make it easily sharable<br />Submit to social sites<br />Digg, reddit, stumbleupon, etc.<br />Having friends helps-powerful accounts help content spread easier<br />You can sometimes pay power users or specialty companies to submit content for you<br />
  44. 44. links<br />Directory submissions<br />Most general directories created over the past few years are built for SEO purposes, not users<br />Their ability to pass pagerank has been reduced/eliminated by the search engines<br />Some directories require reciprocal links<br />skip<br />
  45. 45. links<br />Directory submissions<br />Some general directories are still valuable (editorial policies in place)<br />Yahoo directory - paid<br />LII—librarians’ internet index<br />Business.com - paid<br />DMOZ<br />Used to be a big factor in rankings, but corruption and neglect have diminished its value<br />
  46. 46. links<br />Directories<br />Niche directories<br />Can be very effective<br />Search for “directory” + keyword, “add link” + keyword, “add url” + keyword, and variations<br />
  47. 47. links<br />Solicitations<br />Stroke webmasters’ egos<br />You’ve won!<br />Awards, top resource lists, etc.<br />General suggestions<br />Hello, FYI—we just published this interesting piece of content. You may find it interesting. Feel free to share with your users.<br />
  48. 48.
  49. 49. links<br />Guest blog posts/articles<br />Link in attribution<br />Content distribution/licensing<br />Very powerful sites can outrank you for your own content<br />Make sure you get a link in the attribution<br />
  50. 50. links<br />Leverage relationships<br />Include links as part of other business deals<br />Create custom content if need be<br />Ask customers for links<br />
  51. 51. links<br />Profile links<br />Blog comments<br />Forum signatures<br />Low quality, but can help with content discovery and provide signals to Ses<br />May help with rankings in very low competition verticals<br />
  52. 52. links<br />Buying links<br />Beware of link brokers<br />Text link ads<br />Text link brokers<br />Linkworth<br />Conductor<br />All are potentially dangerous and not worth the money or risk<br />
  53. 53. links<br />Buying links<br />Advanced link brokers<br />Iacquire<br />Expensive<br />Leased links<br />Can be very useful in hypercompetitive verticals where natural links are difficult to acquire<br />E.g. gambling, pharmaceuticals, lending<br />
  54. 54. links<br />Buying links<br />Negotiating purchases yourself*****<br />Be very careful<br />Make link placements look natural<br />Ideally negotiate a one-time payment<br />Have seller sign NDA<br />Use an alternate email account and don’t initially mention your site’s URL<br />Posing as a female often produces better results<br />
  55. 55. links<br />Types of links to avoid<br />Link exchanges<br />Including 3 way link exchanges<br />Free for all pages<br />Blatantly paid links<br />Links from bad neighborhoods<br />Your friends can reflect poorly on you<br />
  56. 56. links<br />Competitive link analysis<br />See who links to your competitors<br />Yahoo site explorer<br />Linkdomain:site.com or link:site.com/page.html<br />Most likely going away in q3 or q4<br />Linkdiagnosis<br />Based off the yahoo site explorer api<br />Sorts link data in easy to analyze manner<br />Tracks link history<br />
  57. 57.
  58. 58.
  59. 59. links<br />Competitive link analysis<br />Seomoz tools<br />Use their own index<br />Linkscape<br />Opensiteexplorer.org<br />Majesticseo<br />Uses own index<br />Most users argue that it has a better index than seomoz<br />
  60. 60.
  61. 61.
  62. 62. Measure and refine<br />Use analytics to track relevant metrics<br />Search engine traffic<br />Referrals<br />Direct traffic<br />Top pages<br />Top keywords<br />Conversion %<br />Pages receiving traffic vs # of pages on site<br />If page is not receiving traffic, give it more exposure<br />
  63. 63. Measure and refine<br />Analytics software<br />Google analytics<br />Free and good<br />Most popular<br />Coremetrics<br />Not recommended<br />Omniture<br />Recognized as best<br />Others—urchin, mint, yahoo web analytics, dozens more<br />
  64. 64.
  65. 65. Measure and refine<br />Other useful analytic software<br />Google website optimizer<br />a/b testing, multivariate testing<br />Hitwise<br />Competitive intelligence<br />Expensive<br />Relative data<br />Compete<br />Competitive intelligence<br />Crazyegg<br />Heatmaps<br />cheap<br />
  66. 66.
  67. 67. Measure and refine<br />Rank checking—track movement of top keywords<br />Advanced web ranking<br />Paid<br />Don’t freak out over small movement—it’s normal<br />
  68. 68.
  69. 69. Other useful SEO software<br />Seachstatus for firefox<br />My “can’t live without” tool<br />Check pagerank, compete, alexa, mozrank<br />Whois info, link data, on-page elements<br />
  70. 70. Other useful SEO software<br />SEOmoz tools<br />Many provide a quick and easy way to get relative score on SEO metrics<br />Trifecta<br />Score of the importance of a page or site<br />Keyword difficulty tool<br />Analyze competitive landscape of a keyword<br />Term target<br />How targeted a particular page is for a keyword<br />Many others<br />
  71. 71. Other useful SEO software<br />Aaron wall’s tools<br />Seo for firefox<br />Shows pagerank, links, site age, and other seo metrics directly in the search results<br />Hubfinder<br />Find links your competitors have that you don’t<br />
  72. 72.
  73. 73. Other useful SEO tools<br />Google webmaster central<br />Must approve site before having access<br />Check your top keywords in google<br />Crawl errors<br />Load times<br />Submit xml sitemap<br />404 errors<br />Your site’s links<br />
  74. 74. Other useful SEO tools<br />Web developer toolbar for firefox<br />Useful tool for front-end developers<br />Some features are useful for seo, such as seeing how a site looks without images, css, javascript, etc.<br />Xenu link sleuth<br />Find broken links<br />
  75. 75. SEO myths<br />Pagerank reflects how highly your site can rank<br />
  76. 76. SEO myths<br /><ul><li>Meta keywords</li></li></ul><li>SEO myths<br /><ul><li>Xml sitemaps help with rankings</li></li></ul><li>SEO myths<br /><ul><li>Updating content frequently helps rankings</li></li></ul><li>SEO myths<br /><ul><li>Link exchanges</li></li></ul><li>SEO myths<br /><ul><li>H1, h2, etc tags are important for rankings</li></li></ul><li>
  77. 77. SEO myths<br /><ul><li>Hidden/small text</li></li></ul><li>SEO myths<br /><ul><li>Submitting your site to search engines</li></li></ul><li>SEO myths<br /><ul><li>Great content=great rankings</li></li></ul><li>SEO myths<br /><ul><li>Seo is a one-time activity</li></li></ul><li>

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