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Capstone Powerpoint


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I created this presentation for my Religious Studies Seminar class. This PowerPoint goes along with the research paper I had to write.

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Capstone Powerpoint

  1. 1. From Persecutor to Prophet: How Paul’s Theology Shaped the Landscape for Christianity By Nikoholas Harris Religious Studies Capstone Seminar Fall 2011 Dr. Linda Penkower
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>New movement begins to take shape out of Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus is the leader of this movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preached at Galilee and Jerusalem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performed miracles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Because of Rome, Jesus is eventually crucified </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction cont. <ul><li>Paul (Saul) was one of the people opposed to this “Jesus Movement” </li></ul><ul><li>Later convert to this movement </li></ul><ul><li>What are the factors that he had to overcome? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Factors Paul had to overcome <ul><li>Didn’t have contact with Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>Former opponent of the movement </li></ul><ul><li>What is an Apostle? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone who had personal contact with Jesus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simon Peter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>James </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone who witnessed the Body of the Risen Christ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paul fits this second definition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>His letters to the Galatians & Romans </li></ul>
  5. 5. Split between Judaism and Christianity <ul><li>Not an overnight event </li></ul><ul><li>Few different factors that caused the split </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejection of Jesus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Council of Jerusalem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destruction of the Second Temple </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Rejection of Jesus <ul><li>Jesus shows up in Nazareth to preach </li></ul><ul><li>Crowd there rejects him </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“The Carpenter’s Son”, “Son of Mary”, “Brother of James, Joses, Simon and Judas” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought he was just another false prophet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ And he did not many mighty works there because of their disbelief.” (Matthew 13:58) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Council of Jerusalem <ul><li>Took place in 50 CE </li></ul><ul><li>Organized by members of Jesus movement </li></ul><ul><li>Gentiles didn’t need to abide by the Mosaic Law </li></ul><ul><li>Circumcision an important issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruled circumcision was a requirement </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Destruction of the Second Temple <ul><li>Some believed Jesus correctly predicted destruction of the temple </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ And Jesus said unto them, Seest thou those great buildings? There shall not be left one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down.” (Mark 13:2) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jews had their hands full with the Roman Empire </li></ul>
  9. 9. Early Christians <ul><li>“The Way” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made up of Jewish believers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Did not call themselves “Christians” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity didn’t exist yet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rome didn’t distinguish between the Way and rest of Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>Nero: Rome knew difference between Jews and early Christians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blamed them for Great Fire of Rome in 64 CE </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Saul the Pharisee <ul><li>Born a Pharisee in Tarsus </li></ul><ul><li>Tent-making family with Roman citizenship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unusual for people born outside of Rome at that time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hellenistic upbringing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knew Hebrew, Greek, and Aramaic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taught by Gamaliel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Held a position in the Sanhedrin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compassionate towards the early Christians </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Saul the Pharisee <ul><li>How much Judaism did Paul know? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some say “real” Judaism is Pharisaic and un-Greek </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judaism that Paul knows has too many Greek influences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why did Paul persecute these early Christians? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Felt they were a threat to the covenant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Didn’t want Rome to see Jewish communities as a threat to the empire </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Paul the Convert <ul><li>Road to Damascus circa 34 CE </li></ul><ul><li>Blinded by bright light </li></ul><ul><li>Hears voice asking why he’s persecuting him </li></ul><ul><li>Goes to Ananias, who restores his sight </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t convert to “Christianity” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No one uses this term at that time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Didn’t even think what he was teaching was a “new” religion </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Paul the Convert <ul><li>Never sheds his Jewish heritage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered himself a Jew throughout his life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter to Romans: born a Jew in Tarsus with Roman citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is he still Jewish? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes: Jew on the outside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theology he’s preaching has roots in Judaism </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Paul vs. his opponents <ul><li>Who were they? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judaizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other apostles: Peter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Followed him from place to place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to undo the “damage” Paul had done </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Paul vs. his opponents (the Apostles) <ul><li>Incident at Antioch </li></ul><ul><li>Paul’s upset that Peter won’t interact with Gentiles in front of other Jews </li></ul><ul><li>Peter and others say Gentiles are less important because they are uncircumcised </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paul’s friend Barnabas agrees </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Paul vs. his opponents (Judaizers) <ul><li>Jewish Christian sect in the 1 st century </li></ul><ul><li>Christian who adheres to the Mosaic Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circumcision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sabbath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passover </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Someone who converts to Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>Paul battles with this group in Galatians </li></ul>
  17. 17. Paul the Theologian <ul><li>Righteousness through faith </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses Abraham as an example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abraham & Sarah as parents to Israel and Gentile nations as well </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Law is a pacifier until Jesus came </li></ul><ul><li>Two ways to reach salvation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Converting to Judaism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not converting and relying on faith </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Paul the Theologian (Circumcision) <ul><li>Many Jews feel circumcision is paramount </li></ul><ul><li>Paul: If you undergo circumcision, you must follow the entire Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entire Law can’t be kept </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More important for Gentiles to do good things and have faith </li></ul>
  19. 19. Paul the Communicator <ul><li>Met with small groups of people in homes and later in churches </li></ul><ul><li>Did debate publicly with opponents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ bodily presence was weak and his speech contemptible” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paul admits that he isn't the greatest speaker </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main weapon was letter-writing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read at worship services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because his view on circumcision, his message was more appealing to audiences outside the Jewish tradition </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Letter to the Galatians <ul><li>Who were they? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pagan community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why is he writing them? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judaizers came in and also converted them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main idea of letter? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Spirit </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Defense of the Spirit <ul><li>Paul: Spirit is something you can’t really touch, but something you feel </li></ul><ul><li>Asks Galatians how they received the Spirit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By his teachings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uses Abraham again </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used his faith to receive the Spirit </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Letter to the Romans <ul><li>Planned to stop in Rome before heading to Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict between Jewish Christians and Gentiles </li></ul><ul><li>Wants them to love one another </li></ul><ul><li>Says he is speaking to the “Jew first” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews and Christians can coexist in a Christian world </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Letters to the Romans <ul><li>Opposed to idol worship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevalent in Rome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Warns about hypocrisy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from Jews who want them to follow the Law but don’t follow it themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Salvation & Transformation of believers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salvation: freed from sin through faith in Christ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believers: live under grace of God, read Scriptures and love everybody </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Paul vs. Judaism <ul><li>Is Paul anti-Jewish? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More concerned with Gentiles than Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Misrepresentation of his theology by others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Martin Luther </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Augustine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dual covenants theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews can reach righteousness through Torah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gentiles can reach it through faith </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Conclusion