Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Capstone Powerpoint

358 views

Published on

I created this presentation for my Religious Studies Seminar class. This PowerPoint goes along with the research paper I had to write.

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Capstone Powerpoint

  1. 1. From Persecutor to Prophet: How Paul’s Theology Shaped the Landscape for Christianity By Nikoholas Harris Religious Studies Capstone Seminar Fall 2011 Dr. Linda Penkower
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>New movement begins to take shape out of Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus is the leader of this movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preached at Galilee and Jerusalem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performed miracles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Because of Rome, Jesus is eventually crucified </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction cont. <ul><li>Paul (Saul) was one of the people opposed to this “Jesus Movement” </li></ul><ul><li>Later convert to this movement </li></ul><ul><li>What are the factors that he had to overcome? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Factors Paul had to overcome <ul><li>Didn’t have contact with Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>Former opponent of the movement </li></ul><ul><li>What is an Apostle? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone who had personal contact with Jesus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simon Peter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>James </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone who witnessed the Body of the Risen Christ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paul fits this second definition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>His letters to the Galatians & Romans </li></ul>
  5. 5. Split between Judaism and Christianity <ul><li>Not an overnight event </li></ul><ul><li>Few different factors that caused the split </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejection of Jesus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Council of Jerusalem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destruction of the Second Temple </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Rejection of Jesus <ul><li>Jesus shows up in Nazareth to preach </li></ul><ul><li>Crowd there rejects him </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“The Carpenter’s Son”, “Son of Mary”, “Brother of James, Joses, Simon and Judas” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought he was just another false prophet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ And he did not many mighty works there because of their disbelief.” (Matthew 13:58) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Council of Jerusalem <ul><li>Took place in 50 CE </li></ul><ul><li>Organized by members of Jesus movement </li></ul><ul><li>Gentiles didn’t need to abide by the Mosaic Law </li></ul><ul><li>Circumcision an important issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruled circumcision was a requirement </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Destruction of the Second Temple <ul><li>Some believed Jesus correctly predicted destruction of the temple </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ And Jesus said unto them, Seest thou those great buildings? There shall not be left one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down.” (Mark 13:2) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jews had their hands full with the Roman Empire </li></ul>
  9. 9. Early Christians <ul><li>“The Way” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made up of Jewish believers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Did not call themselves “Christians” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity didn’t exist yet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rome didn’t distinguish between the Way and rest of Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>Nero: Rome knew difference between Jews and early Christians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blamed them for Great Fire of Rome in 64 CE </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Saul the Pharisee <ul><li>Born a Pharisee in Tarsus </li></ul><ul><li>Tent-making family with Roman citizenship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unusual for people born outside of Rome at that time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hellenistic upbringing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knew Hebrew, Greek, and Aramaic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taught by Gamaliel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Held a position in the Sanhedrin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compassionate towards the early Christians </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Saul the Pharisee <ul><li>How much Judaism did Paul know? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some say “real” Judaism is Pharisaic and un-Greek </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judaism that Paul knows has too many Greek influences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why did Paul persecute these early Christians? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Felt they were a threat to the covenant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Didn’t want Rome to see Jewish communities as a threat to the empire </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Paul the Convert <ul><li>Road to Damascus circa 34 CE </li></ul><ul><li>Blinded by bright light </li></ul><ul><li>Hears voice asking why he’s persecuting him </li></ul><ul><li>Goes to Ananias, who restores his sight </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t convert to “Christianity” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No one uses this term at that time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Didn’t even think what he was teaching was a “new” religion </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Paul the Convert <ul><li>Never sheds his Jewish heritage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered himself a Jew throughout his life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter to Romans: born a Jew in Tarsus with Roman citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is he still Jewish? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes: Jew on the outside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theology he’s preaching has roots in Judaism </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Paul vs. his opponents <ul><li>Who were they? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judaizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other apostles: Peter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Followed him from place to place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to undo the “damage” Paul had done </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Paul vs. his opponents (the Apostles) <ul><li>Incident at Antioch </li></ul><ul><li>Paul’s upset that Peter won’t interact with Gentiles in front of other Jews </li></ul><ul><li>Peter and others say Gentiles are less important because they are uncircumcised </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paul’s friend Barnabas agrees </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Paul vs. his opponents (Judaizers) <ul><li>Jewish Christian sect in the 1 st century </li></ul><ul><li>Christian who adheres to the Mosaic Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circumcision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sabbath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passover </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Someone who converts to Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>Paul battles with this group in Galatians </li></ul>
  17. 17. Paul the Theologian <ul><li>Righteousness through faith </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses Abraham as an example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abraham & Sarah as parents to Israel and Gentile nations as well </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Law is a pacifier until Jesus came </li></ul><ul><li>Two ways to reach salvation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Converting to Judaism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not converting and relying on faith </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Paul the Theologian (Circumcision) <ul><li>Many Jews feel circumcision is paramount </li></ul><ul><li>Paul: If you undergo circumcision, you must follow the entire Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entire Law can’t be kept </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More important for Gentiles to do good things and have faith </li></ul>
  19. 19. Paul the Communicator <ul><li>Met with small groups of people in homes and later in churches </li></ul><ul><li>Did debate publicly with opponents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ bodily presence was weak and his speech contemptible” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paul admits that he isn't the greatest speaker </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main weapon was letter-writing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read at worship services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because his view on circumcision, his message was more appealing to audiences outside the Jewish tradition </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Letter to the Galatians <ul><li>Who were they? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pagan community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why is he writing them? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judaizers came in and also converted them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main idea of letter? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Spirit </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Defense of the Spirit <ul><li>Paul: Spirit is something you can’t really touch, but something you feel </li></ul><ul><li>Asks Galatians how they received the Spirit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By his teachings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uses Abraham again </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used his faith to receive the Spirit </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Letter to the Romans <ul><li>Planned to stop in Rome before heading to Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict between Jewish Christians and Gentiles </li></ul><ul><li>Wants them to love one another </li></ul><ul><li>Says he is speaking to the “Jew first” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews and Christians can coexist in a Christian world </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Letters to the Romans <ul><li>Opposed to idol worship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevalent in Rome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Warns about hypocrisy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from Jews who want them to follow the Law but don’t follow it themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Salvation & Transformation of believers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salvation: freed from sin through faith in Christ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believers: live under grace of God, read Scriptures and love everybody </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Paul vs. Judaism <ul><li>Is Paul anti-Jewish? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More concerned with Gentiles than Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Misrepresentation of his theology by others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Martin Luther </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Augustine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dual covenants theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews can reach righteousness through Torah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gentiles can reach it through faith </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Conclusion

×