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UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics

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UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics

  1. 1. U N I T E D N AT I O N S C O N F E R E N C E O N T R A D E A N D D E V E L O P M E N T CONFERENCE DES NATIONS UNIES SUR LE COMMERCE ET LE DÉVELOPPEMENT UNCTAD UNCTAD HANDBOOK OF STATISTICS STA MANUELDE STATISTIQUES STA DE LA CNUCED UNITED NATIONS NATIONS UNIES New York and Geneva New York et Genève
  2. 2. NOTESymbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letters combined with figures. Mention of such a symbol indicates areference to a United Nations document. General disclaimerThe designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoeveron the part of the secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, orconcerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.Where the designations “economy” or “country or area” appear in tables, they cover countries, territories, cities and areas.The designations “developing”, “transition” and “developed” are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express ajudgement about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process.Material in this publication may be freely quoted or reprinted, but acknowledgement is obligatory, together with a reference to thedocument number (TD/STAT.36). A copy of the publication containing the quotation or reprint should be sent to the UNCTAD secretariat. * * *La cote des documents de l’Organisation des Nations Unies se compose de lettres majuscules et de chiffres. La mention d’une telle coteindique qu’il est fait référence à un document de l’Organisation. Déni de responsabilitéLes appellations employées dans cette publication et la présentation des données qui y figurent n’impliquent, de la part du secrétariat del’Organisation des Nations Unies, aucune prise de position quant au statut juridique des pays, territoires, villes ou zones, ou de leursautorités, ni quant au tracé de leurs frontières ou limites.Les appellations «économie» ou «pays ou zone» figurant dans certaines rubriques des tableaux désignent des pays, des territoires, desvilles ou des zones.Les termes «en développement», «en transition» et «développés» sont utilisés pour plus de commodité dans la présentation desstatistiques et n’impliquent pas nécessairement un jugement quant au stade de développement atteint par un pays ou une zone donnée.Le contenu de la présente publication peut être cité ou reproduit sans autorisation, sous réserve qu’il soit fait mention de ladite publicationet de sa cote (TD/STAT.36) et qu’un justificatif soit adressé au secrétariat de la CNUCED. How to order the Handbook Comment commander le Manuel To order the print version of the Pour commander la version imprimée du UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics, please contact: Manuel de Statistiques de la CNUCED, veuillez vous adresser à : United Nations Publications Publications des Nations Unies 300East 42nd Street, Room IN-919 nd 300East 42 Street, Bureau IN-919 New York, NY 10017, USA New York, NY 10017, USA Telephone: 1-212-963-8302 Téléphone : 1-212-963-8302 Toll free: 1-800-253-9646 Numéro vert : 1-800-253-9646 Fax: 1-212-963-3489 Fax : 1-212-963-3489 Internet: https://unp.un.org Internet : https://unp.un.org TD/STAT. 36 UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION – PUBLICATION DES NATIONS UNIES Sales number / Numéro de vente : B.11.II.D.1 ISBN 978-92-1-112829-1 e-ISBN 978-92-1-054993-6 ISSN 0251-9461 Copyright © United Nations, 2011 All rights reserved ii
  3. 3. FOREWORD INTRODUCTIONThe UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics provides essential data Le but du Manuel de statistiques de la CNUCED est de fournirfor analysing and measuring world trade, investment, les données statistiques essentielles à l’analyse du commerceinternational financial flows and development. Reliable mondial, de l’investissement, des flux financiers internationaux etstatistical information is often considered as the first step du développement. Une information statistique fiable est souventduring the preparation of making recommendations or taking le préalable à la formulation de recommandations et à la prise dedecisions that countries will commit for many years as they décisions qui engageront les pays pour de longues années dansstrive to integrate into the world economy and improve the leur processus d’intégration dans l’économie mondiale etliving standards of their citizens. Whether it is for research, l’amélioration des conditions de leurs peuples. Que ce soit pourconsultation or technical cooperation, UNCTAD requires la recherche, la concertation ou la coopération technique, lacomparable, often detailed economic, demographic and social CNUCED a besoin de données économiques, démographiquesdata, over several decades and for as many countries as et sociales comparables et souvent détaillées, disponibles sipossible. possible sur plusieurs décennies et pour un maximum de pays. In addition to facilitating the work of the secretariat’s Au-delà de la mobilisation et de la vérification des données,economists, the UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics also du calcul d’indicateurs dérivés qui alimentent les travaux desenables other users, such as policymakers, research économistes du secrétariat, le Manuel de statistiques de laspecialists, academics, officials from national governments or CNUCED est l’occasion de partager une base statistique richeinternational organizations, executive managers or members of avec les décideurs et les chercheurs, qu’ils soient universitaires,nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) from developing, fonctionnaires d’administrations nationales ou d’organisationstransition or developed countries to have access to this rich internationales, cadres d’entreprises ou membres d’organisationsstatistical information. The Handbook further offers journalists non gouvernementales de pays en développement, en transitioncomprehensive information in a presentation that meets their ou développés. Les journalistes trouvent aussi dans ce manuelneeds. une information synthétique dans une présentation bien adaptée à leurs préoccupations. This publication is available in printed copy and DVD.Moreover, the underlying data of the Handbook are available Le Manuel est disponible en version imprimée et DVD. Lesonline at UNCTADstat (http://unctadstat.unctad.org). Unlike the données présentées dans le Manuel sont disponibles en ligne,Handbook which captures statistics at one point of time, dans UNCTADstat (http://unctadstat.unctad.org). À la différenceUNCTADstat is continuously updated, enriched and providing du Manuel qui présente des statistiques figées à un momentusers with the latest available data. In this regard, users should donné, UNCTADstat est actualisé et enrichi régulièrement pouruse caution when comparing data between the Handbook and mettre à la disposition des utilisateurs les données les plusUNCTADstat, as the date of update may differ. récentes. À cet égard, il est important de signaler que les données dUNCTADstat et du Manuel ne pourront être User should be aware that, in this edition, the scope and comparées systématiquement en raison de la différence de datedefinition of some country groups have changed compared to de leur mise à jour et de publication.previous edition of Handbook. In addition, the presentation oftables 7.3 and 7.4 Remittances and table 7.1 Current account La couverture et la définition des groupements présentésnet was improved by the addition of all countries and country dans cette nouvelle édition du Manuel ont changé. Cette année,groups. Furthermore, the following tables prior to this edition - la table des matières a également été revue. En effet, lestable 5.3 Tourism indicators, table 7.2 Balance of payments: indicateurs du tourisme, le sommaire des comptes de capital etcapital and financial account summaries and table 8.5 dopérations financières de la balance des paiements ainsi queDemographic indicators - are discontinued and no longer les indicateurs démographiques (tableaux 5.3, 7.2 et 8.5 desavailable. précédentes éditions) ont été retirés tandis que les tableaux de la balance du compte courant (7.1) et des envois de fonds des To provide better and more relevant statistics to users, you travailleurs (7.3 et 7.4 ) ont été améliorés grâce à la présentationare invited to fill up the feedback questionnaire on the last des données pour tous les pays et groupements de pays.page or you can send your comments directly tostatistics@unctad.org Pour mieux nous adapter aux besoins de nos utilisateurs et mettre à leur disposition des statistiques pertinentes, nous vous Particular acknowledgement is due to the Statistics Division invitons à remplir le questionnaire qui se trouve en fin deof the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United publication. Vous pouvez également nous faire part de vosNations, as well as to other international organizations, for its commentaires en nous écrivant à statistics@unctad.orghelp in preparing this publication. Le secrétariat de la CNUCED tient à remercier la Division de statistique du Département des affaires économiques et sociales de l’ONU et diverses organisations internationales du concours qu’elles ont apporté à la préparation de cette publication. iii
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE DES MATIÈRESNote .................................................................................................. ii Note ..................................................................................................... iiHow to order the Handbook ............................................................. ii Comment commander le manuel ........................................................ iiForeword ..........................................................................................iii Introduction......................................................................................... iiiTable of contents ............................................................................. iv Table des matières ............................................................................. ivExplanation of symbols ...................................................................vii Signification des symboles ................................................................ viiGeneral notes .................................................................................viii Notes générales .............................................................................. xxiiDistribution of countries and territories............................................ xi Répartition des pays et territoires.................................................... xxvDistribution by geographical region Répartition par régions géographiques- Developing economies .................................................................xii - Économies en développement .................................................... xxvi- Transition economies ..................................................................xiv - Économies en transition .............................................................xxviii- Developed economies.................................................................xiv - Économies développées ............................................................xxviiiDistribution of developing economies by economic Répartition des économies en développement par groupementsgrouping ......................................................................................... xv économiques .................................................................................. xxixDistribution of economies by trade group..................................... xviii Répartition des économies par groupements commerciaux ..........xxxiiDistribution of economies by interregional grouping ...................... xx Répartition des économies par groupements interrégionaux ........xxxivAbbreviations and acronyms ..........................................................xxi Abréviations et acronymes ............................................................ xxxvProduct classification for international trade............................... xxxvi Classification des produits pour le commerce international ..........xxxvi PART ONE PREMIÈRE PARTIE International merchandise trade Commerce international des marchandises1.1.1 Exports and imports of countries and geographical 1.1.1 Exportations et importations des pays et des régions regions géographiques - Value ................................................................................... 2 - Valeur ................................................................................. 2 - Share ................................................................................. 10 - Part................................................................................... 101.1.2 Exports and imports of economic groupings 1.1.2 Exportations et importations des groupements économiques - Value ................................................................................. 20 - Valeur ............................................................................... 20 - Share ................................................................................. 22 - Part................................................................................... 221.1.3 Exports and imports of trade groups 1.1.3 Exportations et importations des groupements commerciaux - Value ................................................................................. 24 - Valeur ............................................................................... 24 - Share ................................................................................. 26 - Part................................................................................... 261.2.1 Annual average growth rates of exports and imports 1.2.1 Taux d’évolution annuels moyens des exportations et of countries and geographical regions................................. 28 importations des pays et des régions géographiques ........ 281.2.2 Annual average growth rates of exports and imports 1.2.2 Taux d’évolution annuels moyens des exportations et of economic groupings......................................................... 38 importations des groupements économiques..................... 381.2.3 Annual average growth rates of exports and imports 1.2.3 Taux d’évolution annuels moyens des exportations et of trade groups..................................................................... 40 importations des groupements commerciaux.....................401.3.1 Value of trade balance, and as percentage of imports 1.3.1 Valeur de la balance commerciale et sa part dans les of countries and geographical regions................................. 42 importations des pays et des régions géographiques ........ 421.3.2 Value of trade balance, and as percentage of imports 1.3.2 Valeur de la balance commerciale et sa part dans les of economic groupings......................................................... 52 importations des groupements économiques..................... 521.4 Intra-trade of trade groups ................................................... 54 1.4 Commerce interne des groupements commerciaux........... 54 iv
  5. 5. TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE DES MATIÈRES PART TWO DEUXIÈME PARTIE International merchandise trade by region Commerce international des marchandises par régions2.1 Country trade structure by partner 2.1 Structure du commerce des pays par partenaires - Exports by main region of destination ............................... 58 - Exportations par principales régions de destination......... 58 - Imports by main region of origin ........................................ 70 - Importations par principales régions d’origine.................. 702.2 Export and import structure by partner and product 2.2 Structure des exportations et importations par partenaires group et groupes de produits A. World.............................................................................. 82 A. Monde........................................................................... 82 B. Developing economies .................................................. 86 B. Économies en développement ..................................... 86 C. Developing economies: Africa ....................................... 90 C. Économies en développement : Afrique....................... 90 D. Developing economies: America ................................... 94 D. Économies en développement : Amérique................... 94 E. Developing economies: Asia ......................................... 98 E. Économies en développement : Asie ........................... 98 F Developing economies: Eastern, Southern F. Économies en développement : Asie orientale and South-Eastern Asia............................................... 102 méridionale et du Sud-Est .......................................... 102 G. Developing economies: Western Asia ......................... 106 G. Économies en développement : Asie occidentale ...... 106 H. Developing economies: Oceania ................................. 110 H. Économies en développement : Océanie................... 110 I. Developing economies: Major petroleum and gas I. Économies en développement : principaux exporters ...................................................................... 114 exportateurs de pétrole et de gaz............................... 114 J. Developing economies: Major manufactured J. Économies en développement : principaux goods exporters ........................................................... 118 exportateurs d’articles manufacturés.......................... 118 K. Transition economies................................................... 122 K. Économies en transition.............................................. 122 L. Developed economies ................................................. 126 L. Économies développées............................................. 126 PART THREE TROISIÈME PARTIE International merchandise trade by product Commerce international des marchandises par produits3.1 Country trade structure by product group 3.1 Structure du commerce des pays par groupes de produits - Exports ............................................................................ 132 - Exportations ................................................................... 132 - Imports............................................................................. 145 - Importations.................................................................... 1453.2 Export structure by product 3.2 Structure des exportations par produits A. World............................................................................ 158 A. Monde......................................................................... 158 B. Developing economies ................................................ 163 B. Économies en développement ................................... 163 C. Developed economies ................................................. 168 C. Économies développées ............................................ 168 D. Individual countries and territories ............................... 173 D. Pays et territoires individuels...................................... 173 E. Major exporters for leading products among E. Principaux exportateurs de produits majeurs parmi developing economies ................................................. 195 les économies en développement .............................. 1953.3 Concentration and structural change indices of 3.3 Indices de concentration et de changement structurel product markets des marchés de produits - Exports ............................................................................ 204 - Exportations ................................................................... 204 - Imports............................................................................. 208 - Importations.................................................................... 208 PART FOUR QUATRIÈME PARTIE International merchandise trade indicators Indicateurs du commerce international des marchandises4.1.1 Export and import concentration and 4.1.1 Indices de concentration et de diversification des diversification indices of countries and exportations et importations des pays et des geographical regions ......................................................... 214 régions géographiques ..................................................... 2144.1.2 Export and import concentration and 4.1.2 Indices de concentration et de diversification des diversification indices of economic exportations et importations des groupements groupings ........................................................................... 224 économiques .................................................................... 2244.2.1 International merchandise trade indices of 4.2.1 Indices du commerce international des marchandises countries and geographical regions des pays et des régions géographiques - Volume indices of exports and imports ........................... 226 - Indices du volume des exportations et importations ...... 226 - Unit value indices of exports and - Indices de la valeur unitaire des exportations et imports ............................................................................. 234 importations .................................................................... 234 - Terms of trade indices and purchasing - Indices des termes de l’échange et du pouvoir power indices of exports .................................................. 242 d’achat des exportations ................................................ 2424.2.2 International merchandise trade indices of 4.2.2 Indices du commerce international des marchandises economic groupings des groupements économiques - Volume indices of exports and imports ........................... 250 - Indices du volume des exportations et importations ...... 250 - Unit value indices of exports and - Indices de la valeur unitaire des exportations et imports ............................................................................. 252 importations .................................................................... 252 - Terms of trade indices and purchasing - Indices des termes de l’échange et du pouvoir power indices of exports .................................................. 254 d’achat des exportations ................................................ 2544.3 Average applied import MFN tariff rates on 4.3 Droits de douane moyens NPF appliqués à l’importation non-agricultural and non-fuel products .............................. 256 des produits non-agricoles et non-pétroliers .................... 256 v
  6. 6. TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE DES MATIÈRES PART FIVE CINQUIÈME PARTIE International trade in services Commerce international des services5.1.1 Value of exports and imports of services of 5.1.1 Valeur des exportations et importations de services countries and geographical regions................................... 278 des pays et des régions géographiques........................... 2785.1.2 Value of exports and imports of services of 5.1.2 Valeur des exportations et importations de services economic groupings ......................................................... 286 des groupements économiques ........................................ 2865.1.3 Value of exports and imports of services of 5.1.3 Valeur des exportations et importations de services trade groups....................................................................... 288 des groupements commerciaux ........................................ 2885.2 Trade in services by category 5.2 Commerce des services par catégories - Leading exporters among developing - Principaux exportateurs parmi les économies en economies ....................................................................... 290 développement................................................................ 290 - Leading importers among developing - Principaux importateurs parmi les économies en economies ....................................................................... 294 développement................................................................ 2945.3 World merchant fleet by flag of registration and 5.3 Flotte marchande mondiale par pavillons d’immatriculation type of ship of countries and geographical et par types de navires des pays et des régions regions ............................................................................... 298 géographiques................................................................... 298 PART SIX SIXIÈME PARTIE Commodities Produits de base6.1 Annual and quarterly indices of free-market 6.1 Indices annuels et trimestriels des prix d’une prices of selected primary commodities............................. 314 sélection de produits de base sur le marché libre............. 3146.2 Instability indices and trends in free market 6.2 Indices d’instabilité et tendances des prix sur le prices for selected primary commodities ........................... 320 marché libre d’une sélection de produits de base............. 320 PART SEVEN SEPTIÈME PARTIE International finance Finance internationale7.1.1 Balance of payments: Current account net of countries 7.1.1 Balance des paiements : compte courant net des pays and geographical regions .................................................. 324 et des régions géographiques ........................................... 3247.1.2 Balance of payments: Current account net of economic 7.1.2 Balance des paiements : compte courant net des groupings ........................................................................... 332 groupements économiques ............................................... 3327.1.3 Balance of payments: Current account net of trade 7.1.3 Balance des paiements : compte courant net des groups................................................................................ 334 groupements commerciaux ............................................... 3347.2.1 Foreign direct investment: Inward and outward 7.2.1 Investissement étranger direct : flux entrants et flows of countries and geographical regions ..................... 336 sortants des pays et des régions géographiques.............. 3367.2.2 Foreign direct investment: Inward and outward 7.2.2 Investissement étranger direct : flux entrants et flows of economic groupings ............................................. 344 sortants des groupements économiques .......................... 3447.2.3 Foreign direct investment: Inward and outward 7.2.3 Investissement étranger direct : flux entrants et flows of trade groups ......................................................... 346 sortants des groupements commerciaux .......................... 3467.3.1 Migrants remittances: Receipts of countries and 7.3.1 Envois de fonds des migrants : recettes des pays et des geographical regions ......................................................... 348 régions géographiques...................................................... 3487.3.2 Migrants remittances: Receipts of economic 7.3.2 Envois de fonds des migrants : recettes des groupements groupings ........................................................................... 356 économiques ..................................................................... 3567.4.1 Migrants remittances: Payments of countries and 7.4.1 Envois de fonds des migrants : paiements des pays et des geographical regions ......................................................... 358 régions géographiques...................................................... 3587.4.2 Migrants remittances: Payments of economic 7.4.2 Envois de fonds des migrants : paiements des groupements groupings ........................................................................... 366 économiques ..................................................................... 3667.5.1 International reserves of developing economies 7.5.1 Réserves internationales des économies en by country and geographical region .................................. 368 développement par pays et régions géographiques ......... 3687.5.2 International reserves of developing economies 7.5.2 Réserves internationales des économies en by economic grouping........................................................ 374 développement par groupements économiques ............... 374 vi
  7. 7. TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE DES MATIÈRES7.6.1 Official financial flows from bilateral and multilateral 7.6.1. Flux financiers publics bilatéraux et multilatéraux sources by country and geographical region.................... 376 par pays et régions géographiques ................................... 3767.6.2 Official financial flows from bilateral and multilateral 7.6.2 Flux financiers publics bilatéraux et multilatéraux à sources to developing economies by economic destination des économies en développement par grouping ............................................................................ 391 groupements économiques ............................................... 3917.7 External long-term debt by lending source 7.7 Dette extérieure à long terme par catégories de prêt A. Developing economies ................................................ 395 A. Économies en développement ................................... 395 B. Developing economies: Africa ..................................... 396 B. Économies en développement : Afrique..................... 396 C. Developing economies: America ................................. 397 C. Économies en développement : Amérique................. 397 D. Developing economies: Asia ....................................... 398 D. Économies en développement : Asie ......................... 398 E. Developing economies: Oceania ................................. 399 E. Économies en développement : Océanie................... 399 F. Developing economies: Major petroleum and gas F. Économies en développement : principaux exporters ...................................................................... 400 exportateurs de pétrole et de gaz............................... 400 G. Developing economies: Major manufactured G. Économies en développement : principaux goods exporters ........................................................... 401 exportateurs d’articles manufacturés.......................... 401 PART EIGHT HUITIÈME PARTIE Development indicators Indicateurs du développement8.1.1 Nominal gross domestic product: Total and per capita 8.1.1 Produit intérieur brut nominal : total et par habitant of countries and geographical regions............................... 404 des pays et des régions géographiques ........................... 4048.1.2 Nominal gross domestic product: Total and per capita 8.1.2 Produit intérieur brut nominal : total et par habitant of economic groupings....................................................... 412 des groupements économiques ........................................ 4128.2.1 Annual average growth rates of total and per capita 8.2.1 Taux de croissance annuels moyens du produit real gross domestic product of countries and intérieur brut réel total et par habitant des pays geographical regions ......................................................... 414 et des régions géographiques ........................................... 4148.2.2 Annual average growth rates of total and per capita 8.2.2 Taux de croissance annuels moyens du produit real gross domestic product of intérieur brut réel total et par habitant des economic groupings........................................................... 422 groupements économiques ............................................... 4228.3.1 Nominal gross domestic product by type of 8.3.1 Produit intérieur brut nominal par catégories de expenditure and by kind of economic activity of dépenses et par branches d’activité économique countries and geographical regions................................... 424 des pays et des régions géographiques ........................... 4248.3.2 Nominal gross domestic product by type of 8.3.2 Produit intérieur brut nominal par catégories de expenditure and by kind of economic activity of dépenses et par branches d’activité économique economic groupings........................................................... 442 des groupements économiques ........................................ 4428.4.1 Population and labour force of countries and 8.4.1 Population et main-d’œuvre des pays et des geographical regions ......................................................... 446 régions géographiques...................................................... 4468.4.2 Population and labour force of economic 8.4.2 Population et main-d’œuvre des groupements groupings ........................................................................... 465 économiques ..................................................................... 465 EXPLANATION OF SYMBOLS SIGNIFICATION DES SYMBOLES0 Zero means that the amount is nil or negligible. 0 Un zéro signifie que le montant est nul ou négligeable._ The symbol underscore indicates that the item is not applicable _ Un tiret signifie que la rubrique est sans objet... Two dots indicate that the data are not available or are .. Deux points signifient que les données ne sont pas not separately reported. disponibles ou ne sont pas communiquées séparément.- The use of a hyphen on data area means that data is estimated - Le trait d’union dans le champ des données indique que and included in the aggregation but not to be shown. A hyphen le chiffre est estimé et inclus dans lagrégation mais nest between years (e.g. 1985-1990) signifies the full period involved, pas publié. Le trait dunion entre deux millésimes (par exemple including the initial and final years. 1985-1990) indique qu’il s’agit de la période tout entière, y compris la première et la dernière année mentionnées.(b) Break in the series (b) Interruption de la série(e) Estimate (e) Estimation(f) Forecast (f) Prévision(p) Provisional data (p) Donnée provisoire(r) Revised data (r) Donnée réviséeSome exceptions are indicated in footnotes. Les exceptions sont indiquées dans les notes en bas de page. vii
  8. 8. GENERAL NOTESThese notes summarize the content of each part of the PART THREEHandbook according to the revised Table of Contents of the International merchandise trade by productpresent issue of the Handbook of Statistics. Table 3.1 shows the export and import structure of individual The tables included in this book represent analytical economies by commodity groups for selected years for ninesummaries of the full time series contained in the UNCTAD commodity groups (total, all food items, agricultural rawHandbook of Statistics 2011 on DVD. materials, fuels, ores and metals, manufactured goods, including chemical products, machinery and transport equipment and other manufactured goods). PART ONE Table 3.2 (A, B and C, respectively) presents the structure International merchandise trade of exports for the world, for developing and developedTable 1.1 shows the value of total exports (f.o.b.) and imports economies, by product, at the SITC group (Revision 3, 3-digit)(c.i.f.), expressed in millions of dollars and percentages of the level. Each product share of world exports is calculated for eachworld total, of individual countries and geographical regions economic grouping as well as the average annual growth rate(1.1.1), economic groupings (1.1.2), and trade groups (1.1.3). and the latter’s deviation in relation to the world growth rate.The trade flows shown in table 1.1.1 refer to the General Trade Table 3.2D establishes for each economy the list of mainSystem except for the countries which employ the Special products exported (SITC group, Revision 3, 3-digit level). EachTrade System and which are marked with an asterisk. The product’s share of total exports of individual countries,General Trade System is used when the statistical territory of a geographical regions and the world is also indicated.compiling country coincides with its economic territory. Table 3.2E lists major exporters of 70 leading productsConsequently, imports include all goods entering the economic among developing economies at the SITC group (Revision 3,territory of a compiling country and exports include all goods 3-digit) level as well as corresponding shares in world trade.leaving the economic territory of the compiling country. The Table 3.3 provides concentration indices and structuralSpecial Trade System is used when the statistical territory change indices for exports and imports by product group atcomprises only a particular part of the economic territory within SITC (Revision 3, 3-digit) level. The first indicator shows how awhich “goods may be disposed of without customs restriction”. product market is concentrated in a few countries orIn such a case, imports include all goods entering the free homogeneously distributed among several countries. Thecirculation area of the compiling country, which means cleared structural change indicator shows whether the market share forthrough customs for home use, and exports include all goods a given product among export countries has changedleaving the free circulation area of a compiling country. significantly when compared with a reference year. Average annual growth rates of international trade derived Totals of international merchandise trade presented in thefrom table 1.1 are presented in table 1.2. tables of this third part may also differ from the data contained Table 1.3 contains trade balances (exports f.o.b. minus in the first and second parts for the above reasons, to whichimports c.i.f.) and these balances, as a percentage of imports of must be added margins of exports and imports not distributedindividual countries, geographical regions and economic by commodity group or the use of different productgroupings. nomenclatures by the exporting and importing countries. Table 1.4 shows the relative importance of trade amonggroup members as compared to the regional or total trade ofthat group. PART FOUR International merchandise trade indicators Table 4.1 includes calculation results of concentration and PART TWO diversification indices for individual countries, geographical International merchandise trade by region regions and economic groupings. This concentration indexTable 2.1 shows the export and import structure of individual specifically shows how exports and imports of individualcountries by main regions of origin and destination. Data are countries or country groupings are concentrated on severalpresented for as many individual countries as possible, while products or otherwise distributed in a more homogeneoustrade partners are grouped in 14 major clusters. manner among a series of products. The diversification Table 2.2 (A to L) presents the structure of exports by indicator signals whether the structure of exports or imports bydestination and imports by origin by major commodity groups product of a given country or country grouping differs from thefor 12 selected country groups. The table provides detailed structure by product shown for the world.information on the world trade network for 19 regions of origin Table 4.2 contains volume indices of exports and imports,and destination and six commodity groups. rounding out trade value available in tables 1.1 and 1.2, unitTotals of international merchandise trade presented in the value indices of exports and imports and derived terms of tradetables found in parts one and two are not strictly comparable and purchasing power of exports presented at the level ofdue to complementary but different sources and remaining individual countries and geographical regions (4.2.1) andunallocated trade flows, despite efforts to distribute trade flows economic groupings (4.2.2).by destination, origin and commodity group. To improve data coverage, especially for the latest periods, theExports by destination may differ considerably in some cases following procedure was used in the calculation of unit valuefrom data on imports as reported by countries of destination for indices:a variety of factors, among which the following may be of - A set of average prices indices at SITC (Revision 3, 3-digit)particular importance: group level was constructed using UNCTADstat Commodity- Most import data are reported on a c.i.f. rather than an f.o.b. Price Statistics, international and national sources andbasis; UNCTAD secretariat estimates;- There is a time lag between the date on which goods are - At the country level, unit value indices were calculated usingrecorded as exports and their arrival at their destination; current year’s trade values as weights at the SITC (Revision 3,- There may be considerable differences between the recorded 3-digit) level. Trade values are available in table 3.2.destination of exports and the actual destination as shown in In some instances these indices may differ from the estimatesimport statistics. published in official sources, since the main aim is to provide tentative estimates for most developing countries on a comparable basis. Table 4.3 presents average applied import MFN tariff rates for major categories of non-agricultural and non-fuel products by individual markets. viii
  9. 9. GENERAL NOTES PART FIVE PART SEVEN International trade in services International financeTables 5.1.1, 5.1.2 and 5.1.3 present the value of total trade in Tables 7.1.1, 7.1.2 and 7.1.3 present values of the currentservices by individual country, geographical region, economic account net in millions of dollars and as percentages of GDP forgrouping and trade group. The tables show values of exports individual countries, geographical regions, and trade and(credits) and imports (debits) of services that were derived from economic groupings. Balance-of-payments current accountstatistics on international service transactions as presented in data cover all transactions between residents and non-residentsthe International Monetary Fund’s (IMF’s) Balance of Payments of a reporting economy. In general, the current account balanceStatistics. Services are defined as the economic output of describes the difference between current receipts andintangible commodities that may be produced, transferred and expenditures for internationally traded goods, services andconsumed at the same time. However, services cover a income payments. At the same time, from a nationalheterogeneous range of intangible products and activities that perspective, the current account balance would equal the gapare difficult to capture within a single definition and are between national savings and domestic investment.sometimes hard to separate from goods. Services are outputs Tables 7.2.1, 7.2.2 and 7.2.3 contain information on foreignproduced to order, and they typically include changes in the direct investment (FDI) inflows and outflows by individualcondition of the consumers realized through the activities of the country, geographical region, economic grouping and tradeproducers at the demand of customers. By the time production group. These figures correspond to the Statistical Annexes ofof a service is completed, it must have been provided to a the UNCTAD World Investment Report 2011. FDI is defined asconsumer. an investment involving a long-term relationship and reflecting aServices figures shown here comprise 11 principal services lasting interest in and control by a resident entity in onecategories according to the concepts and definitions of the IMF economy (foreign direct investor or parent enterprise) of anBalance of Payments Manual (BPM5, 1993). These categories enterprise resident in a different economy (FDI enterprise orcover transport; travel; communications; construction; affiliate enterprise or foreign affiliate). Such investment involvesinsurance; financial services; computer and information both the initial transaction between the two entities and allservices; royalties and license fees; other business services; subsequent transactions between them and among foreignpersonal, cultural and recreational services; and government affiliates. A direct investment enterprise is defined as anservices n.i.e. Given the general difficulties involved in incorporated or unincorporated enterprise in which the directstatistically capturing certain aspects of the trade in services, investor, resident in another economy, owns 10 percent or morethe balance-of-payments figures presented here may be of the ordinary shares or voting power (or the equivalent).somewhat downward-biased as compared with the actual value Tables 7.3.1 and 7.3.2 present values of receipts (credits) ofof the international trade in services. The aggregate data from total migrants’ remittances, in millions of dollars, for individualtables 5.1 include the UNCTAD secretariat’s estimates of economies and regional and economic groupings. They alsomissing values that are not shown separately. show total remittances receipts as percentage of GDP and Table 5.2 indicates 20 major exporters and importers, international trade. The Balance of Payments Manual (BPM5,among developing economies, for each of the 10 principal 1993) classifies workers’ remittances, compensation ofservices sectors as defined in the IMF Balance of Payments employees and migrants’ transfers separately. In this table,Manual (BPM5, 1993), which are transport; travel; their sum is given in order to present a clearer picture of thecommunication; construction; computer and information flows that enter economies via transactions by migrants andservices; insurance; financial services; royalties and licence temporary or cross-border workers. BPM5 defines workers’fees; other business services; and personal, cultural and remittances as goods and financial instruments transferred byrecreational services. Government services n.i.e. are not migrants living and working (being residents) in a new economyincluded. to residents of the economy in which the migrants formerly Table 5.3 concerns international maritime transport. It resided. A migrant must live and work in the new economy forcontains data on the world merchant fleet by flag of registration more than one year to be considered a resident there.and by type of ship by region and economy, highlighting the Compensation of employees includes wages, salaries and othergroup of major open-registry countries. A ship owner who benefits, in cash or in kind, earned by individuals – inregisters his or her vessel in an open-registry country does not economies where they are not residents – for work performedneed to have any connection with a country of registry. The for residents of those economies. It covers seasonal and othernumber of open-registry countries has varied over the years. short-term workers and border workers. Migrants’ transfersThe group in this table includes 10 countries. Table 5.3 contains cover flows of goods and changes in financial items that ariseconsolidated time series from various issues of the UNCTAD from migration (change of residence for at least one year).Review of Maritime Transport. The Review reports on the Tables 7.4.1 and 7.4.2 include data on payments (debits) ofworldwide evolution of shipping, ports and multimodal transport total migrants’ remittances, based on the same approach usedrelated to the major traffics of liquid bulk, dry bulk and for tables 7.3.1 and 7.3.2.containers. Tables 7.5.1 and 7.5.2 present statistics on total international reserves (including gold) of developing countries by country, region and economic grouping, in millions of dollars. Other calculations included show months of imports that these PART SIX reserves could finance at current import levels, as well as the Commodities annual change in total reserves. According to the IMF definition,Table 6.1 includes aggregated price indices for primary international reserves consist of the sum of the country’s foreigncommodity groups such as food, tropical beverages, vegetable exchange, its reserve position in the IMF, the monetary goldoilseeds and oils, agricultural raw materials and minerals, ores reserves, and the United States dollar value of SDR holdings byand metals, as well as an all groups price index in current its monetary authorities.United States dollars. Also included are the annual and Tables 7.6 give a summary of official financial flows by typequarterly free-market price indices for selected commodities of flow, country, region and economic grouping. Flows fromexported by developing economies. The weight of price indices bilateral and multilateral sources are shown, as recorded by thefor the above mentioned commodity groups (2000=100) are Organization for Economic Cooperation and Developmentbased on the value of exports of developing countries from (OECD) Development Assistance Committee (DAC).1999 to 2001. Tables 7.7 present time series on the external long-term Table 6.2 presents instability indices and trends in free- indebtedness of developing economies. They also provide amarket prices for selected primary commodities that are of detailed breakdown of public and publicly guaranteed debt byparticular interest to developing economies. source of lending. External debt data in this table are based on the Debtor Reporting System (DRS) maintained by the World Bank. ix
  10. 10. GENERAL NOTES PART EIGHT OTHER NOTES Development indicatorsTable 8.1 provides information on total and per capita nominal Unless otherwise specified, country aggregates are the sums ofgross domestic product (GDP) (in United States dollars) by the relevant country data by group. Calculations of aggregatesindividual country, geographical region and economic grouping. may in some cases include data estimated by the UNCTADThe GDP figures in dollars are derived from GDP data provided secretariat that are not necessarily all reported separately.in national currencies. The prevailing annual average market Because of rounding, details and percentages in tables doexchange rates, as reported by IMF, have been used for the not necessarily add up to totals.conversion from national currencies to dollars. Data were collected and checked to ensure that they matched the geographical coverage of the countries, as Table 8.2 contains annual average growth rates of total and described at the beginning of the Handbook. However, someper capita real GDP by individual country, geographical region gaps could not be avoided due to data unavailability and areand economic grouping. The growth rates are based on GDP in described in the notes at the end tables.United States dollars at constant 2005 prices. Unless otherwise stated, dollars ($) refer to United States Table 8.3 provides data on GDP by type of expenditure and dollars and data in dollars are expressed in current Unitedkind of economic activity by country, geographical region and States dollars of the year to which they refer.economic grouping. Average annual growth rates are defined as the coefficient b bt Tables 8.4.1 and 8.4.2 provide some estimates on in the exponential trend function y = ae where t stands for time.population and labour force: total population, urban population This method takes all observations in a period into account.(as a percentage of total population), total labour force, female Therefore, the resulting growth rates reflect trends that are notlabour force (as a percentage of total labour force), total unduly influenced by exceptional values.agriculture labour force and female labour force (as apercentage of total agriculture labour force). The figures forcertain groups may be different from those published by thesources cited when the UNCTAD definitions for those groupsare different. x
  11. 11. DISTRIBUTION OF COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIESThe country distributions presented are for statistical 2. Economic groupings of developing countriesconvenience only and follow those used by the StatisticsDivision, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), of The Handbook provides numerous and varied groups ofthe United Nations. They are grouped by economic criteria or by countries and territories in order to provide easy access to theadhesion to commercial agreements for the purpose of statistical statistics necessary for socio-economic analysis andanalysis and research. development research. The term “economies”, as used in this publication, refers to Developing economies are presented at three levels ofregions, countries and territories. aggregation: the total group, the group excluding China (referring to continental China) and the group excluding the least Country-level data are included where statistics have been developed countries.reported or where it was possible to make an estimate. The category of heavily indebted poor countries includes The composition of country and product groups is evolving in those economies benefiting from the HIPC debt reductionorder to provide relevant statistics for research and analysis. In initiative of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.this regard, UNCTAD reviews and updates the definition andcomposition of groups every year. User should be aware that the LDCs and landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) arechanges may impact significantly the figures from one given recognized by the United Nations as categories that requirerelease to the other. The detailed changes in the groups are special attention from the international community.thoroughly outlined in the section Classifications at UNCTADstatwebsite. Since 1994, the United Nations has recognized the particular problems of the Small Island Developing States (SIDS), even 1. Geographical regions though the criteria for drawing up an official list of SIDS have not yet been determined. The unofficial list is used by UNCTAD forThere is no established convention for the designation of analytical purposes only."developed" and "developing" countries or areas in the UnitedNations system. In common practice, Israel and Japan in Asia, The developing economies are also categorized into threeBermuda, Canada, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, and the subgroups according to their average 2004-2006 per capitaUnited States in North America, Australia and New Zealand in GDP: high-income (above $4,500), middle-income (betweenOceania, and Europe are considered "developed" regions or $1,000 and $4,500) and low-income (below $1,000).areas. This section includes all countries and territories dividedinto three major categories: developing countries, transition The group of major petroleum and gas exporters consists ofeconomies and developed economies. Each category is further countries whose share of petroleum and gas (SITC code 33 plusdivided by geographical regions. 34) was not less than 50 per cent of their total exports, and whose exports of these products amounted to at least one per1) Developing economies: cent of petroleum and gas world share for the period 2004–This category includes countries and territories in America, 2006. This group is divided into three geographical zones:Africa, Asia and Oceania not specified below. The geographical Africa, America and Asia.regions are further subdivided into subregions in order to presentmore detailed statistics. Exceptions are specified in table The group of major manufactured goods exporters consistsfootnotes. of economies whose share of manufactured products (SITC 5 to 8, excluding 667 and 68) was not less than 50 per cent of their2) Transition economies total exports, and whose exports of these products amounted toThis group includes countries in transition from centrally planned at least one per cent of manufactured goods world share for theto market economies. period 2004–2006.The group comprises countries in America and Asia.3) Developed economies:This category is subdivided into four geographical regions: The composition of the groups of emerging economies (inAmerica, Asia, Europe and Oceania. America and Asia) and newly industrialized Asian economies (composed of first and second tier) corresponds to UNCTAD’sWorld’ total represents the sum of the figures of the three above- Trade and Development Report.mentioned groups plus the figures of a group of territories andpartners not elsewhere classified, whose composition is detailed The different geographical regions are also presented atbelow. Data of these territories are included in the world total if various levels of aggregation:they have been reported but are not presented individually or inany group, either by geography, economy or trade. - Africa: Northern Africa excluding Sudan, sub-Saharan Africa, including Sudan, including and excluding South Africa.The composition of the group "not elsewhere classified" is as - America: Central America and Greater Caribbean Islandsfollows: excluding Puerto Rico, including and excluding Mexico, South- Territories: Antarctica, Bouvet Island, British Antarctic Territory, America and Central America, and South America excludingBritish Indian Ocean Territory, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Brazil.Islands, French Southern Territories, Heard and McDonaldIslands, Norfolk Island, Pitcairn, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Martin - Asia: Eastern and South-Eastern Asia excluding China, and(French part), South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands, Southern Asia excluding India.United States Minor Outlying Islands, and United StatesMiscellaneous Pacific Islands. 3. Trade groups and interregional groupings- Partners: "Confidential information and differences", "Neutralzone", "Free zones", "Bunkers", and "Ship stores". These Statistics of trade groups with special analytic interest arespecific partners are only used in the merchandise trade tables. presented according to their pertinence. These groupings include all relevant economies and are subclassified by The total of each group presented in the Handbook is also geographical regions, with the exception of followingcompleted, should the case arise, with data that have not been interregional groups: African, Caribbean and Pacific Group ofallocated to the different elements composing the group. States; Asia–Pacific Economic Cooperation; Black Sea Economic Cooperation; and Commonwealth of Independent States. Two groups have been added in this edition: the East African Community and the Organization of American States. xi
  12. 12. DISTRIBUTION BY GEOGRAPHICAL REGION DEVELOPING ECONOMIES AFRICAEastern AfricaBurundi Malawi UgandaComoros Mauritius United Republic of TanzaniaDjibouti Mayotte ZambiaEritrea Mozambique ZimbabweEthiopia RwandaKenya SeychellesMadagascar SomaliaMiddle AfricaAngola Congo Sao Tome and PrincipeCameroon Democratic Republic of the CongoCentral African Republic Equatorial GuineaChad GabonNorthern AfricaAlgeria Morocco Western SaharaEgypt SudanLibyan Arab Jamahiriya TunisiaSouthern AfricaBotswana Namibia SwazilandLesotho South AfricaWestern AfricaBenin Guinea NigeriaBurkina Faso Guinea-Bissau Saint HelenaCape Verde Liberia SenegalCôte d’Ivoire Mali Sierra LeoneGambia Mauritania TogoGhana Niger AMERICACaribbean islandsGreater Caribbean Small Caribbean islandsCuba Anguilla GrenadaDominican Republic Antigua and Barbuda MontserratHaiti Aruba Netherlands AntillesJamaica Bahamas Saint Kitts and Nevis Barbados Saint Lucia British Virgin Islands Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Cayman Islands Trinidad and Tobago Dominica Turks and Caicos IslandsCentral AmericaBelize Guatemala NicaraguaCosta Rica Honduras PanamaEl Salvador MexicoSouth AmericaArgentina Ecuador SurinameBolivia (Plurinational State of) Falkland Islands (Malvinas) UruguayBrazil Guyana Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)Chile ParaguayColombia Peru xii
  13. 13. DISTRIBUTION BY GEOGRAPHICAL REGION DEVELOPING ECONOMIES (concluded) ASIAEastern AsiaChina Macao, Special AdministrativeDemocratic People’s Republic Region of China of Korea MongoliaHong Kong, Special Administrative Republic of Korea Region of China Taiwan Province of ChinaSouthern AsiaAfghanistan India NepalBangladesh Iran (Islamic Republic of) PakistanBhutan Maldives Sri LankaSouth-Eastern AsiaBrunei Darussalam Malaysia ThailandCambodia Myanmar Timor-LesteIndonesia Philippines Viet NamLao People’s Democratic Republic SingaporeWestern AsiaBahrain Occupied Palestinian territory TurkeyIraq Oman United Arab EmiratesJordan Qatar YemenKuwait Saudi ArabiaLebanon Syrian Arab Republic OCEANIAAmerican Samoa Micronesia (Federated States of) SamoaCook Islands Nauru Solomon IslandsFiji New Caledonia TokelauFrench Polynesia Niue TongaGuam Northern Mariana Islands TuvaluKiribati Palau VanuatuMarshall Islands Papua New Guinea Wallis and Futuna Islands xiii
  14. 14. DISTRIBUTION BY GEOGRAPHICAL REGION TRANSITION ECONOMIESAlbania Kyrgyzstan TurkmenistanArmenia Montenegro UkraineAzerbaijan Republic of Moldova UzbekistanBelarus Russian FederationBosnia and Herzegovina SerbiaCroatia TajikistanGeorgia The former Yugoslav RepublicKazakhstan of Macedonia DEVELOPED ECONOMIES AMERICABermuda United States of AmericaCanada including Puerto Rico andGreenland United States Virgin IslandsSaint Pierre and Miquelon ASIAIsraelJapan EUROPEAndorra Gibraltar PolandAustria Greece PortugalBelgium Holy See RomaniaBulgaria Hungary San MarinoCyprus Iceland SlovakiaCzech Republic Ireland SloveniaDenmark Italy SpainEstonia Latvia SwedenFaeroe Islands Lithuania Switzerland including LiechtensteinFinland including Åland Islands Luxembourg United Kingdom of Great Britain andFrance including French Guyana, Malta Northern Ireland including Channel Guadeloupe, Martinique, Netherlands Islands and Isle of Man Monaco and Réunion Norway including SvalbardGermany and Jan Mayen OCEANIAAustraliaNew Zealand xiv
  15. 15. DISTRIBUTION OF DEVELOPING ECONOMIES BY ECONOMIC GROUPINGHeavily indebted poor countries (40)Afghanistan Gambia NicaraguaBenin Ghana NigerBolivia (Plurinational State of) Guinea RwandaBurkina Faso Guinea-Bissau Sao Tome and PrincipeBurundi Guyana SenegalCameroon Haiti Sierra LeoneCentral African Republic Honduras SomaliaChad Kyrgyzstan SudanComoros Liberia TogoCongo Madagascar UgandaCôte d’Ivoire Malawi United Republic of TanzaniaDemocratic Republic of the Congo Mali ZambiaEritrea MauritaniaEthiopia MozambiqueLandlocked developing countries (31)Afghanistan Kazakhstan* RwandaArmenia* Kyrgyzstan* SwazilandAzerbaijan* Lao People’s Democratic Republic Tajikistan*Bhutan Lesotho The former Yugoslav RepublicBolivia (Plurinational State of) Malawi of Macedonia*Botswana Mali Turkmenistan*Burkina Faso Mongolia UgandaBurundi Nepal Uzbekistan*Central African Republic Niger ZambiaChad Paraguay ZimbabweEthiopia Republic of Moldova** These countries are classified as economies in transition (neither developed nor developing). However, as they are landlocked States, they are also members of this group.Small island developing States (29)Antigua and Barbuda Maldives SamoaBahamas Marshall Islands Sao Tome and PrincipeBarbados Mauritius SeychellesCape Verde Micronesia (Federated States of) Solomon IslandsComoros Nauru Timor-LesteDominica Palau TongaFiji Papua New Guinea Trinidad and TobagoGrenada Saint Kitts and Nevis TuvaluJamaica Saint Lucia VanuatuKiribati Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesLeast developed countries (48) Year of inclusion in the group Year of inclusion in the group Year of inclusion in the groupAfrica and Haiti AsiaAngola 1994 Malawi 1971 Afghanistan 1971Benin 1971 Mali 1971 Bangladesh 1975Burkina Faso 1971 Mauritania 1986 Bhutan 1971Burundi 1971 Mozambique 1988 Cambodia 1991Central African Republic 1975 Niger 1971 Lao People’s Democratic Republic 1971Chad 1971 Rwanda 1971 Myanmar 1987Democratic Republic of the Congo 1991 Senegal 2000 Nepal 1971Djibouti 1982 Sierra Leone 1982 Yemen 1971Equatorial Guinea 1982 Somalia 1971Eritrea 1994 Sudan 1971 IslandsEthiopia 1971 Togo 1982 Comoros 1977Gambia 1975 Uganda 1971 Kiribati 1986Guinea 1971 United Republic of Tanzania 1971 Samoa 1971Guinea-Bissau 1981 Zambia 1991 Sao Tome and Principe 1982Haiti 1971 Solomon Islands 1991Lesotho 1971 Timor-Leste 2003Liberia 1990 Tuvalu 1986Madagascar 1991 Vanuatu 1985 xv

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