Imperialism: The desire to build overseas empires The takeover of a country or territory by a strongernation with the intent of dominating the political, economic,and social life of the people of that nation.• Following the Industrial Revolution, European nations wanted to control lands that had raw materials they needed for their industrial economies. They wanted to open up markets for the goods they made. Nationalism fed the drive for the empires as well.
Pre-colonial Africa1. Hundreds of ethnic/linguistic groups (1000 +languages)2. Traditional beliefs- polytheistic3. Nomadic tribes4. Strong tradition of oral history
Pre-colonial AfricaAs of 1880, Europe only controlled 10% of the land 1. Travel was virtually impossible before steam powered river boats 2. African Armies and trade networks kept Europeans out **Only explorers, missionaries, and humanitarians made it into the interior
Reasons for imperialismEconomic Industrial Revolution creates demand for raw materials and markets to sell industrial products Nationalism colonialism equals measure of national greatness Racism Social Darwinism – survival of the fittest applied to social change - fittest have wealth and power superiority - non-Europeans lacked technology due to inferiority - White Man’s Burden-- it is their right and duty to bring “progress” to othercountries Spread Christianity--missionaries must “civilize” and Westernize non- Christians
Factors that allowed Europeans to take over:1. TECHNOLOGY – Steam engines, Rail Road, Telegraphs – Machine Guns – Discovery of quinine gave doctors a weapon against malaria (diseases)2. AFRICA LACKED STRONG UNITY - many distinct tribes couldn’t unite to fight against Europeans
Berlin Conference: “Scramble for Africa”Berlin Conference—14 European powers met in Berlin between 1884-1885- No Africans were presentThey decided that… --a nation could claim a territory as long as they told the people and showed that they had control.
Results of Berlin Conference• Divides continent without consideration of African cultural distribution• Transforms African ways of life-- By 1914 only Liberia and Ethiopia remained free.
Colonial Control Took Many Forms• Colony—a country or region was governed by a foreign power• Protectorate—the people were allowed their own government, but the government was under the control of the foreign power.• Sphere of influence—an area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges• Economic Imperialism—controlled by a large company or corporation
Methods of Imperial Control Imperialist powers used 2 main approaches to run a colony• Indirect Control • Direct Control – Local rulers had power – Feeling that native peoples over day to day matters. could not handle the There were also Councils complex business of of native peoples and running a country, the government officials. The European power governed goal was to develop future directly. leaders
African Resistance• There was broad resistance to imperialism, but Europeans had superior weapons and usually crushed rebellion.• There were unsuccessful movements in Algeria, West Africa, and German East Africa, which resulted in about 75,000 deaths and famine.
Ethiopia: A Successful Resistance• Menelik II, -- emperor of Ethiopia in 1889, successfully resisted Europeans• He played Europeans against each other• stockpiled arsenal of modern weapons• defeated Italy, and remained independent
African Independence• It wasn’t until the years following World War II that most African nations gained their independence.• Independence brought many new conflicts and challenges to the “new” African countries.
The Effects of Colonial Rule:Benefits from Colonial Rule: • Negative Effects froma. technology, medicine, railroads, colonial rule: roads, dams a. Traditional African societyb. Reduced local conflict was destroyed. b. Political boundaries paid no attention to ethnic divisions. c. Many Africans lost lives and independence The Division of Africa created problems that continue today...