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Industrial revolution


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Industrial revolution

  1. 1. The Industrial Revolution
  2. 2. • There was a shift from goods made by hand to factory and mass production • Technological innovations brought production from farmhouse to factories – Invented in Britain in 1750; smuggled to U.S. – Beginning of the US Factory System • US slow to embrace factory system – Scarce labor – Little capital – Superiority of British factories
  3. 3. •Built first textile mill in 1793 in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. •Born in England on June 9, 1768 and Samuel Slater was worked in British factories. the "Father of the American Factory •Slater came to US to make his fortune in System." the textile industry. •Slatersville Mill was the largest and most modern industrial cotton mill of its day
  4. 4. The Lowell Mills Francis C Lowell came to the US to build British factories & met up with Boston mechanic, Paul Moody h Together they improved the mill and invented a power loom that revolutionized textile manufacturing
  5. 5. The Lowell System Lowell, Massachusetts, 1832 Hired young New England farm girls They were supervised on and off the job Worked 6 days a week, 13 hours a day Escorted to church on Sunday
  6. 6. Women & the Economy 1850: 10% of white women were working for pay outside home h Vast majority of working women were single h Left paying jobs upon marriage Idea of “Cult of domesticity” develops h This is a new concept of the perfect women: homemaker Jobs outside of the home empowered married women h Increased power & independence of women in the home usually led to a decline in family size
  7. 7. Workers & Wage Slaves Long hours, low wages, unsanitary conditions, lack of heat, etc. h Labor unions illegal 1820: 1/2 of industrial workers were children under 10
  8. 8. Workers & Wage Slaves 1820s & 1830s: Loyalty to Democratic party led to improved conditions h Fought for 10-hour day, higher wages, better conditions 1830s & 1840s: Dozens of strikes for higher wages or 10-hour day h 1837 depression hurt union membership
  9. 9. •1830s, Industrialization grew throughout the North… •Southern cotton shipped to Northern textile mills was a good working relationship.
  10. 10. Resourcefulness & Experimentation  Americans were willing to try anything.  They were first copiers, then innovators. 1800 ---> 41 patents approved 1860 ---> 4,357 patents approved
  11. 11. The invention which changed the South, cotton and slavery. •Eli Whitney’s cotton gin revolutionized the cotton industry. •He is also noted for the concept of mass production and interchangeable parts by creating dyes for pistols and rifles. •Very important early pioneer in America’s industrial revolution. Cotton Production
  12. 12. W hitney Ends the Fiber Famine Cotton gin invented in 1793 h 50 times more effective than hand picking Raising cotton more profitable h South needs slavery more than ever for “King Cotton” New England factories flourish with Southern cotton
  13. 13. 1807, Fulton's Clermont, was the first commercially successful and reliable steamboat. Steam boat would revolutionize water travel. The steamboat was often the only mechanical means of river travel and freight transportation from 1808 through 1930.
  14. 14. John Deere & the Steel Plow
  15. 15. Cyrus McCormick & the Mechanical Reaper
  16. 16. Samuel F. B. Morse 1840 – Telegraph “WHAT GOD HATH WROUGHT”
  17. 17. Cyrus Field & the Transatlantic Cable, 1858
  18. 18. Elias Howe & Isaac Singer 1840s Sewing Machine Perfected by Singer Gave boost to northern industry Became foundation for ready-made clothing industry Led many women into factories
  19. 19. From left to right: Eli Whitney (cotton gin, interchangeable parts), Robert Fulton (steam boat), Thomas Edison (light bulb), Cyrus McCormick (reaper), Richard Hoe (automatic printing press)
  20. 20. american The inventions combined with greater transportation encourage economic growth Protective tariff of 1816 (allows US factories to grow) Americans are encouraged to buy American goods 2nd Bank of the United States It is recharted (approved to be continued) in 1816 system