California a history part 1


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California a history part 1

  1. 1. California- A History Part 1 Nikki Buck History 141
  2. 2. Laws of the Indies: The Spanish Colonial Era -chapter 2 <ul><li>A desire to seek out new land </li></ul><ul><li>started with Columbus and the discovery of the pacific ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish believed the ocean would lead to China and Japan (thought there they would find great treasures) </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish empire was under the laws of the Indies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>church and state were to cooperate to establish colonies that promote the well being of colonists </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter 2… <ul><li>The Jesuits </li></ul><ul><li>members of a male Catholic religious missionary order </li></ul><ul><li>known as “Gods Marines” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>military background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>willing to go anywhere and live in extreme conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>also greatly know for their work in education by founding schools </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chapter 2… <ul><li>Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>did not take kindly to the missionaries </li></ul><ul><li>were forced from homelands and brought into mission system </li></ul><ul><li>treated like children and beaten </li></ul><ul><li>many tried to run away and died of shock from the displacement </li></ul><ul><li>some transitioned into farmers etc, but was not common </li></ul><ul><li>constant state of war existed between Native Americans and Spanish settlers </li></ul>
  5. 5. A Troubled Territory: Mexican California -chapter 3 <ul><li>Mexican Independence </li></ul><ul><li>1821 achieved independence from Spain </li></ul><ul><li>sought to be a federal republic under United States </li></ul><ul><li>struggled because of a hostile republic and military dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>tensions between residents and military officers </li></ul><ul><li>was unsuccessful in promoting settlement in California </li></ul>
  6. 6. Chapter 3… <ul><li>The land grant rancho </li></ul><ul><li>more than 600 land grants made </li></ul><ul><li>extended across the hills of costal California and dominated the economy of Mexican California </li></ul><ul><li>large extended families lived on ranchos in great wealth </li></ul><ul><li>cruel side consisted of harsh treatment of Native American labor </li></ul>
  7. 7. Chapter 3… <ul><li>Conquest of California </li></ul><ul><li>stared with idea of Manifest Destiny </li></ul><ul><ul><li>idea that America was destined to expand across the North American continent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from sea to shining sea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>John Charles Fremont </li></ul><ul><ul><li>army commissioner who seized California </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. had already declared war on Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Fremont became governor of California </li></ul><ul><li>established California flag with a star and grizzly bear </li></ul>
  8. 8. Striking it Rich: The Establishment of an American State -chapter 4 <ul><li>Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo </li></ul><ul><li>peace treaty that ended the Mexican-American war </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico ceded upper California and New Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>America paid $15 million for the land </li></ul><ul><li>also took over $3.25 million in debt Mexico owed America </li></ul><ul><li>treaty ensured safety of the existing property rights of Mexican citizens living in territories </li></ul>
  9. 9. Chapter 4… <ul><li>The Gold Rush </li></ul><ul><li>gold was first found by James W. Marshall at Sutters Mill </li></ul><ul><li>gold rush brought 200,000 people to California </li></ul><ul><li>only 10% of them were women </li></ul><ul><li>rough life that was not all fun and exciting </li></ul><ul><li>1 out of 12 miners lost their lives (diseases- Cholera #1) </li></ul><ul><li>murder rates also very high </li></ul>
  10. 10. Chapter 4… <ul><li>Effects on Immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>laws and confiscatory taxes imposed to drive out foreigners </li></ul><ul><li>segregation towards Peruvians, Chileans, Sonorans, Mexicans </li></ul><ul><li>immigrant miners were rounded up, fined, beaten, and ran out of mines </li></ul><ul><li>many were hung and murdered on a daily biases </li></ul><ul><li>men, women, and children </li></ul>