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Quantitative Ethics - Governance and ethics of AI decisions

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Presented as a part of the conference "Robots and Artificial Intelligence: The new force awakens" held in Nice, France in March 2018. This presentation provides framework and strategies to approach ethical aspects in the development of the AI of tomorrow.

The main topics discussed:
1) Data is the new electricity
2) Artificial intelligence and the decision making
3) Ethical frameworks for artificial intelligence

Published in: Technology
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Quantitative Ethics - Governance and ethics of AI decisions

  1. 1. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk CTO, Founder of PocketConfidant AI Governance and ethics of AI decisions Quantitative Ethics
  2. 2. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions The newera: WhyEthics?
  3. 3. Successes Deep Learning and AI Success Stories Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  4. 4. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
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  7. 7. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  8. 8. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  9. 9. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisionsFace2Face: Real-time Face Capture and Reenactment of RGB Videos (CVPR), IEEE, June 2016
  10. 10. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  11. 11. AI beats * in * Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  12. 12. Failures Failures of Artificial Intelligence Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  13. 13. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  14. 14. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  15. 15. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
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  17. 17. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  18. 18. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  19. 19. Wherethediscussionusuallystarts… We have common misconceptions about AI Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  20. 20. So howtheworldwillchange? Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  21. 21. Agenda 1. Data is the new electricity 2. Artificial intelligence and the decision making 3. Ethical frameworks for artificial intelligence Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  22. 22. Data: the newelectricity Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  23. 23. DataisthenewElectricity IDC- 2017, 451 Research - 2017 10x 50x $138bn 75% growth in worldwide data by 2025 ~163ZB (IDC) growth in analyzable data by 2025 ~ 5.2ZB (IDC) market opportunity for data by 2021 (451R) of enterprises will use AI (IDC) Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  24. 24. 4th Industrialrevolution 1784 1870 1969 20XXNikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  25. 25. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions People will lose jobs.
  26. 26. 50% Report of the McKinsey Global Institute - January 2017 McKinsey analysts estimate this is the share of activities workers are paid to do now that could be automated using currently available technologies by 2055. [accounting for $15 trillion in wages] Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  27. 27. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions Butwhat kind of jobs willwe lose?
  28. 28. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions Yesterday:lessonsfromhistory Robert C. Allen,“Engels’ pause” Explorations in Economic History, volume 46, issue 4, October 2009 Mechanization raised output per worker, but real wages stagnated for ~50 years.
  29. 29. Today:skillsandoccupations PEW Research, The State of American Jobs - 2016 Employment growth is more rapid in occupations requiring higher social or analytical skills. 83 77 18 Analytical skills Social skills Physical skills Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  30. 30. Whatskillsarerequiredtomorrow? Does it mean that in the Age of AI we will see much higher relative growth for social skills? Analytical skills Social skills Physical skills Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  31. 31. Tomorrow:lessonsfromhistory Throughout history, large-scale sector employment declines have been countered by growth of new sectors that have absorbed workers IPUMS USA 2017; US Bureau of Labor Statistics Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  32. 32. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions Tomorrow:lessonsfromhistory Technology drives the creation of many more jobs than it destroys over time, mainly outside the industry itself. Example of personal computers Net Jobs: 16M Personal Computers 1970-2015 - IPUMS USA 2017; US Bureau of Labor Statistics 1% 3% 19% 77% Direct: Equipment manufacturing Indirect: Suppliers Enabled: Software and services Users: Utilizing industries
  33. 33. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions What is the rightdata to fuel anAI? Data is the new electricity. Capacity to generate, filter and process big data will define the competitive landscape for nations.
  34. 34. What shouldwedo to remainrelevant? Learners must cultivate new skills to gain comparative advantage. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  35. 35. HowAI makes decisions? AI will help humans to make decisions and will decrease cognitive workload. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  36. 36. AI and the decisionmaking Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  37. 37. 2 main pillars of intelligence… 1.Perceive environment 2.Act to succeed at a goal,learn+ Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  38. 38. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions AI,ML,DL:historyandapproaches Humans define rules of decision making Machines select important factors for decision making Machines generate own criteria of decision making
  39. 39. Howdowe teach machines? Deep learning requires annotated data (Examples) Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  40. 40. Huge amounts of work… AI training depends on data annotated by subject-matter experts (Lawyers, Linguists, Doctors) Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  41. 41. AIhaslimitations • Knows ONLY what is “taught” (Data in, Bias in) • Controls ONLY what we give them control of • Aware of nuances and can learn more of them Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  42. 42. AIcan • Do boring stuff • Make consistent decisions • Don’t get tired Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  43. 43. BuildingAI:Whatquestionstoask? Perceive Decide Act Evaluate What information do we need to make decisions? How do we decide based on received information? What do we do once we have our decision? How do we evaluate the quality of our decision? Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  44. 44. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions Bias:whotrainedyourAI? Emails from the defunct Enron Corp., once headed by CEO Kenneth Lay, have become a commonly used data set for training A.I. systems. Enron email data set is composed of 1.6 million emails sent between Enron employees that were publicly released by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in 2003 http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/technology/2017/10/what_happens_when_the_data_used_to_train_a_i_is_biased_and_old.html
  45. 45. Bias:Wethinkdifferently. Madhura Ingalhalikar et al. PNAS 2014 Average male brain: Associative connections Average female brain: Interhemispheric connections Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  46. 46. Decisionmaking Collect information Identify alternatives Evidence Chose from alternatives Implement Evaluate New Ideas Main steps of the decision process Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  47. 47. Which ethics should governAIdecisions? AI will change the landscape of the decision making. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  48. 48. Ethical frameworksforAI Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  49. 49. What is the threat? this? Or this? Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  50. 50. Decisionmaking Collect information Identify alternatives Evidence Chose from alternatives Implement Evaluate New Ideas Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  51. 51. Ethicaldilemma: 2+ possible moral imperatives Neither of is acceptable or preferable Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  52. 52. Example:thetrolleyproblemandAI Should AI decide based on the importance of certain lives or based on law, consequences, …? Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  53. 53. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions The solution depends on the worldview (POV).
  54. 54. Decisionsare boundedwith 4factors Lawrence Lessig, 1999. Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace 4. Norms 3. Markets 2. Law 1.Architecture boundaries Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  55. 55. Frameworkexamples Consequentialism Ethics Virtue Ethics Duty Ethics Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  56. 56. Consequentialist Duty Virtue Deliberative process What kind of outcomes should I produce (or try to produce)? What are my obligations in this situation, and what are the things I should never do? What kind of person should I be (or try to be), and what will my actions show about my character? Focus Directs attention to the future effects of an action, for all people who will be directly or indirectly affected by the action. Directs attention to the duties that exist prior to the situation and determines obligations. Attempts to discern character traits (virtues and vices) that are, or could be, motivating the people involved in the situation. Definition of Ethical Conduct Ethical conduct is the action that will achieve the best consequences. Ethical conduct involves always doing the right thing: never failing to do one's duty. Ethical conduct is whatever a fully virtuous person would do in the circumstances. Motivation Aim is to produce the most good. Aim is to perform the right action. Aim is to develop one’s character. Prioritiesareshiftedindifferentframeworks Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  57. 57. What POVdatasets should be used to trainAI? We have 25 centuries of philosophical history that shows that right and wrong depend on the point of view (POV), Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  58. 58. Shouldwe haveAI consortiums that accountdifferentPOVs Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  59. 59. What metricsshouldwecreate to evaluateAI decisions? Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  60. 60. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions Safety Failure Transparency Judicial Transparency Value Alignment Human Control Emotional Value POV1
  61. 61. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions Non-subversion Compassion Cross-national Security Non-influence Traceability of decisions POV2
  62. 62. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions Safety Failure Transparency Judicial Transparency Responsibility Value Alignment Personal Privacy Liberty and Privacy Shared Benefit Human Control Non-subversion Compassion Shared Prosperity Emotional Value Cross-national Security Non-influence Traceability of decisions
  63. 63. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions Safety Failure Transparency Judicial Transparency Responsibility Value Alignment Personal Privacy Liberty and Privacy Shared Benefit Human Control Non-subversion Compassion Shared Prosperity Emotional Value Cross-national Security Non-influence Traceability of decisions Alternative1
  64. 64. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions Safety Failure Transparency Judicial Transparency Responsibility Value Alignment Personal Privacy Liberty and Privacy Shared Benefit Human Control Non-subversion Compassion Shared Prosperity Emotional Value Cross-national Security Non-influence Traceability of decisions Alternative2
  65. 65. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions Safety Failure Transparency Judicial Transparency Responsibility Value Alignment Personal Privacy Liberty and Privacy Shared Benefit Human Control Non-subversion Compassion Shared Prosperity Emotional Value Cross-national Security Non-influence Traceability of decisions Alternative3
  66. 66. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  67. 67. OpenEthics? ?Open Metrics Open POVs Open Decisions Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  68. 68. OpenQuestions Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  69. 69. Howdoweact on IAdecisions? Given deep learning systems act like a black box, and they are not classical rule-based algorithms. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  70. 70. What effortsshouldwedo to educate policymakers? Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  71. 71. Can genderbalancehelp in reducingthe bias? 13% women in AI today (SU data, 2017). Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  72. 72. Can blockchainhelp to manageAI? an AI coded in a DAO with specific smart contracts will be able to only perform those actions, and nothing more (it will have a limited action space then). Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  73. 73. Howshouldwegovern augmentedhuman-AIdecisions? The question concerns the design of the decision making system where the responsibility and the ultimate truth is shared between human and AI. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  74. 74. 3AofAI ethics Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  75. 75. Augmentationbydesign. Augment human capacity, don’t replace it. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  76. 76. Accountabilitybydesign. Individuals and interactions over tools, software and technology. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  77. 77. Respect bydesign. Respect values and goals. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  78. 78. Relatedreading Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  79. 79. Data • Datasets for Analysis & Download https://data.world/ • G8 Open Data Charter and Technical Annex https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/open-data- charter/g8-open-data-charter-and-technical-annex • Towards a Genealogy of Open Data https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2605828 • 2600+ Open Data Portals Around the World https://opendatainception.io/ Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  80. 80. AI • MIT series on AI Ethics https://www.media.mit.edu/courses/the-ethics-and-governance- of-artificial-intelligence/ • OpenAI https://openai.com/ • Asilomar AI principles https://futureoflife.org/ai-principles/ • The Future Computed: AI and its role in society (Microsoft, 2018) PDF Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  81. 81. Ethics • WEForum https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/10/top-10-ethical-issues- in-artificial-intelligence/ • Jobs Lost, Jobs Gained: Workforce Transitions In A Time Of Automation. McKinsey Global Institute 2017 PDF • A Framework for Making Ethical Decisions Brown.edu • Center for Humane Technology http://humanetech.com/ Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  82. 82. What kind ofworlddowe want to design? Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk Quantitative Ethics - governance and ethics of AI decisions
  83. 83. Nikita Lukianets @nikiluk CTO, Founder of PocketConfidant AI Governance and ethics of AI decisions Quantitative Ethics

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