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Negociation Techniques: Sri Lankan Government vs LTTE Analysis (MBA)


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This was for a class at MIT Sloan in 'Power and Negociation' and is an analysis of the negociating positions of the Sri Lankan government and the LTTE (Tamil Tigers) at the end of the civil war in 2009. This is purely theoretical and for class purposes only. We are completely neutral in our position.

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Negociation Techniques: Sri Lankan Government vs LTTE Analysis (MBA)

  1. 1. Sri Lanka Government (SLG) versusLiberation of Tamil Tigers of Eelam (LTTE) A story of lost opportunities Amit Danenberg Meera Gupta Niki Gomez Yash Mehta Poonam Narula Subrat Nayak PratVemana MIT Sloan : Power &Negociation Class 2009
  2. 2. BackgroundThis analysis is based on Negociating and Bargaining tactics as taughtby Jared Curhan in Power and Negociation class at MIT Sloan in 2009.Much of this presentation was following techniques from ‘Getting to Yes’by Bruce Patton, Roger Fisher and William Ury.
  3. 3. Agenda• Overview of Sri Lanka• Sri Lanka – Two perspectives• History of Negotiations• Analyze Current Situation
  4. 4. Sri Lanka – Country Demographics 0.52% 7.56%• An island located in the Indian 14.59 Sinhalese % ocean, off the southeast tip of 77.33 Tamilians Moors India % Burghers• GDP – $42B USD Sri Lanka Population• GDP per capita – $4400• Population – 22 Million• Multi-Religion – Buddhist, Muslim, Hindu, Chris tian• Key Economic Drivers – Tea, Rubber, Garment Industry, Tourism
  5. 5. Sri Lanka – Two Perspectives
  6. 6. Story of Sri LankaSri Lanka Government Perspective
  7. 7. Sri Lanka – One Nation TamilMuslim Diverse and Integrated
  8. 8. A Nation of PeaceBuddhists – A majority population
  9. 9. Tamil Terrorists •Few Tamils formed terrorist group- LTTE •War for 26 years •70,000 people have died •Sri Lankan economy is in tatters •Tourism and investment downWe cannot let LTTE divide small country
  10. 10. Story of Sri Lanka Tamil Perspective
  11. 11. Sri Lanka – History (Tamil)• When Portuguese took possession of the island in 1505 there were 3 Kingdoms• Tamil Kingdom in the North-East - Tamil Homeland• Sinhalese Kingdoms in the South-West
  12. 12. Sri Lanka – History (Tamil) One Island – Two Nations
  13. 13. Mistreatment of Tamils• 1948 – 1 million Tamils declared as non-citizens• 1949 – Sinhalese colonization in traditional Tamil homeland• 1956 – Sinhala made sole official language of the country• 1970 – “Ethnic standardization” slashes university admission to Tamils• 1972 – New constitution without Tamil participation – Unilateral name change from Ceylon to Sri Lanka – Declaration of Sri Lanka as a republic – Buddhism made state religion
  14. 14. History of Negotiations
  15. 15. Negotiation betweenSri Lanka Government & Tamils 1956
  16. 16. 1956 - Facts• Sri Lanka government announced Sinhalese as official language• Tamil politicians staged peaceful demonstrations• Violent response from government
  17. 17. Sri Lanka Government - Tamils Equal One NationIt should be inclusive decision making process RepresentationRelationship Commitment EqualRepresentation Interest Tamil included as official language Options Riots to stop Sinhala, Tamil Legitimacy Why only Sinhala? Its 80% of populationCommunication Alternatives Why did you attack non-violent protest? Unfortunate incident Lets resolve together
  18. 18. History of Conflict Resolutions From 1956 to Now
  19. 19. History of Negotiations – 1973 - 2002• LTTE formed in 1976• Continued war between two forces• LTTE used brutal tactics• LTTE introduced “guerilla” attacks• LTTE controls North East SL• SLG uses brutal force & state sponsored violence against Tamils• India Mediated Peace• India Ex-Prime Minister assassinated by LTTE 1991
  20. 20. History of Negotiations - 2002• Ceasefire – Monitored by Scandinavian Countries• Direct Dialogue – Facilitated By the Royal Norwegian Government• THE OSLO DECLARATION – Signed by the SLG and the LTTE on 25 November 2002 – Extremely short-lived due to lack of trust ad commitment on both sides
  21. 21. Current Conflict
  22. 22. Current Situation – May 1st 2009• SL govt. launched major offensive in 2007 to wipe out LTTE• Systematic war campaign has killed many LTTE troops• LTTE confined to 7km2 area is using civilians as human shields• International community humanitarian outrage• No freedom of press
  23. 23. Current Crisis MediationUnited Nations Sri Lanka Tamil
  24. 24. Mediator - Sri Lanka Government Possible Sanctions Ceasefire?We are very close to winning the warRelationship Commitment Interest We don’t want Prabhakaran to Options escape How can you Legitimacy protect civilians?Communication Alternatives Safe passage & Rebuild Tamil Communities
  25. 25. Mediator with Sri Lanka• N: We are very close to winning this long war (Int)• A: How can you protect Civilians?• N: We don’t want Prabhakaran to escape (Interest)• A: Possible sanctions, IMF funds being blocked (Commit)• A: Can you announce cease fire now? (Commit)• N: Safe passage (Alternative)• N: Rebuild the displaced Tamil communities (Commit)• A: What is your BATNA?• N: To continue the War until Prabhakaran is killed. However we just want peace.
  26. 26. Mediator - LTTE Why don’t you surrender? Relationship CommitmentI am a wanted man Interest We need a ceasefire Options We will protect you Legitimacy Human AtrocitiesCommunication Alternatives I don’t trust the Government promises
  27. 27. Mediator with LTTE• P: Human Atrocities unbearable (Legitimacy)• P: We need to ceasefire now (Interest)• A: Why don’t you surrender to stop war (Option)?• P: I don’t believe the government, many times SLG went back (Legitimacy)• P: I am a wanted man (Interest)• A: We will protect your life (Option)• A: What is your BATNA?• P: Ceasefire due to huge human rights abuses by the government
  28. 28. All Parties Equal One NationWe have a human rights crisis- need to end the RepresentationwarRelationship Commitment EqualRepresentation Interest Tamil included as official language Options Riots to stop How can you Legitimacy Why only Sinhala? Its 80% of population protect civilians?Communication Alternatives Why did you attack non-violent protest? Unfortunate incident Lets resolve together
  29. 29. All parties - Dialog• A: We have a human rights crisis, we need to end the war (Interest)• A: Prabhakaran surrender – We will try your case in Hague court• A: Govt will give safe passage• A: Equal representation to Tamil• A: I will get international community to pledge loans to rebuild• A: International monitoring• N: I agree• P: Over my dead body• A: How do you want to go down in history?• P: I would rather be a martyr• A: You have to save your people• A: Hague will offer you a fair hearing• P: Yes
  30. 30. Achieving Peace Through Value Creation• It is not a fixed pie or zero-sum game• 7 elements of Negotiation – Circle of Value • Interests • Options • Legitimacy – Alternatives • BATNA – Communication – Commitment – Relationship• ZOPA: Surrender or continuing the war – Reservation Value, Aspiration Value• Norms: Relational Norms – Equality, Equity, Need• Difficult Tactics: – Attack, Threat• Mediation: – Neutrality – Strong – Caucusing
  31. 31. Q&A