First aid


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First aid

  2. 2. TopicsTopics I.I. General principlesGeneral principles II.II. Anatomy and PhysiologyAnatomy and Physiology III.III. Initial AssessmentInitial Assessment IV.IV. Airway Emergency(Choking)Airway Emergency(Choking) V.V. CPRCPR VI.VI. Physical ExaminationPhysical Examination VII.VII. Bleeding and WoundsBleeding and Wounds VIII.VIII. ShockShock
  3. 3. Topics - continueTopics - continue IX.IX. Soft tissue injuriesSoft tissue injuries X.X. FracturesFractures XI.XI. Dressings and bandagesDressings and bandages XII.XII. BurnsBurns XIII.XIII. PoisoningPoisoning XIV.XIV. Priorities of First AidPriorities of First Aid XV.XV. Moving and TransportingMoving and Transporting
  4. 4. I.I. General PrinciplesGeneral Principles Definition: Immediate treatment given toDefinition: Immediate treatment given to the victim of an accident or suddenthe victim of an accident or sudden severe illness before medical help issevere illness before medical help is obtained.obtained. Aims:Aims: 1.1. Preserve lifePreserve life 2.2. Promote recoveryPromote recovery 3.3. Prevent worsening of the casualities conditionPrevent worsening of the casualities condition
  5. 5. Qualities of First Aider:Qualities of First Aider: 1.1. Observe carefullyObserve carefully 2.2. Think clearlyThink clearly 3.3. Act quicklyAct quickly 4.4. Be Calm Cool and ConfidentBe Calm Cool and Confident 5.5. Assess the situationAssess the situation -Look for safety-Look for safety 6.6. CommunicateCommunicate -Call up emergency services-Call up emergency services
  6. 6. ETHANEETHANE messagemessage EE -- Exact locationExact location TT -- Type of injuryType of injury HH -- Hazards present/ProbableHazards present/Probable A -A - Access RouteAccess Route NN -- Number of casualties & SeverityNumber of casualties & Severity E -E - Emergency servicesEmergency services present/requiredpresent/required
  7. 7. TriageTriage Green -Green - Walking WoundedWalking Wounded Red -Red - UnconsciousUnconscious Pulse > 130Pulse > 130 Capillary filling > 2 SecCapillary filling > 2 Sec Respiratory Rate<8 & >30Respiratory Rate<8 & >30 Black -Black - Mortal WoundsMortal Wounds
  8. 8. Scope of First AidScope of First Aid SignsSigns SymptomsSymptoms HistoryHistory DiagnosisDiagnosis DiagnosisDiagnosis TreatmentTreatment DisposalDisposal
  9. 9. II.II. Anatomy and PhysiologyAnatomy and Physiology
  10. 10. AnatomyAnatomy  Types of bonesTypes of bones • Long bonesLong bones • Short bonesShort bones • Flat bonesFlat bones  Types of JointsTypes of Joints • Ball and socket TypeBall and socket Type • Hinge TypeHinge Type • Fixed JointFixed Joint  Types of MusclesTypes of Muscles • Voluntary MusclesVoluntary Muscles • Involuntary MusclesInvoluntary Muscles • Cardiac MuscleCardiac Muscle
  11. 11. PhysiologyPhysiology  Respiration -Respiration - Airway & LungsAirway & Lungs  Circulation -Circulation - Heart, Blood vessels and BloodHeart, Blood vessels and Blood  DigestionDigestion -- Small bowel andSmall bowel and Large bowelLarge bowel  ExcretionExcretion -- Skin & KidneysSkin & Kidneys
  12. 12. III.III. Initial AssessmentInitial Assessment  D – Danger To self & casualityD – Danger To self & casuality  R - ResourcesR - Resources Human & EquipmentHuman & Equipment  R - Response Level of responseR - Response Level of response  A - Airway Is the passage openA - Airway Is the passage open  B - Breathing Is he breathingB - Breathing Is he breathing  C – Circulation Heart beat & PulseC – Circulation Heart beat & Pulse Recovery PositionRecovery Position
  13. 13. IV.IV. Airway emergenciesAirway emergencies  RespirationRespiration -- Breathing in and breathingBreathing in and breathing out of airout of air  AsphyxiaAsphyxia - Is a condition in which- Is a condition in which lungs do not get sufficientlungs do not get sufficient air supply for breathingair supply for breathing
  14. 14. Causes of Asphyxia:Causes of Asphyxia: Affecting Air passages -Affecting Air passages - Spasm,Obstruction,CompressionSpasm,Obstruction,Compression Affecting respiratory mechanism -Affecting respiratory mechanism - Epillepsy,Tetanus,RabiesEpillepsy,Tetanus,Rabies CNS – Paralysis of chest wall & diaphragmCNS – Paralysis of chest wall & diaphragm Drugs – Marphia and barbituratesDrugs – Marphia and barbiturates Compression of chest wallCompression of chest wall
  15. 15. Kinds of AsphyxiaKinds of Asphyxia  Strangulation & HangingStrangulation & Hanging  DrowningDrowning  Choking - HemilichsmaneuverChoking - Hemilichsmaneuver
  16. 16. Signs & Symptoms of AsphyxiaSigns & Symptoms of Asphyxia  Phase 1: Respiratory rate increasesPhase 1: Respiratory rate increases Pulse rate increasesPulse rate increases Shortness of breathingShortness of breathing Neck veins swollenNeck veins swollen Face,lips & nails turn blueFace,lips & nails turn blue  Phase 2: Partial or total loss ofPhase 2: Partial or total loss of ConsciousnessConsciousness FrothFroth may appearmay appear Fits may occurFits may occur
  17. 17. Management of AsphyxiaManagement of Asphyxia  Remove the causeRemove the cause  Open the airwayOpen the airway  Loosen dress around neck,chest &Loosen dress around neck,chest & WaistWaist  CPRCPR
  18. 18. v.v. Cardioplumonary resuscitationCardioplumonary resuscitation  Look for danger to self & casualityLook for danger to self & casuality  Look for responseLook for response What is your name?What is your name? What is the time now?What is the time now? Where are you?Where are you? If no response – Shout for helpIf no response – Shout for help  Look for breathingLook for breathing Look,Listen,feel } 10 secsLook,Listen,feel } 10 secs
  19. 19.  If no breathingIf no breathing -Open mouth, do finger sweep-Open mouth, do finger sweep -Place the casualty on back-Place the casualty on back -Extend neck,head tilt,chin lift-Extend neck,head tilt,chin lift -Jaw thrust forward-Jaw thrust forward -Take deep breath with open mouth-Take deep breath with open mouth -Close nostrils with left hand-Close nostrils with left hand -Cover the mouth with your lips-Cover the mouth with your lips -Blow air into the chest by watching-Blow air into the chest by watching thethe chest till it raiseschest till it raises -Repeat again with 4 secs gap-Repeat again with 4 secs gap
  20. 20. Ext-Cardiac CompressionExt-Cardiac Compression If heart is not workingIf heart is not working (No Carotid pulse,Tounge,lips become blue,pupils(No Carotid pulse,Tounge,lips become blue,pupils dilated & NR)dilated & NR) 1.1. Locate the heartLocate the heart 2.2. Place the heel of Left palmPlace the heel of Left palm 3.3. Place the right hand over left handPlace the right hand over left hand 4.4. Compress the chest wall towards spine byCompress the chest wall towards spine by transferring your body weight through shoulderstransferring your body weight through shoulders 5.5. Nearly 1/3 of chest wall should go downNearly 1/3 of chest wall should go down 6.6. 30 cardiac compressions and 2 artificial30 cardiac compressions and 2 artificial respiration(30:2)respiration(30:2) 7.7. Incase of drowning and children & Infants(30:5)Incase of drowning and children & Infants(30:5)
  21. 21. Continue CPR tillContinue CPR till -Casualty revived-Casualty revived -Till tired-Till tired -Dr. arrives & asks to stop-Dr. arrives & asks to stop -Another first aider takes over-Another first aider takes over Complications of CPRComplications of CPR -Fracture of sternum, ribs-Fracture of sternum, ribs -Laceration of liver lung-Laceration of liver lung -Pneumothorax-Pneumothorax
  22. 22. VI.VI. Physical ExaminationPhysical Examination  D – DangerD – Danger  R – ResourceR – Resource  R – ResponseR – Response  A – AirwayA – Airway  B – BreathingB – Breathing  C – CirculationC – Circulation
  23. 23. -If DRRABC are O.K-If DRRABC are O.K D – DeformityD – Deformity O – Open WoundO – Open Wound T - TendernessT - Tenderness S - SwellingS - Swelling
  24. 24. 1.1. Head : Scalp, face,nose,ears.eyes andHead : Scalp, face,nose,ears.eyes and mouthmouth 2.2. Neck : Trachea, Vessels, Spine.medicNeck : Trachea, Vessels, Spine.medic alert necklacealert necklace 3.3. Chest: Breath movements,Chest: Breath movements, DOTS, ribs, sternum,spine,crepitus,DOTS, ribs, sternum,spine,crepitus, 4.4. Abdomen:OTS,rigidity,tenderness,discoAbdomen:OTS,rigidity,tenderness,disco lourationlouration 5.5. Pelvis:Spinal injury,Genetalia,DOTSPelvis:Spinal injury,Genetalia,DOTS 6.6. Lower limbs:DOTS,Pulse,movements ofLower limbs:DOTS,Pulse,movements of toes,sensation,discolouration &cyanosistoes,sensation,discolouration &cyanosis
  25. 25. Upper: limbs:DOTS,PMS,Cyanosis,Discolouration.Upper: limbs:DOTS,PMS,Cyanosis,Discolouration. Back: DOTS,Spine,ribs,flangsBack: DOTS,Spine,ribs,flangs Vital signs:Vital signs: Respiration – 16-20/mtRespiration – 16-20/mt PulsePulse - 60-90/mt- 60-90/mt Temp -98.6 FTemp -98.6 F Skin colour –Skin colour – Mothing,Pale,Bluish,Redness,YellowishMothing,Pale,Bluish,Redness,Yellowish HistoryHistory Signs&Symptoms,Allergies,medication,pastSigns&Symptoms,Allergies,medication,past history,last oral intake,eventshistory,last oral intake,events
  26. 26. VI.VI. Wounds and bleedingWounds and bleeding Wound:Loss of continuty of tissueWound:Loss of continuty of tissue skin,muscle or boneskin,muscle or bone Def:Partial or complete loss in theDef:Partial or complete loss in the continuity of tissuescontinuity of tissues Dangers of wounds:Dangers of wounds: Bleeding - immediateBleeding - immediate Infection –lateInfection –late
  27. 27. Types of wounds:Types of wounds: 1.1. AbrasionAbrasion 2.2. ContusionContusion 3.3. Incised woundIncised wound 4.4. Lacerated woundLacerated wound 5.5. Punctured woundPunctured wound
  28. 28. Aims:Aims: Stop bleedingStop bleeding Minimizing the number of germsMinimizing the number of germs Bleeding:Bleeding: Common cause of death in accidents. Caused byCommon cause of death in accidents. Caused by repture of blood vesselsrepture of blood vessels Types:Types: Internal bleedingInternal bleeding External bleedingExternal bleeding Arterial bleeding – Bright red, Spurting natureArterial bleeding – Bright red, Spurting nature Venous bleeding – Dark red – continuous streamVenous bleeding – Dark red – continuous stream Capillary bleeding – Oozes out slowlyCapillary bleeding – Oozes out slowly
  29. 29. Signs & Symptoms of bleedingSigns & Symptoms of bleeding  Pulse get rapid and weak(thready)Pulse get rapid and weak(thready)  Respiration becomes shallow & deepRespiration becomes shallow & deep  Skin becomes cold, clamy & paleSkin becomes cold, clamy & pale  Profuse sweatingProfuse sweating  Casuality feels thirstyCasuality feels thirsty  Feels fainty & may even collapseFeels fainty & may even collapse
  30. 30. Management of Ext. bleedingManagement of Ext. bleeding  Capillary bleeding – Self limitingCapillary bleeding – Self limiting  Major bleeding from arteries or veinsMajor bleeding from arteries or veins Apply pressure over the wound,Apply pressure over the wound, Elevate the part above the heartElevate the part above the heart levellevel
  31. 31. Management of Int. bleedingManagement of Int. bleeding  Lay the casuality down with head lowLay the casuality down with head low  Keep the casuality calm&relaxedKeep the casuality calm&relaxed  ReassureReassure  Cover with thin blanketCover with thin blanket  Don’t give anything to eat/drinkDon’t give anything to eat/drink  Shift to hospitalShift to hospital
  32. 32. Bleeding from special areasBleeding from special areas  Base of skullBase of skull - Ear bleeding – don’t club- Ear bleeding – don’t club - Nose bleeding – don’t blow- Nose bleeding – don’t blow - Throat bleeding – don’t swallow- Throat bleeding – don’t swallow  ScalpScalp -Bleeds freely – Apply big pad and bandage-Bleeds freely – Apply big pad and bandage  NoseNose -Head bent forward-Head bent forward -Pinch soft part of nose for 10 mins-Pinch soft part of nose for 10 mins -Ask him to take breathe with mouth-Ask him to take breathe with mouth -Don’t blow nose-Don’t blow nose
  33. 33. Bleeding from special areasBleeding from special areas  PalmPalm -Apply pressure around the wrist-Apply pressure around the wrist -Keep suitable pad over the wound &-Keep suitable pad over the wound & close the fistclose the fist -Apply bandage up to wrist-Apply bandage up to wrist -Triangular bandage-Triangular bandage  Varicose veinsVaricose veins -Lay down casuality-Lay down casuality -Raise the limb above the heart level-Raise the limb above the heart level -Apply pressure bandage-Apply pressure bandage
  34. 34. Bleeding from special areasBleeding from special areas  Closed abdominal woundsClosed abdominal wounds • From liver,spleen,kidney,uterus,bladder,From liver,spleen,kidney,uterus,bladder, intestines,blood vesselsintestines,blood vessels • Signs & SymptomsSigns & Symptoms  Pain at the site of injuryPain at the site of injury  Distention of abdomenDistention of abdomen • ManagementManagement  NPONPO  Make him calmMake him calm  Loosen tight clothsLoosen tight cloths
  35. 35. Bleeding from special areasBleeding from special areas  Chest injuryChest injury • Bloody sputum – Apply bandageBloody sputum – Apply bandage
  36. 36. viii.viii. ShockShock  Def:Def: • Shock is a condition of collapseShock is a condition of collapse  TypesTypes • Emotional (Neurogenic)Emotional (Neurogenic)  Due to strong emotional upsetDue to strong emotional upset • Ex:Fear,pain,bad newsEx:Fear,pain,bad news • Hypo volume shockHypo volume shock  Due to sudden severe blood lossDue to sudden severe blood loss  Loss of body fluidsLoss of body fluids • Ex:Burns and GEEx:Burns and GE • Cardiogenic ShockCardiogenic Shock • Anaphylactic ShockAnaphylactic Shock • Septic ShockSeptic Shock
  37. 37. Shock-Identification featuresShock-Identification features  Pulse – rapid & feablePulse – rapid & feable  Respiration – Rapid & ShallowRespiration – Rapid & Shallow  Skin – Sweatings,Cold & ClamySkin – Sweatings,Cold & Clamy  Feels fainty and giddinessFeels fainty and giddiness  May vomitMay vomit  Finally becomes un consciousFinally becomes un conscious
  38. 38. Shock-ManagementShock-Management  DRRABCDRRABC  Reassure casualityReassure casuality  Loosen tight clothingLoosen tight clothing  Wrap in light blanketWrap in light blanket  Shift to hospital in foot end elevationShift to hospital in foot end elevation
  39. 39. ix.ix. Soft tissue injuriesSoft tissue injuries  SprainSprain • Overstretching or tear of ligamentsOverstretching or tear of ligaments  StrainStrain • Over stretching of muscleOver stretching of muscle • Torn of muscle fibersTorn of muscle fibers
  40. 40.  Identification featuresIdentification features • Pain & SwellingPain & Swelling • Stiffness of musclesStiffness of muscles • Painful movementsPainful movements  ManagementManagement • R – RestR – Rest • I - ImmobilisationI - Immobilisation • C - Compression bandageC - Compression bandage • E – ElevationE – Elevation
  41. 41. x.x. FracturesFractures  Def:Def: • Partial or complete breakage of bonePartial or complete breakage of bone  Identification featuresIdentification features • Pain and swellingPain and swelling • DiscolourationDiscolouration • TendernessTenderness • DeformityDeformity • Loss of normal movementLoss of normal movement • Presence of abnormal movementsPresence of abnormal movements • CrepitusCrepitus
  42. 42. ManagementManagement  Immobilize the partImmobilize the part  Don’t wash open boneDon’t wash open bone  Cover the open wound with ring padCover the open wound with ring pad  Apply splint and bandageApply splint and bandage • SplintSplint  Rigid piece of wood or plastic or metalRigid piece of wood or plastic or metal  Reasonable wide & longReasonable wide & long  Well paddedWell padded
  43. 43. Special fracturesSpecial fractures  Fracture base of skullFracture base of skull  Fracture lower jawFracture lower jaw  Fracture spine – blanket liftFracture spine – blanket lift  Fracture ribs –Short shallow breathingFracture ribs –Short shallow breathing  Fracture collar bone – Hand helplessFracture collar bone – Hand helpless  Scapula – Arm slingScapula – Arm sling  Humerus-Triangular slingHumerus-Triangular sling  Fracture around elbow – TriangularFracture around elbow – Triangular slingsling  Fracture forearm – Arm slingFracture forearm – Arm sling
  44. 44. Special fractures-Continue…Special fractures-Continue…  Fracture pelvisFracture pelvis  Fracture thigh boneFracture thigh bone  Fracture around kneeFracture around knee  Fracture legFracture leg  Fracture foot and toesFracture foot and toes
  45. 45.  Learning first-aid is a civicLearning first-aid is a civic responsibility of each citizen.responsibility of each citizen.  Organized worldwide effort at givingOrganized worldwide effort at giving first-aid came in the year 1877 withfirst-aid came in the year 1877 with the formation of St.John Ambulancethe formation of St.John Ambulance association of England.association of England.
  46. 46. Definition : “Definition : “first Aid is the immediatefirst Aid is the immediate treatment given to the victim of antreatment given to the victim of an accident or sudden illness, beforeaccident or sudden illness, before medical help is obtained”.medical help is obtained”.
  47. 47. 1.1. To preserve lifeTo preserve life 2.2. To promote recoveryTo promote recovery 3.3. To prevent worsening of theTo prevent worsening of the causality's condition.causality's condition.
  48. 48. 1.1. DiagnosisDiagnosis 2.2. TreatmentTreatment 3.3. DisposalDisposal -- History --Symptoms --Signs Removal of cause Check A B C hospital home
  49. 49. • Reach the spot quickly • Be calm, methodical and quick • Look for ABC • Use the first-aid equipment if available • Take the causality away from danger • Clear the crowd with nice words • Reassure the causality with soft words • Note the weather • Arrange for dispatch
  50. 50. Human anatomyHuman anatomy skull humerus shoulder Ulna--- Radius-- femur --tibia -fibula
  51. 51. ----vertebral column Ribs-- Pelvis-- --scapula front back
  52. 52. LEGLEG
  53. 53. organsorgans
  54. 54. Muscular systemMuscular system
  55. 55. GOLDEN RULE OF FIRSTAIDGOLDEN RULE OF FIRSTAID ►D dangerD danger ►R responseR response ►A airwayA airway ►B breathingB breathing ►C circulationC circulation
  56. 56. PRIORITY OF TREATMENTPRIORITY OF TREATMENT Airway-artificial respirationAirway-artificial respiration Circulation-cardio pulmonary resuscitationCirculation-cardio pulmonary resuscitation Bleeding-control of bleedingBleeding-control of bleeding Shock-treatmentShock-treatment Fractures-treatmentFractures-treatment Burns-treatmentBurns-treatment Eye,nose &ear injuries –treatmentEye,nose &ear injuries –treatment Superficial injuries- treatmentSuperficial injuries- treatment transportationtransportation
  57. 57. Reach the spot quickly Be calm, methodical and quick Ensure your safety and pt. safety from further damage Look for ABC and perform CPR if required If ABC are ok, communicate for help and arrangement General survey of the patient: take brief history treat accordingly Reassure the pt. with soft words clear the crowd with nice words Note the weather Arrange for transport Dispose
  58. 58. Ensure your safety and patient safety Road traffic accidents Collapsing buildings Electrocution Poisonous fumes etc.,
  59. 59. Ensure your safety and patient safety Is the vehicle stable or roll or move Are the power lines touching the car? Is there split of fuel / risk of fire? On coming traffic?
  60. 60.  responsivenessresponsiveness shake theshake the shoulders and shoutshoulders and shout  If responsive treat other injuriesIf responsive treat other injuries
  61. 61. Checking Vital SignsChecking Vital Signs  unresponsiveunresponsive  check breathingcheck breathing looklook listenlisten feelfeel If breathing recovery position
  62. 62. AIR WAYAIR WAY  not breathingnot breathing clear the airway-clear the airway--- Clear any debris or dentures in mouth head tilt & chin lift
  63. 63. mechanism ofmechanism of respirationrespiration
  64. 64. Airway ObstructionAirway Obstruction  Blood Clots, TeethBlood Clots, Teeth  Soft Tissue & BonesSoft Tissue & Bones  SwellingSwelling  Position of HeadPosition of Head  Head InjuryHead Injury
  65. 65. BREATHINGBREATHING Not breathing Pinch the nose Seal the mouth with yours give 2 breaths (1 second or longer)
  66. 66. CIRCULATIONCIRCULATION Check circulation Blue face & lips No pulse
  67. 67. CARDIOPULMONARYCARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATIONRESUSCITATION  Locate proper hand position for chestLocate proper hand position for chest compressionscompressions  Place heel of one hand on center of chestPlace heel of one hand on center of chest between the nipplesbetween the nipples
  68. 68. C P RC P R  Using both hands, give 15 chestUsing both hands, give 15 chest compressionscompressions  Count 1001, 1002,1003 …Count 1001, 1002,1003 …  Depth of compressions: 1 .5 to 2Depth of compressions: 1 .5 to 2 inchesinches  For children: ½ toFor children: ½ to 1/31/3 of chestof chest depth anddepth and use 1 or 2 handsuse 1 or 2 hands (keep one hand on forehead if(keep one hand on forehead if possible)possible)
  69. 69. C P RC P R  2 slow breaths2 slow breaths  After 15 chest compressionsAfter 15 chest compressions give:give: 2 slow breaths2 slow breaths  If the victim starts moving: checkIf the victim starts moving: check breathingbreathing  Continue until help arrives orContinue until help arrives or victim recoversvictim recovers
  70. 70. How CPR WorksHow CPR Works  Combines rescue breathingCombines rescue breathing and chest compressionsand chest compressions  Revives heart (cardio) andRevives heart (cardio) and lung (pulmonary) functioninglung (pulmonary) functioning  Provides O2 to the brainProvides O2 to the brain  Effective CPR provides 1/4 to 1/3 normal blood flow  Rescue breaths contain 16% oxygen (21%)
  71. 71. if breathingif breathing look for bleedinglook for bleeding (bleeding is the most(bleeding is the most common cause of death in accidents)common cause of death in accidents) if major bleeding foundif major bleeding found  Apply direct pressure withApply direct pressure with dressing/kerchiefdressing/kerchief (do not remove(do not remove deeply buried foreign objects,ifdeeply buried foreign objects,if dressings soak add more dressing)dressings soak add more dressing)  Raise the partRaise the part (only it a fracture(only it a fracture not suspected)not suspected)  Apply pressure on theApply pressure on the pressure point for 10minpressure point for 10min  Apply tourniquet for not moreApply tourniquet for not more than 15 minthan 15 min  Raise the foot endRaise the foot end
  72. 72. If minor bleedingIf minor bleeding  Remove loose dirtRemove loose dirt  Wash under the tapWash under the tap  Apply pressure with clean dressing/kerchiefApply pressure with clean dressing/kerchief  Raise the partRaise the part
  73. 73. Lacerated woundsLacerated wounds
  74. 74. woundswounds Punctured woundPunctured wound abrasionabrasion
  75. 75.  If the wound is on the chest seal itIf the wound is on the chest seal it Immediately with dressingImmediately with dressing If abdominal viscera seen outside don't try toIf abdominal viscera seen outside don't try to replace it, cover it with a wet dressingreplace it, cover it with a wet dressing Don’t try to remove the deeply penetratedDon’t try to remove the deeply penetrated objectobject
  76. 76. SHOCKSHOCK  A condition in which insufficient blood supply toA condition in which insufficient blood supply to brain and other organs occurs.brain and other organs occurs.  Causes:Causes: . External/internal bleeding. External/internal bleeding . loss of body fluid in diarrohea,. loss of body fluid in diarrohea, vomiting,burnsvomiting,burns . heart attacks. heart attacks . abdominal conditions. abdominal conditions
  77. 77. Signs & symptomsSigns & symptoms  GiddinessGiddiness  Cold clammy skin with sweatingCold clammy skin with sweating  PallorPallor  Feeble pulseFeeble pulse  vomitingvomiting
  78. 78. TreatmentTreatment of shockof shock  Put the casualty on his backPut the casualty on his back  Raise the foot-endRaise the foot-end  Loosen tight clothingLoosen tight clothing  Wrap in light bed sheet or thin rugWrap in light bed sheet or thin rug don’t rub the bodydon’t rub the body  If conscious & no chest or abdominalIf conscious & no chest or abdominal Wounds give sips of water/hot teaWounds give sips of water/hot tea /coffee/coconut water/coffee/coconut water
  79. 79. FRACTURESFRACTURES ► ““A fracture is the partial or complete breakage ofA fracture is the partial or complete breakage of bone”bone”  Signs & symptomsSigns & symptoms  deformity of the limbdeformity of the limb  Irregularity of the boneIrregularity of the bone  Swelling & discolorationSwelling & discoloration  Bone tenderness(pain on gentleBone tenderness(pain on gentle pressurepressure  Abnormal movementAbnormal movement
  82. 82. FRACTURESFRACTURES ► Immobilize the limb with a splintImmobilize the limb with a splint (a hard object to support(a hard object to support and restrict the movement of injured part)and restrict the movement of injured part) ► See that distal blood circulation is maintained (See that distal blood circulation is maintained (do not applydo not apply the bandage too tight)the bandage too tight)
  83. 83. FRACTURESFRACTURES immobilizationimmobilization
  84. 84. BURNSBURNS ► Burns caused by dry heat like flame/fireBurns caused by dry heat like flame/fire ► Scalds caused by moist heat like boiling water/steamScalds caused by moist heat like boiling water/steam ► Chemical burns by strong acids/alkalisChemical burns by strong acids/alkalis ► Nuclear burns by nuclear explosionNuclear burns by nuclear explosion  Degrees of burnsDegrees of burns 11stst degree: skin is reddegree: skin is red 22ndnd degree: blisters on the skindegree: blisters on the skin 33rdrd degree: destruction of deeper tissues/charringdegree: destruction of deeper tissues/charring
  85. 85. 11stst degree burndegree burn
  86. 86. 22ndnd degree burnsdegree burns
  87. 87. 33rdrd degree burndegree burn
  88. 88.  Danger from burns depends on the area of burns ratherDanger from burns depends on the area of burns rather than the degreethan the degree
  89. 89. DEALING WITH BURNSDEALING WITH BURNS ►Rule of 9: for estimating the area of burnRule of 9: for estimating the area of burn any burn over 30% is dangerousany burn over 30% is dangerous  put out the flames by available meansput out the flames by available means  Don’t allow the person to runDon’t allow the person to run  Lay him down quicklyLay him down quickly  Don’t remove adhesive particlesDon’t remove adhesive particles  Remove encircled objects like ringsRemove encircled objects like rings  Cover the burn area with sterile dressingCover the burn area with sterile dressing  Don’t burst blistersDon’t burst blisters  Treat for shockTreat for shock
  90. 90. chockingchocking
  91. 91. Foreign body in eyeForeign body in eye Never try to removeNever try to remove FB in theFB in the cornea(black area)cornea(black area) Rinse in cleanRinse in clean waterwater
  92. 92. POISONINGPOISONING ► Method of poisoningMethod of poisoning by swallowing: acids, alkalis, pesticides, disinfectantsby swallowing: acids, alkalis, pesticides, disinfectants alcohol, drugs etc.,alcohol, drugs etc., by inhalation : poisonous gaseous like COby inhalation : poisonous gaseous like CO  First aidFirst aid  Preserve packets/bottlesPreserve packets/bottles  Don’t induce vomitingDon’t induce vomiting  Give cold water to dilute theGive cold water to dilute the poisonpoison
  93. 93. Snake biteSnake bite ► There are more than 2,500 types of snake of which onlyThere are more than 2,500 types of snake of which only about 10 types are poisonousabout 10 types are poisonous AIMSAIMS .reassure (.reassure (most deaths are because of fearmost deaths are because of fear)) .stop spreading of venom.stop spreading of venom .obtain medical help.obtain medical help MANAGEMENTMANAGEMENT - lay down the casualty- lay down the casualty - never make him walk- never make him walk - keep the bitten part low down- keep the bitten part low down
  94. 94. FITSFITS ““involuntary jerky movements”involuntary jerky movements”  dangersdangers  InjuriesInjuries  Tongue biteTongue bite  Respiratory arrestRespiratory arrest  ManagementManagement keep the casualty on floorkeep the casualty on floor keep the mouth gagkeep the mouth gag keep in recovery positionkeep in recovery position
  95. 95. Triangular bandageTriangular bandage
  96. 96. TRANSPORTTRANSPORT  cradlecradle
  97. 97. TRANSPORTTRANSPORT Fireman's carryFireman's carry
  98. 98. TRANSPORTTRANSPORT Hand seatsHand seats
  99. 99. TRANSPORTTRANSPORT  Fore & AFT methodFore & AFT method