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  1. 1. INDIA’S STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM How India became free on August 15, 1947 A Lipilekha Presentation by Subrata Das
  2. 2. A Lipilekha Presentation by Subrata Das 2 MAP OF THE WORLD Where on earth is India?
  3. 3. A Lipilekha Presentation by Subrata Das 3 WHY DO WE CARE • Free India, as the world’s largest democracy, plays an important role in the world • Free India provided opportunities for you/your parents/grandparents to come abroad • Otherwise, you would probably be living in India under British colonial rule, not here in the USA • You owe a lot to people who sacrificed their lives in the past so you could live free today
  4. 4. A Lipilekha Presentation by Subrata Das 4 Prominent Names • Gandhi • Subhas Bose • Nehru
  5. 5. A Lipilekha Presentation by Subrata Das 5 HOMAGE TO PEOPLE BEHIND INDIA’S FREEDOM • Early Freedom Fighters, such as: Mangal Pandey in 1857 Sepoy Mutiny Lakshmi Bai, Rani of Jhansi in 1858 • Prominent Leaders, such as: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi Jawarhalal Nehru Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose • Many ordinary Indians, who sacrificed their lives and careers so we could live free today
  6. 6. A Lipilekha Presentation by Subrata Das 6 HOMAGE TO PEOPLE BEHIND INDIA’S FREEDOM • Early Freedom Fighters, such as: Mangal Pandey in 1857 Sepoy Mutiny Lakshmi Bai, Rani of Jhansi in 1858 • Prominent Leaders, such as: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi Jawarhalal Nehru Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose • Many “extraordinary” Indians, who sacrificed their lives and careers so we could live free today
  7. 7. A Lipilekha Presentation by Subrata Das 7 STRUGGLE UNDER TWO PERIODS OF BRITISH RULE • British East India Company: 1757-1858 Battle of Plassey: 6/23/1757, Palashi, West Bengal, 90 miles north of Kolkata. British, under Robert Clive, vs. Siraj-Ud-Daulah, Nawab of Bengal. Vastly outnumbered, British bribed deposed army chief Mir Jafar who betrayed the Nawab by not allowing his troops to fight Isolated resistance to British rule: 1757-1857 Sepoy Mutiny, 1857: started by Mangal Pandey Last big battle, 1858: Lakshmi Bai, Rani of Jhansi • British Government: 1858-1947 Queen Victoria, Empress of India, 1876-1901 A succession of Viceroys or Governor-Generals
  8. 8. A Lipilekha Presentation by Subrata Das 8 STRUGGLE UNDER BRITISH RULE 1858-1947 • Inspiration for Freedom: Swami Vivekananda, Sri Aurobindo, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Rabindra Nath Tagore, Dadabhai Naoroji, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, Chitta Ranjan Das, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan, Bhagat Singh, Bagha Jatin, Khudiram Bose, Surya Sen, Benoy-Badal-Dinesh Formation of • Formation of Indian National Congress, 1885 • Outrage at Viceroy Curzon’s order to partition Bengal, 1905 • Formation of Muslim League, 1906: Jinnah left INC & joined ML after disagreements with Gandhi; called for division of India, 1940. • Emperor George V’s visit to India, 1911, announcing reversal of the Bengal partition and transferring the capital from Kolkata to New Delhi • World War I, 1914-1918: India helped England’s war efforts
  9. 9. A Lipilekha Presentation by Subrata Das 9 STRUGGLE UNDER BRITISH RULE 1858-1947 (continued) • Rowlatt Act: Jallianwala Bagh Massacre 4/13/1919, soldiers fired on thousands of unarmed men, women and children, killing and wounding many • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi: work in S. Africa, work in India 1915-1948, Satyagraha (devotion to truth)(non-violent civil disobedience for freedom), 241-mile Salt March in 24 days to protest salt tax 1930, Quit India call in 1932, numerous prison terms and protest fasts, assassinated on 1/30/1948. • Jawarhalal Nehru: president of INC’s Lahore session 1929, resolution for complete independence from Britain • World War II: 1939-1945, India’s entry by Britain despite protests • Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: INC president 1937, 1939, Azad Hind Movement, house arrest, escape 1/7/1941, help from abroad, Indian National Army, death under controversial circumstances
  10. 10. A Lipilekha Presentation by Subrata Das 10 GANDHIJI’S SALT MARCH
  11. 11. A Lipilekha Presentation by Subrata Das 11 INDIAN NATIONAL ARMY 1943
  12. 12. A Lipilekha Presentation by Subrata Das 12 (EXTRA)ORDINARY FREEDOM FIGHTERS • Freedom fighters suffered and sacrificed • Examples I know: My parents both suffered jail terms • One of many incidents: – Defying police ban, my father started to deliver a speech in a meeting in Midnapore on 3/4/1932, supporting Gandhi’s call for non-cooperation – Police beat him severely on the meeting ground and jailed him – My mother visited him in jail and wept to see the welt marks on his back – She was found guilty for this visit and was jailed as well • I.I.T., Kharagpur stands at the location of the Hijli jail where both Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose and my father were jailed once at the same time
  13. 13. A Lipilekha Presentation by Subrata Das 13 INDEPENDENCE, 8/15/1947 • Mountbatten, India’s Governor-General, announced partition, 6/3/1947 • Independent Pakistan, 8/14/1947 • Independent India, 8/15/1947 Jawarhalal Nehru, Prime Minister Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Deputy Prime Minister (Mountbatten 1947-1948), Rajagopalachari, Governor-General • Violent clashes between Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs • Millions of refugees • Republic of India, 1/26/1950 Rajendra Prasad, President of India
  14. 14. A Lipilekha Presentation by Subrata Das 14 PARTITION OF INDIA
  15. 15. A Lipilekha Presentation by Subrata Das 15 TRANSFER OF POWER 8/15/1947
  16. 16. A Lipilekha Presentation by Subrata Das 16 REFUGEE TRAIN
  17. 17. A Lipilekha Presentation by Subrata Das 17 MOUNTBATTEN SALUTING INDIAN FLAG
  18. 18. A Lipilekha Presentation by Subrata Das 18 Jai Hind Shortcut to IndiaFree1947.mp4.lnk

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