Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

10 Of The Best Books About TCP/IP And Networking

1.Internet Core Protocols: The Definitive Guide: Help for Network Administrators

2.Effective TCP/IP Programming: 44 Tips to Improve Your Network Programs

3.TCP/IP Explained

4.High-Speed Networks TCP/IP and ATM Design Principles

5.TCP/IP: Architecture, Protocols, and Implementation with IPv6 and IP

6.SNMP, SNMPv2, SNMPv3, and RMON 1 and 2

7.SNMP: A Guide to Network Management

8.TCP/IP Network Administration

9.Teach Yourself Tcp/Ip in 14 Days

10.UNIX Network Programming

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment


  1. 1. ADN
  2. 2. TCP/IPTransmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol...
  3. 3. Communications Protocol• All communications between devices require that the devices agree on the formatof the data. The set of rules defining a format is called a protocol. At the very least,a communications protocol must define the following:• rate of transmission (in baud or bps)• whether transmission is to be synchronous or asynchronous• whether data is to be transmitted in half-duplex or full-duplex mode• In addition, protocols can include sophisticated techniques for detecting andrecovering from transmission errors and for encoding and decoding data.
  4. 4. TCP/IP• The Internet protocol suite is the set ofcommunications protocols which is usedfor the Internet and similar networks.• Generally the most popular protocol stackfor wide area networks.• It is occasionally known as the DoD modeldue to the foundational influence of theARPANET.• TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity• Basically it contain 4 layers.
  5. 5. • Creates a reliable connection betweentwo computers. TCP is one of the mainprotocols in TCP/IP networks. Whereasthe IP protocol deals only with packets,TCP enables two hosts to establish aconnection and exchange streams ofdata. TCP guarantees delivery of dataand also guarantees that packets will bedelivered in the same order in whichthey were sent.Transmission ControlProtocol (TCP)INTERNET PROTOCOL(IP)• Provides addressing scheme.. IP specifies theformat of packets, also called datagrams, andthe addressing scheme. Most networkscombine IP with a higher-level protocol calledTransmission Control Protocol (TCP), whichestablishes a virtual connection between adestination and a source.• IP by itself is something like the postal system. Itallows you to address a package and drop it inthe system, but theres no direct link betweenyou and the recipient. TCP/IP, on the other hand,establishes a connection between two hosts sothat they can send messages back and forth fora period of time.• The current version of IP is IPv4. A new version,called IPv6 or IPng, is under development.
  6. 6. TCP Header• Before data is sent, the transmitting hostcontacts the receiving host to set up aconnection-P n known as a virtual circuit. Thismakes T-Connection-oriented. During thehandshake the two hosts agree upon theamount of information to be sent before anacknowledgment is needed (Windowing). TCPtakes the large blocks of data from the upperlayers and breaks them up into segments that itnumbers and sequences. TCP will the pass thesegments to the network layer, which will routethem through the Internetwork. The receivingTCP can put the segments back into order. Afterpackets are sent, TCP waits for anacknowledgment from the receiving end of thevirtual circuit. If no acknowledgment is receivedthen the sending host will retransmit thesegment
  7. 7. Main Function of TCP/IP...TCP accepts data from applications and segments it into a desirablesize for transmission between itself and the remote devices. Thesegment size is determined while TCP is negotiating the connectionbetween the two devices. Either device can dictate the segment size.TCP maintains timers to identify when packets have taken too long toget to their destination. When an acknowledgment is not received fora packet and the timer expires, TCP will resend the packet to thedestination.TCP/IP uses sequence numbers to ensure that all packets sent by anapplication on one device are read in the correct order by anapplication on another device. The packets might not be received atthe transport layer in the correct order, but TCP sequences them intheir original order before passing them to the application layer.Any time two devices are communicating, the possibility exists thatone device can send data faster than the other can accept it. If thishappens, the receiving device puts the extra packets into a buffer tobe read at the first chance it gets. When this data overflow persists,however, the buffer is eventually filled and packets begin to drop. TCPperforms some preventive maintenance called flow control to avoidthe problem.Provides acknowledgment timesSegments application layer data streamEnables sequence number checkingProvides buffer management
  8. 8. Main Function of TCP/IP..TCP uses the concept of the three-way handshake to initiate aconnection between two devices.• A TCP connection begins with a device sending a request tosynchronize sequence numbers (a SYN packet) and initiate aconnection.• The other device receives the message and responds with a SYNmessage and the sequence number increased by one.• The first device responds by sending an acknowledgmentmessage (an ACK) to the second device, indicating that the devicereceived the sequence number it expected.TCP uses a checksum to identify packets that have changed duringtransport. If a device receives a packet with a bad checksum, itdrops the packet and does not send an acknowledgment for thepacket. So the sending device will resend the packet. Any time TCPreceives a duplicate packet it will drop the duplicate.Any time a TCP device sends data to another device, it must wait forthe acknowledgment that this data was received, To increase thebandwidth utilization, TCP can change the window size. Whateverthe window size is negotiated to be, acknowledgments will only besent after that many packets have been received at the receivingdevice. TCP sets the window size dynamically during a connection,allowing either device involved in the communication to slow downthe sending data rate based on the other devices capacity. Thisprocess is known as sliding window because of TCPs ability toInitiates connections with 3-way handshakePerforms acknowledgment windowingPerforms error and duplication checking
  9. 9. LayerNameCommonComponentsOSIReferenceApplicationHTTP, SMTP, POP3FTP, DNSApplicationPresentationSessionTransport TCP, UDP TransportNetworkIP, ICMP NetworkPhysicalEthernet, FDDIData LinkPhysicalTCP-IPModel
  10. 10. Working..APPLICATION LAYER• This layer makes the Communication B/wProgram and Transport protocol.• Protocols :-HTTP,SMTP,FTP,SNMP,DNS,TELNET• Application Layer talks to the transportlayer through a port . SMTP-25, HTTP-80,FTP-20,21APPLICATIONTRANSPORT
  11. 11. • The Transport Layer get data fromthe Application Layer and Divided itinto several data packets.• Both UDP and TCP will get the datafrom the Application layer and add aHEADER to it when transmittingdata. On this header there areseveral control information, in aparticular the source port number.• UDP header has 8bytes while TCPheader has 20 or 24 Bytes.Working..NETWORK LAYER
  12. 12. • The network layer is responsible forpacket forwarding including routingthrough intermediate routers,whereas the data link layer isresponsible for media accesscontrol, flow control and errorchecking.• The network layer provides thefunctional and procedural means oftransferring variable length datasequences from a source to adestination host via one or morenetworks while maintaining thequality of service functions.Working..TRANSPORT LAYER
  13. 13. Working..PHYSICAL LAYER• This layer is define by what type ofPhysical Network your computer isconnected to. Almost always connectedto an Ethernet Network.• TCP/IP is the set of protocol that dealswith layers 3 to 7 from OSI referencemodel, while Ethernet is a set ofprotocol that deals with layer 1 and 2form OSI.• Ethernet has three Layers1. Logic Link control (LLC)2. Media Access Control (MAC)3. Physical
  14. 14. Logic Link Control (LLC)•The Logic Link layer (LLC) is in charge ofadding information of which protocol on theInternet layer delivered data to betransmitted, so when receiving a frame fromthe network this layer on the receivingcomputer has to know to which protocolfrom the Physical layer it should deliver data.This Layer is Define by IEEE 808.2 Protocol.
  15. 15. Media Access Control (MAC)• The Media Access Control layer (MAC) is in change of assemblingthe frame that will be sent over the network.• This Layer is in charge of adding the source MAC address and thetarget MAC address – as we explained before.• MAC address is the physical address of a network Card• Frames That are targeted to another network will use the routerMAC address as the target address.• This Layer is defined by IEEE 802.3 Protocol, if a cabled network isbeing used, or by IEEE 802.11 Protocol, if a wireless network is BeingUsed.
  16. 16. Physical Layer• The Physical layer is in charge of converting theframe Generated by the MAC layer into electricity(if a cable network is used) or intoelectromagnetic waves (if a wireless network isbeing used).• This layer is also defined by IEEE 802.3 Protocol, Ifa Cable network is used, or by IEEE 802.11 Protocol,if a Wireless network is used
  17. 17. Full Physical Layer..
  18. 18. Some Universal References..•••••
  19. 19. By :-NIKET.CH & VIKASPANDEYE-mail :-vikaspandey786@hotmail.comniket786@hotmail.comWebsite :-http:/niket786.webs.comBlog :-innovtechno.blogspot.comSlide Share :-Facebook :-