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Semantic Web Technologies For Digital Libraries


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Semantic Web Technologies For Digital Libraries

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Semantic Web Technologies For Digital Libraries

  1. 1. SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES FOR DIGITAL LIBRARIES By Nikesh .N International School of Information Management, Mysore
  2. 2. PRESENTATION OVERVIEW <ul><li>Digital Library </li></ul><ul><li>Library standards & Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic Digital Library :Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic Web Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliographic Ontology (MarcOnt) </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study ( Jerome DL) </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
  3. 3. DIGITAL LIBRARY <ul><li>Information System which deals with collection, organization, storage and retrieval of digital documents </li></ul>
  4. 4. WHY LIBRARY STANDARDS ? WHAT ARE TOOLS & TECHNIQUES ? <ul><li>Bibliographic Descriptions Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Library Classification Scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Subject Headings </li></ul><ul><li>Subject Indexing </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval Techniques </li></ul>
  5. 5. BIBLIOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTIONS <ul><li>A bibliographic description format is formal definition of syntax, meaning and rules of describing resources collected by library or other similar entity. Bibliographic description formats are descendants of sets of rules for describing library resources used back in the XIXth century and are still used today. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: ISBD , AACR, Bibtex, MARC 21,Doubline Core </li></ul>
  6. 6. LIBRARY CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES <ul><li>Library classification systems help categorize library resources according to domain of interest of their content. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Dewey’s Decimal Classification </li></ul><ul><li> Universal Decimal Classification </li></ul><ul><li>Colon classification </li></ul>
  7. 7. SUBJECT HEADINGS FOR VOCABULARY CONTROL <ul><li>Library of Congress subject Headings </li></ul><ul><li>Sears list of subject headings </li></ul><ul><li>Mesh ( Medical Subject Headings) </li></ul>
  8. 8. SUBJECT INDEXING <ul><li>Pre-coordinate Indexing (Coordination by Indexer) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PRESIS, POPSI, KWIC, Chain Indexing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post coordinate Indexing (Coordination by user) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyword indexing </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. INFORMATION SEARCH AND RETRIEVAL <ul><li>Bibliographic field based search </li></ul><ul><li>Full text search </li></ul><ul><li>Boolean Search </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity Search </li></ul><ul><li>Truncation Search etc. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Full-text search </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Paintings ” AND “ Sooraj ” AND “ flowers ”  no result </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semantic query </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if the knowledge that “ irises ” are “ flowers ” is modeled in an ontology (e.g. subclass-hierarchy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>we can query for all “ Paintings ” by “ Sooraj ” with subject “ flowers ” and retrieve also the picture with subject “ irises ” </li></ul></ul>WHAT LACKS- SEMANTICS ( EXAMPLE) Sooraj Creation-Creator/Role ISIM Library Current Location-Repository Name irises , nature , soil Subject-Matter 2009 Creation-Date Irises Title paintings Object/Work type Paintings Classification
  11. 11. SEMANTIC DIGITAL LIBRARY- EXPECTATIONS <ul><li>A digital library system which is capable of Integrating information based on different metadata, e.g.: resources, user profiles, bookmarks, taxonomies </li></ul><ul><li>Providing interoperability with other systems (not only digital libraries) </li></ul><ul><li>Delivering more robust, user friendly search and browsing interfaces empowered by semantics </li></ul>
  12. 12. SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>Semantic Web is becoming reality by applications that support it and are based on it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Ontology Languages : OWL, RDFS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ontology editors : Protégé, Onto Edit etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RDF , RDF Schema </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RDF Storages: Sesame, Jena, YARS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasoners: KAON, Racer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annotation tools ( Annotea, Onto Annotizer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic Maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thesauri & Controlled Vocabularies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( eg: Wordnet) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>– </li></ul>
  13. 13. SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES FOR DIGITAL LIBRARIES? <ul><li>Metadata is the key concept </li></ul><ul><li>Many digital libraries do have metadata in place </li></ul><ul><li>Task is to make them available in a machine understandable format </li></ul><ul><li>How to uplift Legacy Metadata to Semantic Level </li></ul><ul><li>RDF: </li></ul><ul><li>Is a framework to model any kind of metadata </li></ul><ul><li>It delivers certain level of technical interoperability </li></ul>
  14. 14. BIBLIOGRAPHIC ONTOLOGIES <ul><li>Effort to Capture the Semantics of Metadata </li></ul><ul><li>MarcOnt Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>MarcOnt Initiative has grown from the experiences of developing and evaluating the first semantic digital library, JeromeDL </li></ul><ul><li>Developed as a part of Master's thesis of Sebastian Ryszard </li></ul><ul><li>Kruk at the Gdańsk University of Technology (GUT), Poland </li></ul><ul><li>MarcOnt Initiative goals: </li></ul><ul><li>Create a framework for collaborative ontology improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate existing metadata and Library classification scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Offer tools for data mediation between different data formats </li></ul>
  15. 15. MARCONT ONTOLOGY AND PORTAL <ul><li>MarcOnt Ontology: </li></ul><ul><li>Central point of MarcOnt Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Translation and mediation format </li></ul><ul><li>Continuos collaborative ontology improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge from the domain experts </li></ul><ul><li>MarcOnt Portal (source of knowledge): </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Annotations </li></ul><ul><li>Versioning </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology editor </li></ul>
  16. 16. CASE STUDY-JEROMEDL <ul><li>Joint effort of DERI, National University of Ireland, Galway and Gdansk University of Technology (GUT) </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed under BSD Open Source license </li></ul>
  17. 17. JEROMEDL - MOTIVATIONS <ul><li>Support for different kinds of bibliographic medatata, like: DublinCore , BibTeX and MARC21 at the same time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making use of existing rich sources of bibliographic descriptions (like MARC21) created by human. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supporting users and communities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>user s ha ve control over their profile information ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>community-aware profiles are integrated with bibliographic descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support for community generated knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. ONTOLOGIES IN JEROMEDL <ul><li>Structure (system administrators): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>JeromeDL structure ontology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bibliographic and legacy descriptions ( domain experts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MarcOnt bibliographic ontology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensible MarcOnt suggestions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communities (normal users, expert users with restricted vocabulary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FOAF and FOAFRealm identity management ontology </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. MARCONT MEDIATION SERVICES FOR LEGACY METADATA Format translation RDF Translator Format co-operation MarcOnt Mediation Services
  23. 23. SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY IN GEROMDL <ul><li>Providing semantic annotations during uploading process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>open module (JOnto) for handling any taxonomies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>keywords based on : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WordNet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>free tagging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>defining structure of resources in the JeromeDL ontology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lifting legacy metadata to MarcOnt ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Community maintained annotations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>social semantic collaborative filtering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>semantic descriptions based on the FOAF metadata </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. FOAF - DESCRIBING SOCIAL NETWORKS <ul><li>FOAF - Stands for Friend-of-a-Friend </li></ul><ul><li>Defines properties for a person </li></ul><ul><li>Does not only have to contain one person per file </li></ul><ul><li>Can build a network of people with foaf:knows links </li></ul><ul><li>FOAF can be easily extended to meet requirements, as in the case of FOAFRealm for identity management… </li></ul>
  25. 25. JEROMEDL – SEMANTIC INFORMATION IN USE <ul><li>Searching: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyword-based search with semantic query expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic search: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct RDF querying </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural language templates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Faceted Navigation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>creators, types, keywords, Topics etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sharing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Semantic Collaborative Filtering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantically Interlinked Online Communities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous communication: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OAI -PMH </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. REFERENCES <ul><li>Semantic Web – W3C, </li></ul><ul><li>The Semantic Web Community Portal, </li></ul><ul><li>Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – </li></ul><ul><li>Jerome Digital Library Homepage – </li></ul><ul><li>MarcOnt Initiative Portal – </li></ul><ul><li>Marcin Synak: MarcOnt Ontology – Semantic MARC21 Description for L2L & L2C Communication, Masters Thesis, Faculty of Electronics, telecommunication and Informatics, National University of Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Sebastian R. Kruk and Marcin Synak: Semantic Digital Libraries: BANNF conference proceedings, 2007 </li></ul>
  27. 27. THANK YOU <ul><li>Questions Please ? </li></ul>