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10 interview med_designere

  1. 1. Best Practices in Corporate Training and the Role of Aesthetics: Interviews with Eight Experts Morgan Jennings, Ph.D. Metropolitan State College of Denver Campus Box 45 PO Box 173362 Denver, CO 80217-3362 1 303 556 8491 jenninmo @mscd.eduABSTRACT The interviews are the data from rigorous qualitative research lStop playing around and get to work is a common refrain. While employing empirical phenomenological methodology [ l l ] andthe two do not seem to mix, research indicates that play has much theory development for analysis and coding [8, 15]. The findingsto offer corporate training when it comes to learning. This paper provide a framework, based upon the categories derived from thepresents in narrative form, a summary of the interviews with eight interviews and from aesthetic literature (specifically themaster designers of engaging and immersive learning products characteristics of aesthetic experience) that could be used to createand the subsequent aesthetic framework for development of such meaningful and engaging corporate training material.environments. Categories were created when at least five participants spoke of a similar concept and data was triangulated to increase internalKeywords validity. Upon completion of data analysis the characteristics ofAesthetic characteristics, aesthetic experience, simulations, aesthetic experience (unity, attention, active discovery, attention,corporate training, engaging learning environments affect) 2 were used as major headings because of the fit with the native categories developed from the interviews.1. INTRODUCTIONWhile engaging and immersive computer games, edutainment and 2.1.2 Participantstelevision specials are common, corporate training sessions Eight master designers of award-winning products werefeaturing these components are not. Recent research [11, 13, 14, interviewed. Nancy Maresh is the owner of Creative Learning15] and business trade journals [7] however, have begun to International and is the co-creator of The Accounting Game, anespouse play or game-like simulations as environments for adult accelerated learning program/workshop. David Stone is thelearning, such as corporate training. director of Telecourse Development/Production at Jones DigitalWhat are the elements for engaging and immersive environments? Century. Stone produces distance education material and PBSTo answer this question the author went to award winning programs and has experience with computer game design. Susandesigners. This paper presents the experiential story of interviews Schilling, designer of Oregon Trail III, has been involved withwith master designers of engaging and immersive learning computer-based learning since its inception. Schilling is now theenvironments and the resulting aesthetic framework. director of Lucas Learning, which is owned by George Lucas of Star Wars fame. Will Wright (master designer) is co-founder of2. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY Maxis and the original mayor of SimCity. Bremer (writer) has worked on many Sim titles. Mark Schroder is the president of2.1.1 Purpose and Method Digital Creations, a multimedia, lnternet and graphic-designThe study was based on the hypothesis that some popular learning company. Peter Grundy is an artist at Digital Creations. Joeproducts take into account a holistic and multi-modal approach to Lamos heads the design team for The Cooperative Program forthe design and development of immersive and engaging Operational Meteorology, Education and Training (COMET),environments, similar to aesthetic experience. The purpose was to which supports the science education and forecast training ofdetermine the design commonalties between these diverse operational forecasters in the National Weather Service, the Airproducts and to develop a framework or model based upon the Weather Service and the Naval Meteorological and Oceanographyfindings that could be used to create such learning environments. Command. COMET is a highly interactive CD training series. The following sections of the synopsis are divided by primary Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without lee provided that copies categories 3 and sub-categories4 and identify the conceptual are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the thll citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists. See Jennings (1998) for a thorough description of the study. requires prior specific permission and/or a tee. SIGCPR 2001 San Diego CA USA 2 See Beardsley, 1969, 1970, 1982 & Jennings (1998) for a Copyright ACM 2001 1-58113-363-1/01/04...$5.00 description of aesthetic experience/characteristics and the relationship to learning. 3 Aesthetic characteristics 215
  2. 2. similarities that were found within the products and between the system information. In a psychology series, Stone began oneparticipants design processes. segment on brain-mind development with a story about a young boy who had part of this brain removed. The story was used as an3. INTERVIEWS entr6e to talk about the nature of the brain and its interchangeable parts.3.1 UnityThe importance of unity lies in providing a holistic environment "Our minds inherently want to construct a story--a linear story--for the user in which to experience emotion, focused attention, to understand the causal relationships within events" [Wright].active discovery and intrinsic gratification. Creating unity Wright says users build a "whole story around causal effects thatprovides a feeling of continuity and of closure and completeness do not exist in the game." Each users story is unique to them, andfor the user. A unified environment helps users understand it provides a feeling of completeness and closure.content and relationships. The participants described the sub-category concepts of context, stories, metaphor and mini Gestalt. 3.1.3 Metaphor The purpose of metaphor is to weave parts into a whole. Like a3.1.1 Context story, metaphor provides a means to create coherence for the user.Context is often mentioned in aesthetic literature, particularly in Maresh uses engaging metaphors in the workshops she presentsregard to surroundings and anticipation. For example, some because "wheres all the hooks to hang the information on if youpeople who attend movies may do so with the anticipation of have no context?" Her well-known workshop on basic accountingbeing captivated and carried away. It helps give depth, richness principles is based on the metaphor of a lemonade stand. Mares hand a link to empathy, which helps establish a unified sets an elaborate stage with colored paper, laminated maps,environment. colorful pretend money, appropriate music and any other props she thinks will help engage and immerse a workshop participant.All of the participants discussed the importance of providing a The workshop participants operate a lemonade stand from theunified or holistic environment, which was frequently described perspective of a child, with childhood nicknames written on theiras context. Maresh believes that "context is more important than name badges. The participants play and have fun while learninganything." In her train-the-trainer workshops for industry, she often-intimidating mathematical formulas and terms forfolds content and context together. She says that often her accounting procedures.workshop is the first time that company trainers learn about therelationship of content and context. "Theyre learning for the first Stone always finds a means to bring information together. There istime to think about -- how does the content that I m teaching a "set of knowledge that needs to be treated in some way orrelate to life?" She says that very often the trainers become another." In a program about different musical styles, he used theenthusiastic about producing training material when they metaphor of how music affected cultures as a means to provideunderstand this because it is much more enjoyable to produce a context. All the different types of music could be brought underholistic, engaging environment than creating drill and practice the umbrella of cultural influence. The program would havematerial. seemed fragmented without some kind of a bridge from one type of music to another to create a sense of wholeness or unity.As Stone said, "It must be about something" in order to provide afocus for the user. COMET modules are contextually based 3.1.4 Mini Gestaltbecause Lamos says that we "learn in context." Context provides, Whatever the means of providing unity, determining the actualfor the user, a focus for mental modeling, problem-solving and, content is obviously very important. However, it is not aboutsays Schilling, "an emotional investment." "bringing all of the content. Its selecting some very important part of it, and thats really critical" [Stone]. Lamps received3.1.2 Story feedback from the users of the COMET program suggestingStories were the most frequently described method for creating shorter modules for the sake of time and concentration. Heunity. Stories have a beginning, middle and end which provides a suggested considering an analogy he had learned: "How long is afeeling of closure and completeness for the user. In speaking of string? In other words, you have this concept called string, but itstories, Shilling said her team wondered, "How could we bring could be this long or it could be that long." In designing anythat in [an emotional hook]? ... and thats where the whole program, he says that part of the "design challenge" is to "createintegration of stories started to come in... Because how do you get closure." Therefore, a module, lesson or program of any lengthemotion into an experience unless youve got something for them must be cohesive and have closure for the user.to basically pin it on?" This is the idea of a mini Gestalt, or microworld. Most of theBremer described how novels set the scene and introduce the participants talked about the amount of content that is covered incharacters so that a reader can understand the plot and become an application. Both Oregon Trail and SimCity designers foundemotionally involved with a story. Setting the scene for a game is that too many decisions in the beginning, although realistic,equally important. "The player still keeps playing to see what frustrated and bored the users. For example, determininghappens next. Maybe [the game is] presenting enough information everything that must be included for a wagon train wasin the right way to keep the player curious". overwhelming, so the designer gave the users the option to use aAuthentic experiences of weather-related stories are currently pre-packaged trip. If a user had to go through all of the red tapeunder development by Lamps and his team for future COMET that an actual city planner experiences, the game would nevermodules. These stories, as told by pilots, will personalize weather progress. Therefore, based on the complexity of a concept, not all of reality may be initially presented at a novice level. However, as4 Native terms used by the participants a user becomes more proficient, more detail is available to them. 216
  3. 3. "So youre actually able to learn the system very incrementally" meanings. All of the designers include the opportunity for active[Wright]. discovery in their products. Schroder says, "If you cant keep the user engaged and keep him thinking about whats next, or this is3.2 Attention or Object Directedness fun, or I wonder what that does. then youre wasting your time."Elements that bring about focus or a desire to proceed with an Additionally, the participants were well aware of the importanceactivity represent the aesthetic characteristic of attention [4]. of providing users a means to improve their skill and knowledge"Grabbing the viewers attention immediately ... communicating for progressing from novice to expert. For example, users ofwith that audience rapidly" are important criteria for "hooking" Oregon Trail and SimCity can start out very simply and createusers [Stone]. Lamos says that there is too much vying for more complicated adventures as they become more proficient.peoples attention and therefore the material must be "meaningful COMET users are able to freely access information and move toto them." appropriate modules for their knowledge level.The sub-categories under attention are familiarity, props, The sub-categories, problem-solving, play, replay, fill-in-the-overview and media components for attention. These tactics, blanks, are means for the users to be active in the environmentdiscussed by the participants, are a means to draw and sustain the where they have opportunities to explore, discover and makeattention of the user. mistakes.3.2.1 Familiarity 3.3.1 Problem-solvingIn the programs that Stone produces, the viewers are often shown A frequently mentioned means of creating a means for activesomething that is familiar to them. For example, a difficult discovery was through various problem-solving activities. "A lotmathematical concept may be introduced with a roulette wheel or of what we do, even for recreation, involves problem-solving"a pair of dice. Familiar examples in the beginning help establish a [Wright]. Lamos said he looked "at learning as a problem-solvingcomfort level and engage the mind. Likewise, Maresh says to activity" because learning is a "purposeful activity." Schilling"always create connection and common ground," including when described problem-solving learning environments as ones with"segueing from one piece of information to another." constraints and goals that involved critical thinking on the part ofSchilling suggests that "reasons why the licensed properties these the users. Schilling explained that the users have to see thedays have the most success in the consumer market place ... is that consequences of their decisions so they are able to make informedthe kids have an emotional relationship to the Disney characters, follow-up decisions.to the film .... They know that character, and then when they seethat character in the Disney CD, as long as that character acts in a 3.3.2 Playway with integrity -- with how they think that character should act Play is a process of active discovery. The SimCity creators,-- they bring along with them that whole experience into that Wright and Bremer, talked about the difference in mind set thatCD." may be created between the concept of a toy and a game. A game is often a win/lose situation where as "toys are a bit more open3.2.2 Props ended. A toy you just play with. You can make up your ownMaresh adds elements of surprise to sustain attention and rituals games with a toy. You can decide what your own goals are. A toysuch as stretching and deep breathing because changing states by is something that you spend time with. So SimCity is like a littlechanging the activity also helps maintain attention. Digital play city. Like a little toy planet." A toy should "let you try things.Creators adds interactive elements to many of their products. In I should let you fail, preferably without killing you, and makingsome .cases it is for hands-on educational purposes and in other you start over again and again" [Wright].cases it is to help gain and maintain attention. Maresh provides toys for the participants of her workshops. In3.2.3 Overview one workshop, they receive an alligator after they learn about theEarly within a program, Stone establishes the theme of the reptilian part of the brain. She believes that learning is easierprogram. "They [the viewers/students] get a sense of What is it? when people are physically active and relaxed. In a workshopand What am I watching?" This helps focus viewers and gain dealing with the internet, Maresh had participants spin a spinnertheir interest and attention. Additionally, Stone believes that and receive a mission card for a treasure hunt. They explore thegreater enticement than in the past is needed to gain attention. internet and in the process learn function buttons, etc., while they"There was a standard model in doing a television program, which are playing the game. "The whole learning process is handed overwas to hit them [the viewer] with a cute graphic or something up to them, and the instructor is just troubleshooting" [Maresh].front. The television programmers/marketers discovered that if 3.3.3 Replaythey waited for the cartoon to begin, it was too late. Because of Related to the open-ended notion of play, the participantscommercials, there was too much of a risk of people moving on. discussed the value of replay. Replay opportunities allow the userSo, they moved a tease into the credits of the preceding program to actively explore different options and discover thein order to have some sort of entry because there needs to be some consequences of different decisions. Replayabilty of games iskind of a hook right up front." based on the number of different circumstances or settings the3.3 Active Discovery user may choose. "You know that there are certain games" where "its never going to be the same twice if that space is big enough."Active discovery is another five characteristic of aesthetic [Wright]. More space equals more opportunity for replay becauseexperience. It is the "the excitement of meeting a cognitive of the variety of problems and resolutions. COMET users have thechallenge" [4:292). It is the process of actively seeking answers or opportunity to test their own hypothesis and, in one case, compareresolutions, and it is the challenge of seeing connections and 217
  4. 4. their ideas with an experts and, in another case, see the results in 3.4.1 Shared Experiencesanimated form. In all cases the participants talked about shared experiences. ThisUser success often depends on some guidance from the program could be through actual interaction with other people, or ahelping them learn from the choices they make. In COMET, character pal or sidekick. Lamos believes that we are a "small-Oregon Trail and SimCity, users receive feedback on their actions. group animal," and we need a meaningful connection with others.If a traveler in Oregon Trail or a city planner in SimCity makes Stone talked about the importance of us feeling as if we are a partparticular choices without making other important ones, the of the "larger universe."program will prompt the user. These game designers create A network version of Oregon Trail, where users become differentauthentic problems for the user to solve. In Oregon Trail, if a members of the wagon train, is very successful. The memberstraveler shoots a buffalo but doesnt have enough room to carry involved in the journey make decisions together such as, "Shouldthe meat, the user would be advised of the situation. If a COMET we go on or wait for Sara to recover from cholera?" [Schilling].user chooses to go to a module that may be beyond their Wright says he has seen children play electronic games togetherknowledge level, the program asks the user if they want to that are not purposely designed for more than one player.proceed and explains why the prompt was made. In all cases, theuser can still choose to continue on the path they selected or Another option in creating shared-experiences is the illusion ofreplay their choices. interaction by providing characters with which the user interacts. In Oregon Trail, users interact and communicate with characters3.3.4 Fill-in-the-blanks in the towns and on the wagon train. Lamos and Stone use expertStone has found that viewers enjoy making the connection commentary. COMET users can listen to an expert as well asbetween narration and pictures rather than being explicitly told hypothesize about a topic and then compare their comments withwhat is occurring. He said, "People like the experience of being the experts recorded monologue. In a psychology series, hesmart," and filling in the blanks is an opportunity for users to feel showed Skinner talking about behavioral psychology, aboutsmart. He suggests that its "a little bit like a good joke. You get which Stone comments, "What a treat for the students to hear itthe satisfaction of... piecing the story together in your mind" and from the originator of the field." Providing a means to connectunderstanding the meaning, without having it made explicit. You with others helps establish an emotional investment on the part ofavoid directly "telling them the right answer. You have to let them the user.fill-in-the-blanks, figure it out themselves, do the gap-bridging allby themselves. Otherwise youve committed the egregious sin in 3.4.2 First-Person Perspectivetelev;.sion of being boring" and it doesnt allow the viewer the First-person perspective was frequently mentioned as anothersatisfaction of piecing the story together [Stone]. Stone explained important technique for emotional investment. It is a personal andthat "you dont have to show exactly what you are saying" for a intimate way for the user to experience an environment. Schillingviewer to understand the information because, in fact, showing said that initially the team thought about including a character inand telling the same information is not interesting or stimulating Oregon Trail as a means for an emotional connection. However,to the viewer. they realized that the user became the character and that this taking on of an identity was an emotional investment.Wright and Bremer talked about the intrigue of comics. In acomic, much is left for the reader to fill in from panel to panel. This is similar to SimCity, where the user "will find a unique"So in some sense, the art of comics is leaving enough room in image to identify as themselves in SimCity, whether its as mayorthe gutters for each user to co-write the story" [Bremer]. Too or God or the city itself" [Wright]. When a user becomes amany specifics do not give the user the opportunity to incorporate traveler or a city planner, they have more invested in the outcome.their own "variations" or imagination [Bremer]. They have a sense of control over the action and consequences.Schilling talked about the popularity and marketability of the If the perspective is not first person, then identifying with aDisney CD-ROMs. Because kids have seen the characters on character is important. Authors spend a great deal of timetelevision and at the movies, they have a mental model. "Its a introducing and building characters so that the reader becomesmuch richer experience for the kid then whats even in the CD emotionally invested in the characters outcome. Bremer andbecause they fill-in-the-blanks around the story. They fill-in-the- Stone think that a connection is made because readers or viewers may be seeing themselves in the situation.blanks around the characters motivation" because the childrenknow the characters. 3.4.3 Intrigue There is often an element of intrigue that sustains emotional3.4 Affect involvement. In Oregon Trail it might be completing the quest.Affect is the emotional component of an experience. Emotional Schilling thought that one of the reasons Oregon Trail was soinvolvement from an aesthetic experience perspective is "an successful was because of the emotional connection with the Oldengagement of the whole self [3:17). It "carries the experienceforward, binding parts and moments together" [9:72). For West. "One of the reasons that 1 think Oregon Trail succeeds is that culturally, Americans have a mythology that we all believeexample, this might be the concept of willingly suspending belief, about westward expansion. [Schilling]. She believes that "whensuch as becoming a character in an environment or accepting the their [kids] emotions are engaged, they are learning at a higherparameters of another world. In short, affect is the emotional rate than if they were just being asked to do rote, drill-typeinvestment a user makes in order to be immersed in an things." There is a vicarious sense of exploring the Old West.environment. The subheadings, shared experiences, first personand intrigue help users make an emotional investment in order to Grundy talks about providing reasons for the user to explore asustain their involvement in the environment. program. This can be done through techniques such as a feeling of 218
  5. 5. movement (accomplished through graphic techniques) or a feeling market is "What are the kids interested in? "What do they value?"of mystery and intrigue that entices a user to proceed. He used Then, based on market feedback, products are produced.Myst (a highly successful interactive puzzle-type game) as anexample of mystery and intrigue. In speaking about this aspect, 3.5.2 Ownership and InvestmentGrundy said, "Every screen had a path, every screen had a draw to According to Bremer, a program-induced motivation technique isit. There was something or some kind of space or coloring that provided by establishing a feeling of "ownership anddrew you to it and made you want to explore that area." identification". In SimCity, ownership and identification occursAdditionally, Myst provided enticement with "paths leading off when the user has "invested the time and built every little roadinto the distance, and you got a faint hint of something there" and building and you know why that building is there and why[Grundy]. that road is there. The user has made a personal investment that creates a sense of ownership.3.5 Intrinsic Gratification: Schilling also believes that ownership and investment areIntrinsic gratification is the fifth characteristic of an aesthetic important. She described a successful program at an elementaryexperience. It is a feeling of pleasure from an activity where the school where students supplied information to other students overreward is the activity itself. It is the "continuing enjoyment and a the internet about an environmental project. One young studentfinal satisfaction or fulfillment that may linger after the experience was on a walk with his father and saw the migrating butterflies thehas ended" [3:10). children were studying. He wanted to rush home and tell hisSchilling discussed the need to provide environments that were internet cohorts that the butterflies had been spotted. The studentsintrinsically gratifying to users. She speculated, "How do we involved with this real life project felt that they were contributingeducate our youth so that they know theyre part of the future? members of a worthwhile project. This kind of project helps createThey dont have, right now, anything that tells them they are a sense of ownership and investment in the outcome. Schillingvaluable, contributing members of society, and that we expect said children need "a goal that they think is worthy" of their time.them to do great things for us." She thinks we should consider "So, its not just an electronic experience, but there is some"building those things into their experiences in middle school and tangible end product that they value."high school, and teach them that they are going to be the oneswho set the direction and solve the next set of messes." By 3.5.3 Satisfaction"putting the power into the hands of the kids in a way thats "There has to be that feeling that youre moving ahead and thatguided - that gives them, in small, little, highly carefully youre not going to reach an impasse with learning and discovery.constructed environments - that sense of accomplishment." Its going to be satisfying all the way through.i. "iqaisstatement bySatisfaction and accomplishment are important for a feeling of Stone is similar to Csikszentmihalyis (1975) idea that whenintrinsic gratification. challenge and skills are at an apex for a person, then a feeling of flow, or satisfaction, is possible. The optimal level ofThree sub-categories of intrinsic gratification emerged from the complication and discovery yields what Stone calls the "ah-hadata. The sub-categories that emerged from the data are (a) the experience." A feeling of satisfaction for the user can bepersonal motivation that the users brought, (b) feelings of accomplished by providing an activity where they have anownership and investment, and (c) a feeling of satisfaction. opportunity to be successful.3.5.1 Personal Motivation 4. AESTHETIC FRAMEWORKMost of the designers believed that the users must initially be self- The ideas and concepts expressed by the participants support themotivated. What we "are very upfront about ... is the fact that our characteristics of aesthetic experience [3, 4, 6]. During the firstaudience here [is] professional forecasters and they have a part of the interview, when the participants described (in theirmotivation to be engaged" [Lamos]. Stone also writes for an own words) their design process, they serendipitously includedaudience he considers intrinsically motivated. He said, "in dealing information that related to aesthetic characteristics, although theywith the external versus the internal [gratification], you have to may not have used the same terms as the literature. Whenassume that initially there is some kind of intrinsic motivation specifically asked about aesthetic experience and itstowards your topic .... They [the users] have something going for characteristics, the participants were comfortable with thethem already that 1 try to build upon." This notion seems to mirror terminology and felt that the characteristics were an accuratethe concept of aesthetic attitude: an active openness and description of many of the strategies they incorporated into theirwillingness to learn and to experience. However, Stone hopes that products. "In terms of the elements youre describing, it sounds"the confluence of the dynamic narrative, the wonderful music, exactly like what 1 do." This statement was made by Stone andthe compelling visuals, etc., would from that point, hook any similarly echoed by the other participants.viewer into the subject matter, especially with the level of materialthat you [producer/designer] deal with as your introduction." Figure 1 is a depiction of the aesthetic framework garnered from aesthetic literature and the interviews. The main headings areStone is referring to the home market in this last statement whereusers must be personally motivated in order to view one of his aesthetic characteristics and the subheadings are native categoriesPBS series. Schilling mentioned the motivation of users for the from the interviews.home market as well. She said the question to consider for this 219
  6. 6. Aesthetic Framework The ouhoronooand complotono~ of obJe~ Story Metaphor Context Mini Gestalt Sets a scene to Assembles all Provides richness and Provides complete create empatheti( parts into a depth to content by content for the connection whole creating an experience particular context =~ATrENTION: Elements Ihat brll s dNire to proceed with an aclMty Familiarity Props Overview Go from the knownUse props and interactive Provide users with to the unknown processes the big picture. prooe~ of~ -or ~ to oognlUve~ ~ - Problem-solving Play Replay Fill-in-blanks Provide contextually Provide an Provide users with Allow the opportunity accurate & environment that many alternatives & to make connections meaningful guided allows exploration & options to pursue & inferences activities experimentation. An emotional Investment that helps create a Shared Experience First Person Intrigue Provide a means for Set up the environment Let the plot thicken, the users to interact with so that users have some story unfold, the others control over or are part picture evolve. of the environment GRATIFICATION: A feeling of pleasure, reWar¢ and satisfaction from an activ#y Personal MotivaUon Ownership & Satisfaction Include innovative Investment Provide a means techniques to sustain Provide users with for the user to be motivation. meaningful activities successful and opportunities Figure 1 We have the technology resources available to create and provide5. C O N C L U S I O N S immersive and engaging corporate training. The question seems toA framework for the design of aesthetic multimedia learning no longer be Should we? but rather How should we?environments (MMLE) that engage and focus the learner seems anappropriate model for learning. Schilling, believes that learners 6. R E F E R E N C E Sneed meaningful, engaging and contextually relevant problems to [1] Beardsley, M. C. "Aesthetics: Problems in thesolve in order to feel like contributing members of society. Lames Philosophy of Criticism." New York: Harcourt Brace,also believes in the importance of meaningful learning and praisesthe technological capability we currently have for providing these 1958.kinds of multimedia environments. Schroder suggests that the [2] Beardsley, M. C. "Aesthetic experience regained." Thefuture holds even more technologically advanced hardware Journal of Art Criticism, 28, Fall 1969, 2-12.possibilities. 220
  7. 7. [3] Beardsley, M. C. "Aesthetic theory and educational [10]Kupfer, J. H. "Experience as art: Aesthetics in theory." Smith, R. (ed.), Aesthetic concepts and everyday life." Albany, NY: State University of New education. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1970, York Press, 1983. 3-20. [ l l] Landry, J. R. "Playing at learning: Why knowledge[4] Beardsley, M. C. "Some persistent issues in creation needs fun," NICSS, January, 2000. aesthetics." In M. J. Wreen & D. M. Callen Eds., The [12]Moustakas, C. "Phenomenological research methods." aesthetic point of view: Selected essays. Ithaca, NY: Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1994. Cornell University Press, 1982, 285-287. [13]Rieber, L. P. "Seriously considering play: Designing[5] Csikszentmihalyi, M. "Beyond boredom and anxiety: interactive learning environments based on the The experience of play in work and games." San blending of microworlds, simulations and games." Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1975. Educational Technology, Research and Development,[6] Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Robinson, R. E. "The art of 44:2, 1996, 43-58. seeing: An interpretation of the aesthetic encounter." [14]Rieber, L. P. , Smith, L. & Noah, D. "The value of Malibu, CA: J. Paul Getty Trust, 1990. serious play." Educational Technology, November-[7] Jackson, B. "Shall we play a game?" Government December, 1998, 29-37 Video, July 29, 1997, 20-23. [15] Stolovitch, H. D. & Vanasse, S. "FlexGames: Flexible[8] Jennings, M. M. An aesthetic framework derived from game formats for improving learning and performance. the creative and conceptual design process of master Performance Improvement, February, 1998, 40-45. designers of educational and game environments: A [16]Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. "Basics of qualitative qualitative research perspective. Doctoral dissertation, research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques." 1998, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley. UMI Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1990. Dissertation Services, 9839536.I9] Krathwohl, D. R. "Methods of educational and social science research: An integrated approach." White Plains, New York: Longman, 1993. 221

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