Topic Outline: Structure and Function Types of Nucleic Acids 1. DNA 2. RNA Central Dogma of Life
Nucleic acids- comprise the fourth major group of biomolecules in living cells. - play extremely important roles in the cell. - also called as biopolymers Common nucleic acids:5. DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid - the hereditary molecule2. RNA- Ribonucleic acid - participate in the conversion of the genetic code into proteins and other gene products.
Nucleotides- are building blocks of the nucleic acid polymers. - are complex monomers than amino acids.Structural Components of the Nucleotides: a. Nitrogen-containing base - nitrogenous base b. A five-carbon sugar- pentose c. A phosphate group
Types of Nucleic acids: 1. DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid - DNA nucleotides - found in the nucleus with small amount of mitochondria and chloroplast Component: a. Nitrogenous base b. Deoxyribose c. Phosphate group -genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. - The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes,
2. RNA- Ribonucleic acid - RNA Nucleotides - found throughout the cell Component: a. Nitrogenous base b. Ribose c. Phosphate group - plays several important roles in theprocesses of transcribing genetic informationfrom deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into proteins.
PHOSPATE SUGAR BASE Ribose or PURINES PYRIMIDINES Deoxyribose Adenine (A) Cytocine (C) Guanine(G) Thymine (T) Uracil (U) NUCLEOTIDE
Difference between the pentose sugar of DNA and RNA RIBOSE DEOXYRIBOSECH2OH OH CH2OH O O OHC C C CH H H H H H H H C C C C OH OH OH H
PTHE SUGAR-PHOSPHATEBACKBONE P The nucleotides are all orientated in the same P direction P P P
P GADDING IN THE BASES P C The bases are P attached to the 1 st C Carbon Their order is P important A It determines the P genetic information of T the molecule P T
Hydrogen bondsDNA IS MADE OF P GTWO STRANDS OF C PPOLYNUCLEOTIDE P C G P P C G P P A T P P T A P P T A P
DNA IS MADE OF TWO STRANDS OFPOLYNUCLEOTIDE The sister strands of the DNA molecule run in opposite directions (antiparallel) They are joined by the bases Each base is paired with a specific partner: A is always paired with T G is always paired with C “Purine with Pyrimidine” The sister strands are complementary but not identical The bases are joined by hydrogen bonds, individually weak but collectively strong There are 10 base pairs per turn
Difference between Pyrimidine and Purine Bases
Major difference between DNA and RNA*DNA is double stranded, whereas RNA is single stranded*DNA contains deoxyribose, whereas RNA contains ribose* DNA contains thymine, whereas RNA contains uracil.
CENTRAL DOGMA It was Francis Crick who in 1957, proposed what referred to as the central dogma.DNA mRNA PROTEIN
Cellular Processes replication DNA transcription RNA (mRNA) translation Proteins
Replication - 0ccurs by the separation of the DNA strands and the building of complementary strands by the addition of the correct DNA nucleotides.
Replication-formation of twonew double-DNA strands from a parent strand
Transcription-the informationin one gene of a DNA moleculeis used to produce mRNAmolecule. Events: 1. one strand of DNA unwinds temporarily exposing the bases. 2. Attraction of the bases of RNA nucleotides and a MRNA molecule begins to built alongside of one of the strand.
Translation- information ofone mRNA molecule is used toproduce protein - The base sequence of the mRNA molecule to interpreted in the group of three bases are called codons. - this will be used for the determination of amino acid .
GENETIC CODE in mRNAAlanine- Ala Glycine- Gly Methionine- Met Tyrosine-TyrArginine- Arg Histidine-His Phenylalanine- Phe Valine- ValAsparagine- Asn Isoleucine- Ile Proline- ProAspartic Acid-Asp Leucine- Leu Serine- SerCysteine- Cys Lysine- Lys Threonine- ThrGlutamic Acid- Glu Glutamine-Gln Tryptophan- Trp
GENERAL ILLUSTRATION ON THEFLOW OF GENETIC INFORMATION
Solve:Using the genetic code, identify the amino acid sequence: 5’- C G C G A A T T C G C G –3’ 3’- G C G C T T A A G C G C –5’