NUCLEIC ACIDS
Topic Outline: Structure and Function Types of Nucleic Acids    1. DNA    2. RNA Central Dogma of Life
Nucleic acids- comprise the fourth major group of   biomolecules in living cells.             - play extremely important r...
Nucleotides- are building blocks of the nucleic  acid polymers.            - are complex monomers than amino  acids.Struct...
Types of Nucleic acids:   1. DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid            - DNA nucleotides            - found in the nucleus wit...
2. RNA- Ribonucleic acid          - RNA Nucleotides          - found throughout the cell    Component:          a. Nitroge...
PHOSPATE      SUGAR                     BASE             Ribose or     PURINES       PYRIMIDINES            Deoxyribose   ...
Difference between the pentose sugar of DNA  and RNA         RIBOSE                 DEOXYRIBOSECH2OH                  OH  ...
PTHE SUGAR-PHOSPHATEBACKBONE                    P The nucleotides are all  orientated in the same    P  direction        ...
P                               GADDING IN THE BASES                           P                               C The base...
Hydrogen bondsDNA IS MADE OF   P                     GTWO STRANDS OF           C                                   PPOLYNU...
DNA IS MADE OF TWO STRANDS OFPOLYNUCLEOTIDE The sister strands of the DNA molecule run in opposite    directions (antipar...
Difference between Pyrimidine       and Purine Bases
Major difference between DNA           and RNA*DNA is double stranded, whereas RNA is  single stranded*DNA contains deoxyr...
CENTRAL DOGMA It was Francis Crick who in 1957, proposed what referred to as the central dogma.DNA                  mRNA  ...
Cellular Processes                                  replication            DNA                  transcription            R...
Replication - 0ccurs by the separation of the DNA strands and the building of complementary strands by the addition of the...
Replication-formation of twonew double-DNA strands from a        parent strand
Transcription-the informationin one gene of a DNA moleculeis used to produce mRNAmolecule. Events:    1. one strand of DNA...
Initiating codon:                    AUGStop codon:          UAA          UAG          UGA
Translation- information ofone mRNA molecule is used toproduce protein - The base sequence of the mRNA molecule to interpr...
GENETIC CODE in mRNAAlanine- Ala           Glycine- Gly      Methionine- Met      Tyrosine-TyrArginine- Arg          Histi...
GENERAL ILLUSTRATION ON THEFLOW OF GENETIC INFORMATION
Solve:Using the genetic code, identify the amino  acid sequence: 5’- C G C G A A T T C G C G –3’ 3’- G C G C T T A A G C...
Nucleic acids 2
Nucleic acids 2
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Nucleic acids 2

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Nucleic acids 2

  1. 1. NUCLEIC ACIDS
  2. 2. Topic Outline: Structure and Function Types of Nucleic Acids 1. DNA 2. RNA Central Dogma of Life
  3. 3. Nucleic acids- comprise the fourth major group of biomolecules in living cells. - play extremely important roles in the cell. - also called as biopolymers Common nucleic acids:5. DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid - the hereditary molecule2. RNA- Ribonucleic acid - participate in the conversion of the genetic code into proteins and other gene products.
  4. 4. Nucleotides- are building blocks of the nucleic acid polymers. - are complex monomers than amino acids.Structural Components of the Nucleotides: a. Nitrogen-containing base - nitrogenous base b. A five-carbon sugar- pentose c. A phosphate group
  5. 5. Types of Nucleic acids: 1. DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid - DNA nucleotides - found in the nucleus with small amount of mitochondria and chloroplast Component: a. Nitrogenous base b. Deoxyribose c. Phosphate group -genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. - The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes,
  6. 6. 2. RNA- Ribonucleic acid - RNA Nucleotides - found throughout the cell Component: a. Nitrogenous base b. Ribose c. Phosphate group - plays several important roles in theprocesses of transcribing genetic informationfrom deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into proteins.
  7. 7. PHOSPATE SUGAR BASE Ribose or PURINES PYRIMIDINES Deoxyribose Adenine (A) Cytocine (C) Guanine(G) Thymine (T) Uracil (U) NUCLEOTIDE
  8. 8. Difference between the pentose sugar of DNA and RNA RIBOSE DEOXYRIBOSECH2OH OH CH2OH O O OHC C C CH H H H H H H H C C C C OH OH OH H
  9. 9. PTHE SUGAR-PHOSPHATEBACKBONE P The nucleotides are all orientated in the same P direction P P P
  10. 10. P GADDING IN THE BASES P C The bases are P attached to the 1 st C Carbon Their order is P important A It determines the P genetic information of T the molecule P T
  11. 11. Hydrogen bondsDNA IS MADE OF P GTWO STRANDS OF C PPOLYNUCLEOTIDE P C G P P C G P P A T P P T A P P T A P
  12. 12. DNA IS MADE OF TWO STRANDS OFPOLYNUCLEOTIDE The sister strands of the DNA molecule run in opposite directions (antiparallel) They are joined by the bases Each base is paired with a specific partner: A is always paired with T G is always paired with C “Purine with Pyrimidine” The sister strands are complementary but not identical The bases are joined by hydrogen bonds, individually weak but collectively strong There are 10 base pairs per turn
  13. 13. Difference between Pyrimidine and Purine Bases
  14. 14. Major difference between DNA and RNA*DNA is double stranded, whereas RNA is single stranded*DNA contains deoxyribose, whereas RNA contains ribose* DNA contains thymine, whereas RNA contains uracil.
  15. 15. CENTRAL DOGMA It was Francis Crick who in 1957, proposed what referred to as the central dogma.DNA mRNA PROTEIN
  16. 16. Cellular Processes replication DNA transcription RNA (mRNA) translation Proteins
  17. 17. Replication - 0ccurs by the separation of the DNA strands and the building of complementary strands by the addition of the correct DNA nucleotides.
  18. 18. Replication-formation of twonew double-DNA strands from a parent strand
  19. 19. Transcription-the informationin one gene of a DNA moleculeis used to produce mRNAmolecule. Events: 1. one strand of DNA unwinds temporarily exposing the bases. 2. Attraction of the bases of RNA nucleotides and a MRNA molecule begins to built alongside of one of the strand.
  20. 20. Initiating codon: AUGStop codon: UAA UAG UGA
  21. 21. Translation- information ofone mRNA molecule is used toproduce protein - The base sequence of the mRNA molecule to interpreted in the group of three bases are called codons. - this will be used for the determination of amino acid .
  22. 22. GENETIC CODE in mRNAAlanine- Ala Glycine- Gly Methionine- Met Tyrosine-TyrArginine- Arg Histidine-His Phenylalanine- Phe Valine- ValAsparagine- Asn Isoleucine- Ile Proline- ProAspartic Acid-Asp Leucine- Leu Serine- SerCysteine- Cys Lysine- Lys Threonine- ThrGlutamic Acid- Glu Glutamine-Gln Tryptophan- Trp
  23. 23. GENERAL ILLUSTRATION ON THEFLOW OF GENETIC INFORMATION
  24. 24. Solve:Using the genetic code, identify the amino acid sequence: 5’- C G C G A A T T C G C G –3’ 3’- G C G C T T A A G C G C –5’

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