WHAT IS MEMORY?Memory is the internal record of the prior Event or experiences a set of mental processthat RECIEVES,ENCODES,STORES,ORGANIZES,ALTERS, RETRIEVES , information over time.
THREE STAGES OF MEMORY• STAGE 1-SENSORY MEMORY captures what we see, hear, feel, taste and smell. Quite simply, it records the things that you "sense”. For instance, think about seeing. We see innumerable things in the course of virtually all waking minutes. However, unless your attention is actually captured by something you see, it is erased when something else attracts your interest.
SHORT TERM MEMORY• Short-term memory lasts somewhat longer; in fact, as long as you give thought to something, you can keep it in short-term memory.• It will continue to be available in your memory as long as you actively think about it.• If you quit attending to it, it will be deleted within 10-20 seconds.• In order to remember something after that, the brain has to move it to long-term memory.
• Typically, whenever we refer to memory, we have long-term memory in mind.• Long-term memory can store a virtually limitless amount of data. Long-term memory contains perceptions and concepts that vary from a few moments old to the very first weeks of life.• Long-term memory is like the immense hard drive of a giant computer where unlimited detail can be recorded for a lifetime.• It is this memory that we construct our ideas and experiences on, and ideally bring them back to attention whenever we need it.
INTEGRATED MODEL CONCEPTsENCODING-process of translating info into neural codes(language) that will be retained in memory.STORAGE- the process of retaining neural coded info over time.RETRIEVAL- the process of recovering info from memory storage.
Varieties of LTM• TWO TYPES OF LTM• SEMANTIC MEMORY- Refers to factual information.• EPISODIC MEMORY-refers to autobiographical as where and when the event happened.
ORGANISATION OF LTM• RETRIEVAL CUE- A clue or prompt that helps stimulate recall and retrieval of stored piece from long term memory.• 2 types• 1)recognition• 2) recall
MEMORY MEASURES• Recognition is when a specific cue (face or name) is matched against LTM.• Recall is when a general cue is used to search memory.• Relearning-situation where person learns material a second time.
FLASHBULB MEMORY• Where were you when you first heard:• 1) the bomb blast of 7/11?• 2)mumbai terrorist attack ?
FORGETTING• FORGETTING is the inability to recall previously recalled information.
THEORIES OF FORGETTING• Proactive interference- old information interferes with recall of a new information.• Retroactive interference-new information interferes with recall of old information.• Decay theory- memory trace fades with time.• Motivated forgetting-involves the loss of painful memories(protective memory loss)• Retrieval failure-the information is still with LTM but cannot be recalled because the retrieval cue is absent.