A CONCRETE IMAGE OF HOW SENTENCES WORK
What’s a sentence?
• Here are three sentences:
– He smiles.
– Autumn leaves twirled gently to the ground.
– The park distr...
Length does not determine what is and is not a
sentence. Regardless of how long or short a group of
words is, it needs two...
Who or what? What about it?
He smiles.
Autumn leaves twirl gently to the ground.
The park district will open an outdoor ic...
Another way to describe a sentence is to compare it
to a bike…
These two parts connect to form a stable structure.
The sub...
We can have just one word in each wheel…
Students studied.
Children play.
But most of the time our ideas include more details.
We add extra words to the wheels.
Students in the biology lab studied...
Old magazines are stacked under the kitchen
table.
The weekend seminar explains how to start a
small business.
Meditation ...
We can expand the wheels by adding
adverbs:
Airline employees worked diligently to reschedule
our flights.
We carefully lo...
We can also add prepositional phrases:
The windows rattled in the winter storm.
We loaded our hamburgers with ketchup, mus...
Regardless of how much detail we add, the wheels give
the same kind of information. The subject tells us who
or what. The ...
Subjects and predicates connect directly. Do not
separate them with a comma.
Incorrect: Carlos and his family, showed me t...
Taking Stock
The bike with its subject and predicate wheels gives
students a solid foundation of how sentences work.
Concr...
Meaning-centered definition
Students understand (remember, apply) “who or what”
and “what about it.”
- gives them a senten...
Moving Forward
Students have gained sense of sentence boundaries.
- A sentence is not determined by length (2
wheels, expa...
Dependent clauses
Dependent clauses cannot stand alone. They
are like baskets that need to be attached to a
basic sentence...
When the music began
Everyone started to dance.
When the music began,
everyone started to dance.
Here are some more dependent clauses:
As soon as it stopped raining
Because I registered early
When we need a quiet place ...
We can place these baskets on the front of a
bike.
As soon as it stopped raining, we saw a double rainbow.
When we need a ...
We can also place them on the back of a bike.
We saw a double rainbow as soon as it stopped raining.
I got the classes I w...
More Dependent Clauses
who works part-time
which includes a swimming pool
that is parked in my driveway
Another kind of de...
These baskets go after the word they describe.
Sometimes they’re in the middle of the bike.
Frank, who works part-time,wil...
Sometimes they are on the back of the bike.
Karen likes books that have a happy ending.
We are making pasta for the Richar...
Example: The new fitness center, which includes a
swimming pool, will open in April.
Regardless of what kind of basket we ...
Taking Stock
The baskets help students see that
- dependent clauses are not sentences
- they need to be attached to a sent...
Fragments
A fragment is just a part of a sentence. It may
lack a subject or a predicate. Often it’s a
disconnected basket.
As soon as I understood the problem. I thought of a
solution.
I was not responsible. When I was sixteen.
The village will ...
Disconnected description and detail
It was an easy task. Especially for someone so small.
The corporation provides employe...
I sprinted down the street. Trying to catch the train.
The scientists continued their research. Hoping to
find a cure.
To ...
As soon as I understood the problem,
I thought of a solution.
We can correct these fragments by attaching them to
the sent...
Baskets are excellent ways to create sentence
variety. Once we have a stable structure, we can
add a variety of baskets on...
Earlier this spring, the viaduct was closed because of
flooding.
Eight months ago, we bought a truck.
By the time we got h...
A variety of baskets in the middle:
My little brother, unable to sleep, turned on the light.
The elderly couple, walking s...
Jeff wants a hybrid, his best hope for good gas
mileage.
A gentle rain fell throughout the night, lulling us to
sleep.
We ...
• If you begin a sentence with a basket, use a
comma to show readers where the addition ends and
the basic sentence begins...
If the basket interrupts the sentence, use commas to
show readers where the addition begins and ends.
The art gallery, whi...
If the basket is attached to the end of the sentence, the
comma shows readers where the addition begins.
They are living i...
SUMMARY
The bike helps students see how sentences work
- how the whole communicates meaning
- how the parts relate to the ...
Students see how the whole communicates
meaning and how the parts relate to the whole.
The subject is one wheel, giving th...
Students see how punctuation signals these
connections. Students learn, for example,
that commas are used to mark addition...
BIKE STRENGTHS
- Concrete (similar to diagramming)
- Emphasizes Who or what/What about it
definition
- Focuses on the esse...
A CONCRETE IMAGE OF HOW SENTENCES WORK
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Modeling for sentence structure

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  • BEGIN WITH EXAMPLES, NOT DEFINITION. CONCRETE, NOT ABSTRACT. SENTENCES OF DIFFERENT LENGTH -- BASIC WRITERS THINK LENGTH DETERMINES SENTENCEHOOD.
  • OUT OF LENGTH-MINDSET. A MEANING-CENTERED DEFINITION. MEANING OF THE WORDS, NOT ABSTRACT IDENTIFICATION OF PARTS OF SPEECH.
  • AGAIN, CONCRETE EXAMPLES. THE WHO/WHAT AND WHAT ABOUT IT MAKES SENSE TO STUDENTS. INTRODUCE TERMS BASIC SENTENCE AND INDEPENDENT CLAUSE.
  • IMAGE. ALSO STABLE STUCTURE – IMPORTANT FOR UNDERSTANDING SENTENCE BOUNDARIES. WILL SEE THIS AS WE MOVE ALONG
  • USE SENTECE AS CONTEXT. TEACH SENTENCE 1 ST AS CONTEXT FOR SPECIFIC WORDS AND PHRASES. FRAMEWORK OF SUPPORT
  • CONTEXT OF SENTENCE. SUBJECT AND PREDICATE CAN BE EXPANDED. LEARNING SENTENCE BOUNDARIES. LATER ON THEY WILL LEARN THAT BASKETS CAN BE ADDED – THAT TOO IS SENTENCE BOUNDARIES.
  • MEANING-CENTERED DEFINITION APPLIES TO ALL KINDS OF SENTENCES. EMPOWERS STUDENTS TO IDENTIFY SENTENCES – WHAT GOES AROUND COMES AROUND. WHOEVER GETS HOME FIRST SHOULD START DINNER.
  • COMMON ERROR: MARKING SUBJECT AND PREDICATE WITH A COMMA – PAUSING. LIKE MARTHA WITH SENTENCE SLOTS. ALSO, IMPORTANT TO SEE SENTENCE AS A STABLE STRUCTURE FOR ADDITIONS.
  • STUDENTS FEEL PARALYSIS WHEN TRYING TO WRITE, FEAR OF ERROR. WE BEGIN SWITCH OF FOCUS HERE. SENTENCE IS MEANING-CENTERED
  • THIS IS HOW I GET THERE
  • MOVE BASKETS FROM FRONT TO BACK. LEARNING HOW TO MANIPULATE SENTENCES – MATURE WRITER.
  • CAN EXPLAIN RESTRICTIVE AND NON-RESTRICTIVE INFORMATION BY EXPLAINING RESTRICTIVE INFO SNAPS INTO THE WHEEL ITSELF. IT EXPANDS THE WHEEL. IT’S NOT EXTRA BY-THE-WAY INFORMATION.
  • RESTRICTIVE AND NON-RESTRICTIVE. EXPLAIN RESTRICTIVE INFO SNAPS INTO THE WHEEL ITSELF. EXPANDS THE WHEEL. NOT EXTRA BY-THE-WAY INFO
  • COMMON ERROR: NOT TO HAVE BASIC SENTENCE SUPPORT ADDITION. BASKETS HELP STUDENTS SEE HOW PARTS RELATE TO THE WHOLE
  • SEEING HOW PARTS RELATE TO THE WHOLE
  • COVERS A LARGE VARIETY OF SENTENCE STRUCTURES
  • LOGIC OF PUNCTUATION
  • CAN SEE COMMAS AS HANDLES LIFTING OUT THE ADDITION. LOGIC OF PUNCTUATION
  • Modeling for sentence structure

    1. 1. A CONCRETE IMAGE OF HOW SENTENCES WORK
    2. 2. What’s a sentence? • Here are three sentences: – He smiles. – Autumn leaves twirled gently to the ground. – The park district will open an outdoor ice skating rink in November.
    3. 3. Length does not determine what is and is not a sentence. Regardless of how long or short a group of words is, it needs two parts to be a sentence: a subject and a predicate. •The subject tells us who or what. •The predicate tells us what about it.
    4. 4. Who or what? What about it? He smiles. Autumn leaves twirl gently to the ground. The park district will open an outdoor ice skating rink in November. These two parts connect to form a basic sentence, also known as an independent clause.
    5. 5. Another way to describe a sentence is to compare it to a bike… These two parts connect to form a stable structure. The subject is one wheel; the predicate is the other wheel.
    6. 6. We can have just one word in each wheel… Students studied. Children play.
    7. 7. But most of the time our ideas include more details. We add extra words to the wheels. Students in the biology lab studied cells under an electron microscope. The neighborhood children play basketball at the community center.
    8. 8. Old magazines are stacked under the kitchen table. The weekend seminar explains how to start a small business. Meditation helps create a peaceful mind and healthy body. We can expand the wheels by adding adjectives:
    9. 9. We can expand the wheels by adding adverbs: Airline employees worked diligently to reschedule our flights. We carefully loaded the van with furniture. The driver realized immediately that he had missed the exit.
    10. 10. We can also add prepositional phrases: The windows rattled in the winter storm. We loaded our hamburgers with ketchup, mustard, and onion. Some car dealers make most of their profit on parts and services.
    11. 11. Regardless of how much detail we add, the wheels give the same kind of information. The subject tells us who or what. The predicate tells us what about it. Who or what? What about it? Randy loves pizza. Companies benefit from customer loyalty. Efficient train service will decrease traffic congestion.
    12. 12. Subjects and predicates connect directly. Do not separate them with a comma. Incorrect: Carlos and his family, showed me that honor is more important than winning. Correct: Carlos and his family showed me that honor is more important than winning.
    13. 13. Taking Stock The bike with its subject and predicate wheels gives students a solid foundation of how sentences work. Concrete image Students see that a sentence has two parts - that these two parts can be expanded - that they connect to form a sentence.
    14. 14. Meaning-centered definition Students understand (remember, apply) “who or what” and “what about it.” - gives them a sentence test: “Do I have a who or what and a what about it?”-- rather than trying to identify parts of speech - fits wide variety of sentences - connects them to the purpose of writing: creating and communicating meaning
    15. 15. Moving Forward Students have gained sense of sentence boundaries. - A sentence is not determined by length (2 wheels, expandable) - Writers mark end of who or what and what about it with a period. Knowing what a sentence is, students are better able to understand dependent clauses.
    16. 16. Dependent clauses Dependent clauses cannot stand alone. They are like baskets that need to be attached to a basic sentence. One kind of dependent clause begins with a subordinating conjunction.
    17. 17. When the music began Everyone started to dance. When the music began, everyone started to dance.
    18. 18. Here are some more dependent clauses: As soon as it stopped raining Because I registered early When we need a quiet place to study
    19. 19. We can place these baskets on the front of a bike. As soon as it stopped raining, we saw a double rainbow. When we need a quiet place to study, we go to the library. Because I registered early, I got the classes I wanted.
    20. 20. We can also place them on the back of a bike. We saw a double rainbow as soon as it stopped raining. I got the classes I wanted because I registered early. We go to the library when we need a quiet place to study.
    21. 21. More Dependent Clauses who works part-time which includes a swimming pool that is parked in my driveway Another kind of dependent clause begins with the relative pronouns who, which, and that. These clauses are not sentences. They are like baskets that need to be attached to a bike.
    22. 22. These baskets go after the word they describe. Sometimes they’re in the middle of the bike. Frank, who works part-time,will be our guide. The new fitness center, which includes a swimming pool, will open in February. The car that is parked in my driveway is Henry’s.
    23. 23. Sometimes they are on the back of the bike. Karen likes books that have a happy ending. We are making pasta for the Richardsons, who do not eat meat. I have tickets to the jazz festival, which begins at noon.
    24. 24. Example: The new fitness center, which includes a swimming pool, will open in April. Regardless of what kind of basket we add, we need a basic sentence to support it. Sentence Support Basic sentence: The new fitness center will open in April. Basket: which includes a swimming pool
    25. 25. Taking Stock The baskets help students see that - dependent clauses are not sentences - they need to be attached to a sentence Moving Forward The basket is also useful when explaining fragments and sentence variety.
    26. 26. Fragments A fragment is just a part of a sentence. It may lack a subject or a predicate. Often it’s a disconnected basket.
    27. 27. As soon as I understood the problem. I thought of a solution. I was not responsible. When I was sixteen. The village will enlarge the parking lot. Which serves weekday commuters. Let’s rent the same movie. That we saw last weekend. Disconnected dependent clauses
    28. 28. Disconnected description and detail It was an easy task. Especially for someone so small. The corporation provides employees with benefits. Like medical insurance and a pension. We have ordered everything on the menu. Except fried buffalo wings. We put an ad in the Lake Norman Times. Our local newspaper.
    29. 29. I sprinted down the street. Trying to catch the train. The scientists continued their research. Hoping to find a cure. To celebrate their anniversary. They are going to Asheville for the weekend. We walked up sixteen flights of stairs. To prove to ourselves we could do it. Disconnected -ing and –to fragments
    30. 30. As soon as I understood the problem, I thought of a solution. We can correct these fragments by attaching them to the sentence. I sprinted down the street, trying to catch the train.
    31. 31. Baskets are excellent ways to create sentence variety. Once we have a stable structure, we can add a variety of baskets on the front, in the middle, or on the back. Sentence Variety
    32. 32. Earlier this spring, the viaduct was closed because of flooding. Eight months ago, we bought a truck. By the time we got home, it was dark. Irritable after a long day at work, we took a nap before studying. We can add a variety of baskets on the front.
    33. 33. A variety of baskets in the middle: My little brother, unable to sleep, turned on the light. The elderly couple, walking slowly up the driveway, waved at their grandchildren. A modern art gallery, funded by a million dollar grant, is under construction. John Jackson, a friend since grade school, is my math tutor.
    34. 34. Jeff wants a hybrid, his best hope for good gas mileage. A gentle rain fell throughout the night, lulling us to sleep. We are building a home with Habitat for Humanity, a national volunteer program. Everyone wants to leave at noon, even my sister. And a variety of baskets on the back:
    35. 35. • If you begin a sentence with a basket, use a comma to show readers where the addition ends and the basic sentence begins. The Logic of Punctuation Readers are looking for the who or what and what about it of a sentence, the main idea. Commas help them see that main idea. If we go to the early movie, we can save money. According to the weather report, tomorrow will be hot and humid.
    36. 36. If the basket interrupts the sentence, use commas to show readers where the addition begins and ends. The art gallery, which opens this weekend, features local artists. Ruby, my sister’s best friend, will loan me her car.
    37. 37. If the basket is attached to the end of the sentence, the comma shows readers where the addition begins. They are living in the present, not the past. The award was given to James Johnson, the most respected person in our town.
    38. 38. SUMMARY The bike helps students see how sentences work - how the whole communicates meaning - how the parts relate to the whole - how punctuation signals these connections.
    39. 39. Students see how the whole communicates meaning and how the parts relate to the whole. The subject is one wheel, giving the who or what. The predicate is the other wheel, giving the what about it. These two parts connect to form a stable structure, which can then carry additions (baskets). These additions are like baskets that can be placed on the front, the middle, or the back of the bike.
    40. 40. Students see how punctuation signals these connections. Students learn, for example, that commas are used to mark additions so readers can see the basic sentence, the main idea of the sentence. Through similar explanations and concrete illustrations, students realize that punctuation is not a list of arbitrary rules to be inserted on top of sentences; it is system of signs telling readers how to read the writer’s thoughts.
    41. 41. BIKE STRENGTHS - Concrete (similar to diagramming) - Emphasizes Who or what/What about it definition - Focuses on the essential – doesn’t lose students with overwhelming detail - Can be used with traditional terminology
    42. 42. A CONCRETE IMAGE OF HOW SENTENCES WORK

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