Far from the Madding Crowd by Thomas Hardy


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Far from the Madding Crowd by Thomas Hardy

  1. 1. Far From The Maddding Crowd By Thomas Hardy By Raazia Maryam and Ayman Shakeel
  2. 2. Setting (England) <ul><li>Geography : England includes the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus offshore islands like the Isle of Wight and the Isle of Scilly. It is bordered by two other countries of the United Kingdom, to the north by Scotland and to the west by Wales. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate : England has a temperate maritime climate. It is mild with temperatures not much lower than 0 °C (32 °F) in winter and not much higher than 32 °C (90 °F) in summer. </li></ul><ul><li>Terrain : England's terrain mostly comprises of low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north (for example, the mountainous Lake District, Pennines, and Yorkshire Dales) and in the south west (for example, Dartmoor and the Cotsworld). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Farming in England Roughly three-quarters of land in England is farmed in some way. The English countryside is hugely diverse, managed under a variety of farming systems. A vast array of species and habitats depend on farming and farming systems.
  4. 4. <ul><li>In the late 19 th century, when this novel was written and published, the country life was at threat from many sides. </li></ul><ul><li>The Corn Laws had been repealed, forcing many farmers away to leave the land of their ancestors and migrate to the city. </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialisation, which had started in the previous century, had now spread, compelling many farmers to leave their farms and move to the urban setup where the industries offered attractive wages. </li></ul><ul><li>To an extent, Hardy’s stories of the ‘Wessex’ attempted at making the displaced farmers nostalgic as it covered the whole rural setup with charters having the characteristics one would associate with the country people, that is, folk wisdom, tradition and a sense of community. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Wessex <ul><li>Wessex, the location for Far from the Madding Crowd , is an imaginary English county that Hardy colored with fine details throughout the course of his writing career, introducing it for the first time in ‘Far from the MaddingCrowd’ </li></ul><ul><li>It is similar to Dorset, where Hardy lived most of his life, but its fictitious nature gave the author freedom to describe the landscape at will. </li></ul><ul><li>Though fictional, the residents of Wessex, farmers, land owners, laborers, and servants are considered true representations of people living at the time the novel was published. </li></ul><ul><li>Wessex was a kingdom in southern England, dating back to the invasion of the Saxons in 494 A.D, though it underwent changes over the course of centuries. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Christianity <ul><li>Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospel and other New Testement writings. </li></ul><ul><li>Adherents of the Christian faith are known as Christians. </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity teaches that Jesus is the Son of God, God having become human and the saviour of humanity. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of this, Christians commonly refer to Jesus as Christ or Messiah. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Marriages in Christianity <ul><li>Christians regard marriages as an order from God for the lifelong relationship between a man and a woman. </li></ul><ul><li>The Christian Theology views marriage from a moral and religious aspect, aside from the social and political status it has. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Divorce is not ideal as Christians believe that marriage is a gift from God and should not be take n for granted, though opinions may vary. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to get married in the church, in front of God. </li></ul><ul><li>A marriage is a public declaration of affection and commitment and this declaration of love is in the form a church ceremony, in front of friends, family, and most importantly, God. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Thomas Hardy <ul><li>Thomas Hardy was born to a stonemason and a local builder, Thomas, and a well-read mother, Jemima in Dorchester in 1840. </li></ul><ul><li>He went to school and demonstrated academic potential, however his formal education ended when he was sixteen as his social position did not allow him to study in a university. </li></ul><ul><li>Befre he moved to London nad enrolled in King’s College in 1862, he had become a local architect. </li></ul><ul><li>He felt uncomfortable in London, conscious of his inferior status and class divisions and five years later, returned to Dorchester, committing his life to writing. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>In 1870, while on an architectural mission, he met, and fell in love with Emma Gifford, whom he married in 1874. </li></ul><ul><li>Emma’s death in 1912 had a traumatic effect on Hardy though he had become estranged from her during her life. He tried to overcome his guilt by writing poetry. </li></ul><ul><li>Two years later, he married his 39 years younger secratory Florence Dugdale. He became ill and died in 1928. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Thomas Hardy had a certain taste for tragedy. This was probably because of his complexes before marriage and strained relationships with his wife afterwards. ‘Far From the Madding Crowd’, however, though the story is tragic, ends on a happy note with the protagonist, Bathsheba, and Farmer Oak declaring mutual love and getting married. This may be because it was published in 1874, when he married Emma. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Victorian Era <ul><li>The story has been written in the victorian era when culturally, there was a transition from rationalism towards romanticism and mysticism. This has been reflected in Hardy’s novel also, relationships being one of its major themes. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Plot The plot of Far from the Madding Crowd concerns a young woman, Bathsheba Everdene, and the three men in her life. One is a poor sheep farmer who loses his flock in a tragedy and ends up working as an employee on Bathsheba’s farm; one is the respectable, boring owner of a neighboring farm who takes Bathsheba’s flirtations too seriously; and the third is a dashing army sergeant who treats her like just another of his conquests. In chronicling their hopes, plans, and disappointments, Hardy presents to readers a clear example of Victorian romanticism. At the same time, his understanding of the lives of farmers and ranchers in rural England makes him a forerunner to the realistic tradition in literature.
  14. 15. Style <ul><li>Hardy uses complex sentence structures throughout the novel. The novel is rich in imagery, giving lengthy descriptions of the characters, events and objects. The pace at which the story proceeds is also very slow however, the intriguing plot makes the story an interesting read. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people consider the novel to be a solid example of realism, showing the harsher aspects of life. The novel’s happy ending, with the characters declaring their love for and marrying each other shows, however that the novel is basically romantiv. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Themes <ul><li>Hardy's lifetime was threatened with ruthless industrialization. His novel portrays the theme of the importance of man's connection to, and understanding of, the natural world. Gabriel Oak embodies Hardy's ideal of a life in harmony with the forces of the natural world. </li></ul><ul><li>The novel also contemplates the relationship between luck, or chance, and moral responsibility. People have to suffer for their own actions. While some characters, like Gabriel, are always responsible and cautious, others, like Sergeant Troy, are careless and destructive. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Another theme is the danger and destruction inherent in romantic love and marriage. Hardy exposes the inconsistencies, irrationalities, and betrayals that often plague romantic relationships and thus, explores the basis for a proper marriage. Bathsheba begins the novel being an independent woman, but by falling in love with Troy, she nearly destroys her life. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Characters <ul><li>The main 5 characters include: </li></ul><ul><li>Gabriel Oak : Novel's hero, Gabriel Oak is a farmer, shepherd, and bailiff, marked by his humble and honest ways, his exceptional skill with animals and farming, and an unparalleled loyalty. He is Bathsheba's first suitor, later the bailiff on her farm, and finally her husband at the very end of the novel. He can control the world without fighting against it. He possess a humble personality and knows when to take an action. </li></ul><ul><li>Bathsheba Everdene : Protagonist of the novel, Bathsheba is a beautiful young woman who has attracted 3 suitors. At the beginning of the novel, she is penniless, but she quickly inherits and learns to run a farm in Weatherbury. She is independent financially as well as in spirits. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Sergeant Francis (Frank) Troy : He is the novel's antagonist. Troy is handsome, vain, young, and irresponsible, though he is capable of love. Early in the novel he is involved with Fanny Robin. At first, he plans to marry her, but when there is miscommunication about which church to meet at, he angrily refuses to marry her, and she is ruined. He forgets her and marries the rich, beautiful Bathsheba. Yet when Fanny dies of poverty and exhaustion later in the novel with his child in her arms, he cannot forgive himself. </li></ul><ul><li>William Boldwood: He is Bathsheba's second suitor and the owner of a nearby farm. Boldwood, as his name suggests, is a somewhat wooden, reserved man. He seems unable to fall in love until Bathsheba sends him a valentine on a whim, and suddenly he develops feelings for her. Ultimately, he becomes crazy with obsession, shoots Troy and destroys his own life. </li></ul><ul><li>Fanny Robin : She is a young orphaned servant girl at the farm who runs away the night Gabriel arrives, attempts to marry Sergeant Troy, and finally dies giving birth to his child at the poor house in Casterbridge. She symbolizes the fate of women who are not well cared for in this society. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Bailiff and Sergeant <ul><li>A bailiff is a governor or custodian to whom some degree of authority, care or jurisdiction is committed. Bailiffs are of various kinds and their offices and duties vary greatly. </li></ul><ul><li>Sergeant (normally abbreviated to Sgt ) is a rank used in some form by most militaries, police forces, and other uniformed organizations around the world. Its origins are the Latin serviens , &quot;one who serves“. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Christmas <ul><li>Christmas or Christmas Day is a holiday generally observed on December 25 to commemorate the birth of Jesus, the central figure of Christianity. </li></ul><ul><li>The Christmas season is celebrated in different ways around the world, varying by country and region. Elements common to many areas of the world include the lighting of Christmas trees, the hanging of wreaths, Christmas stockings and candy canes. </li></ul><ul><li>Christmas carols may be sung and stories told about such figures as the Baby Jesus </li></ul>
  21. 22. Funerals <ul><li>The body of the dead person, having been placed in a coffin, is carried into the church. </li></ul><ul><li>The coffin is opened and an icon of Christ or the patron Saint is placed in the hands of the departed </li></ul><ul><li>A wreath is placed on the forehead of the departed. </li></ul><ul><li>The hand-cross is placed in the coffin near the head of the departed. </li></ul><ul><li>Candles are distributed to the worshipers who, receiving the light from the priest, hold them lit throughout the service until near the end. </li></ul><ul><li>After the Dismissal and &quot;Memory Eternal,&quot; friends come to say a last good-bye to the departed. </li></ul><ul><li>The funeral cortege proceeds to the cemetery where a short grave-side service of entombment is sung by the priest. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Superstitions <ul><li>Act of knocking on wood is a superstition . It is a common practice to knock on wood whenever something good is said. The ancient belief was that the gods lived in the trees. When a person needed a favor or something good, they would touch the bark, speak it and then knock on the bark as a note of thanks. </li></ul><ul><li>Another very common practice is to cross you fingers while making a wish . The reason behind this practice is that it was believed that when two lines crossed, the wish was held at the center until it came to be. By crossing you fingers, you supposedly had a better chance of seeing your wish come true. </li></ul><ul><li>Spilling salt on a table and throwing a pinch over the left shoulder is a superstition. When the ancient people found out that salt preserved food, they rationalized that it must protect people as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 33 of Far from the Madding Crowd: “Breaking a key is a dreadful bodement” </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>http://www.christianliteratureandliving.com/jan2002/ryanhaase1.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.google.com.pk/search?tbm=isch&hl=en&source=hp&biw=983&bih=534&q=bibliography&gbv=2&oq=Biblio&aq=0&aqi=g10&aql=1&gs_sm=c&gs_upl=1919l3853l0l5585l6l6l0l0l0l0l406l1654l2-2.2.1l5l0 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.holy-trinity.org/liturgics/sokolov-death.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serjeant-at-Arms </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Hardy's_Wessex </li></ul>