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- 1. Measurement Concepts • Measurement is the process of mapping aspects of a domain onto other aspects of a range according to some rule of correspondence. • “Measurement” means assigning numbers or some symbols to the characteristics of certain objects.. Measurement Scales • Scaling involves creating a continuum on which measurements on objects are located. Types of Scales 1. Nominal Scale 2. Ordinal Scale 3. Interval Scale 4. Ratio Scale
- 2. Nominal Scale • A scale in which the numbers or letters assigned to objects serve as labels for identification or classification. • Eg: Gender, Nationality, Yes or No • A system of assigning number symbols to events in order to label them. • Lowest measurement and least powerful level of measurement. • Simplest scale • There must be distinct classes but these classes have no quantitative properties. Therefore no comparison can be made for forms of one category higher than the other
- 3. Ordinal Scale • A scale that arranges objects or alternatives according to their magnitude. • Rank ordering. • Usages like “Excellent”, “Good”, “Fair”, “Poor”. • Ranks like 1, 2 , 3 etc. Interval Scale • A scale that not only arranges objects or alternatives according to their magnitudes but also distinguishes this ordered arrangement in units of equal intervals. • Shows like “1-9” , “10-19” etc.
- 4. Ratio Scale • A scale having absolute rather than relative quantities and possessing an absolute zero, where there is absence of given attribute. • Represents actual amount of variables. • Eg : - 30%
- 5. SCALING TECHNIQUES • Scaling describes the procedures of assigning numbers to various degrees of opinion, attitude and other concepts. • This can be done in 2 ways : 1. Making a judgment about some characteristics of them placing him directly on a scale that has been defined in terms of the characteristics. 2. Constructing Questionnaires in such a way that the score of individual's responses assigns him a place on a scale.
- 6. Important Scaling Techniques Scaling Techniques Non – Comparative ScaleComparative Scales Paired Comparison Constant Sum Rank Order Q-Sort Continuous Rating Scale Itemized Rating Scale Likert Scale Semantic Differential Stapel
- 7. Comparative Scaling Techniques A comparative scale is an ordinal or rank order scale that can also be referred to as a non-metric scale. Respondents evaluate two or more objects at one time and objects are directly compared with one another as part of the measuring process.
- 8. 1.Paired Comparison An ordinal level technique A respondent is presented with two items at a time and asked to choose one. The most widely used comparison scale technique. If you take n brands then [n (n-1)/2] paired comparisons are required. A classic example of when paired comparison is used is during taste tests. For example you could have a taste test in which you have someone try both Coke and Pepsi and then ask them which one they prefer.
- 9. 2.Constant Sum Respondents are given a constant sum of units such as points, money, or credits and then asked to allocate them to various items. Ordinal Level Technique For example, you could ask a respondent to reflect on the importance of features of a product and then give them 100 points to allocate to each feature of the product based on that. If a feature is not important then the respondent can assign it zero. If one feature is twice as important as another then they can assign it twice as much. When they are done all the points should add up to 100.
- 10. 3.Rank-Order Scaling This gives the respondent a set of items and then asks the respondent to put those items in some kind of order. The “order” could be something like preference, liking, importance, effectiveness, etc. This can be a simple ordinal structure such as A is higher than B or be done by relative position (give each letter a numerical value as in A is 10 and B is 7). You could present five items and ask the respondent to order each one A-E in order of preference. In Rank-Order scaling only (n-1) decisions need to be made.
- 11. 4.Q-Sort Respondents are asked to sort a given number of items or statements and classify them into a predetermined number of sets according to some criterion such as preference, attitude, or behavioural intent.
- 12. Non – Comparative Scale Respondents evaluate only one object at a time, and for this reason non-comparative scales are often referred to as monadic scales. Non-comparative techniques consist of continuous and itemized rating scales.
- 13. 1.Continuous Rating Scale Respondents rate the objects by placing a mark at the appropriate position on a line that runs from one extreme of the criterion variable to the other. The form of the continuous scale may vary considerably. Examples : Probably the worst - - - - - - -I - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Probably the best Probably the worst - - - - - - -I - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - Probably the best 0 -10-20-30-40-50-60-70-80-90-100
- 14. 2.Itemized Rating Scales The respondents are provided with a scale that has a number or brief description associated with each category. The categories are ordered in terms of scale position, and the respondents are required to select the specified category that best describes the object being rated. The commonly used itemized rating scales are the Likert, semantic differential, and Stapel scales.
- 15. 2.1.Likert Scale The Likert scale requires the respondents to indicate a degree of agreement or disagreement with each of a series of statements about the stimulus objects. The analysis can be conducted on an item-by-item basis (profile analysis), or a total (summated) score can be calculated. 1. Strongly Disagree (1) 2. Disagree (2) , 3. Neither Agree Nor Disagree (3), 4. Agree (4), 5. Strongly Agree (5)
- 16. 2.2. Semantic Differential Scale The semantic differential is a seven-point rating scale with end points associated with bipolar labels that have semantic meaning. Powerful --:--:--:--:-X-:--:--: Weak Unreliable --:--:--:--:--:-X-:--: Reliable Modern --:--:--:--:--:--:-X-: Old-fashioned This controls the tendency of some respondents, particularly those with very positive or very negative attitudes, to mark the right- or left-hand sides without reading the labels. Individual items on a semantic differential scale may be scored on either a -3 to +3 or a 1 to 7 scale.
- 17. 2.3 .Stapel Scale Developed to measure the direction and intensity of an attitude simultaneously towards the item under study. The characteristic of interest to the study at the centre with a numerical scale ranging like e.g:- +3 to - 3 2.4 .Graphic Rating Scale A graphical representation helps the respondents to indicate on this scale their answers to a particular question by placing a mark at the appropriate point on the line.

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