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01 iec t1_s1_oo_ps_session_01

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01 iec t1_s1_oo_ps_session_01

  1. 1. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Rationale Object-oriented concepts form the base of all modern programming languages. Understanding the basic concepts of object-orientation helps a developer to use various modern day programming languages, more effectively. C# (C-Sharp) is an object-oriented programming language developed by Microsoft that intends to be a simple, modern, and general-purpose programming language for application development. The course is applicable to students who want to enter the world of object-oriented programming, using the C# language. This course provides a strong foundation in object-oriented programming approaches and the fundamentals of C# programming language. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 1 of 45
  2. 2. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Objectives In this session, you will learn to: Explain features of the object-oriented methodology Describe the phases of the object-oriented methodology Define classes in C# Declare variables Write and execute C# programs Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 2 of 45
  3. 3. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Object-Oriented Methodology Object orientation is a software development methodology that is based on modeling a real-world system. An object oriented program consists of classes and objects. Let us understand the terms—class and objects Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 3 of 45
  4. 4. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Object-Oriented Methodology (Contd.) Class Car Suzuki Reno Toyota Camry Honda Acura Objects Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 4 of 45
  5. 5. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#The Foundation of Object Orientation An object means a ‘material thing’ that is capable of being presented to the senses. An object has the following characteristics: It has a state It may display behavior It has a unique identity Objects interact with other objects through messages. Let us understand these concepts. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 5 of 45
  6. 6. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#The Foundation of Object Orientation (Contd.)Car positioned at one place defines it’s State Movement of car defines it’s Behavior Car number XX 4C 4546 shows the Identity of the car Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 6 of 45
  7. 7. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#The Foundation of Object Orientation (Contd.) Car is flashing the lights to pass the message to the other car Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 7 of 45
  8. 8. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Just a minute Identify the possible states of the following objects: 1. A cell phone 2. A stereo Solution: 1. States of a cell phone: Off, Ring, Vibrate, and Call 2. States of a stereo: Play, Pause, Rewind, and Forward Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 8 of 45
  9. 9. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Just a minute Dr. James and Mr. Hyde went to the railway station to book tickets for 3rd December. At the railway station, they requested the clerk at the ticket counter to book two tickets for the Flying Express in the first class. Identify the following: 1. The possible receiver of the message in this situation. 2. The possible method that the receiver can use. Solution: 1. The receiver of the message in this case will be the clerk at the ticket counter. 2. The clerk will check if two tickets are available on the requested train in the desired class and for the desired date. If the tickets are available, the clerk will enter the details (name, age, departure date, and seat), confirm the reservation, and collect the required fare. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 9 of 45
  10. 10. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Characteristics of the Object-Oriented Approach Realistic modeling Reusability Resilience to change Existence as different forms Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 10 of 45
  11. 11. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Just a minute State whether the following situations demonstrate reusability: 1. Recycling paper 2. Pump reusability (same pump is used in a well and in a fuel station) Solution: 1. It does not represent reusability because the unusable paper is destroyed before paper is recycled for use. The unusable paper loses its identity and cannot be considered the same as recycled paper. 2. It represents reusability because a pump can be used for suction of water as well as petrol. It is not necessary to use the same pump in both the cases. Two separate machines can be used because both belong to the ‘Pump’ class. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 11 of 45
  12. 12. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Phases of Object Orientation The following phases are involved in the software development: The Analysis phase The Design phase The Implementation phase Let us discuss the process of constructing a building. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 12 of 45
  13. 13. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Just a minute As a member of a team that is developing software for DialCom Telecommunications, Inc., you have been assigned the task of creating a software module that accepts and displays customer details such as name, age, and phone number. Identify the class that you will create and the methods of the class. Solution: As per the problem statement, the class required is: – Customer The class should have the methods to: Accept customer details Display customer details Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 13 of 45
  14. 14. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Introducing C# A program is a set of instructions to perform a specific task. Programming languages use programs to develop software applications. A compiler is a special program that processes the statements written in a particular programming language and converts them into a machine language. This process of conversion is called compilation. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 14 of 45
  15. 15. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Introducing C# (Contd.) C#, also known as C-Sharp, is a programming language introduced by Microsoft. C# is specially designed to work with the Microsoft’s .NET platform. Let us understand the structure of a C# program. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 15 of 45
  16. 16. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Classes in C# Consider the following code example, which defines a class: public class Hello { public static void Main(string[] args) { System.Console.WriteLine("Hello, World! n"); } } Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 16 of 45
  17. 17. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Classes in C# (Contd.) public class Hello The class Keyword { Is used to declare a public static void class Main(string[] args) { System.Console.WriteLine("He llo, World! n"); } } Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 17 of 45
  18. 18. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Classes in C# (Contd.) public class Hello The class Name { Is used as an identifier public static void for a class Main(string[] args) { System.Console.WriteLine("He llo, World! n"); } } Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 18 of 45
  19. 19. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Classes in C# (Contd.) public class Hello The Main() Function { Is the entry point of an public static void application Main(string[] args) Is used to create { objects and invoke System.Console.WriteLine("He member functions llo, World! n"); } } Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 19 of 45
  20. 20. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Classes in C# (Contd.) public class Hello System.Console.WriteLine() { Displays the enclosed text on public static void the screen Main(string[] args) { System.Console.WriteLine("He llo, World! n"); } } Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 20 of 45
  21. 21. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Classes in C# (Contd.) public class Hello The Escape Character { Displays New line public static void character. Other special Main(string[] args) characters can also be { displayed such as t, b System.Console.WriteLine("He and r llo, World! n"); } } Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 21 of 45
  22. 22. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Demo: Creating Classes Problem Statement: As a member of a team that is developing toys for JoyToys, Inc., you have been assigned the task of creating a bike module that accepts and displays bike details. Declare the Bike class and its member functions. The member function that accepts bike details should display the message “Accepting Bike Details”. Similarly, the member function to display bike details on the screen should display the message “Displaying Bike Details”. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 22 of 45
  23. 23. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Declaring Variables A variable is a location in the memory that has a name and contains a value. A variable is associated with a data type that defines the type of data that can be stored in a variable. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 23 of 45
  24. 24. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Declaring and Initializing Variables You can declare and initialize variables by using the following syntax: <data_type> <variable_name>=<value>; Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 24 of 45
  25. 25. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Declaring and Initializing Variables (Contd.) Consider the following Data Types in C# example of declaring and Represents the kind of initializing a variable: data stored in a variable int class_rank=2; C# provides you with various built-in data types, such as: • char • int • float • double • bool • string Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 25 of 45
  26. 26. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Data Types in C# Let us now understand the various data types with the help of examples. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 26 of 45
  27. 27. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Data Types in C# (Contd.) string Name = “Peter” float Marks = 83.56 int Age = 23 char Vowel = ‘a’ Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 27 of 45
  28. 28. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Data Types in C# (Contd.) Consider the following Data types in C# example of declaring and The following types of initializing a variable: data types are supported int class_rank=2; by C#: • Value types int Num; Num Num=5; 5 Memory allocated Variable declared and Initialized Memory Allocation in Value Type Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 28 of 45
  29. 29. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Declaring and Initializing Variables Consider the following Data types in C# example of declaring and The following types of initializing a variable: data types are supported int class_rank=2; by C#: • Reference types string Str=“Hello”; Address Str H E L L O 0 1 2 3 4 Memory Allocation of the String Type Variable Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 29 of 45
  30. 30. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Declaring and Initializing Variables (Contd.) Consider the following Naming variables in C# example of declaring and The following rules are used initializing a variable: for naming variables in C#: int class_rank=2; • Must begin with a letter or an underscore • Should not contain any embedded spaces or symbols • Must be unique • Can have any number of characters • Keywords cannot be used as variable names Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 30 of 45
  31. 31. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Declaring and Initializing Variables (Contd.) Consider the following Examples and non-examples example of declaring and of Naming Variables initializing a variable: Name int class_rank=2; #Score Age 2Strank Family_Size Gender Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 31 of 45
  32. 32. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Declaring and Initializing Variables (Contd.) Consider the Initializing Variables in C# following example of Specifies the value that declaring and needs to be stored in a initializing a variable: variable. The value could be int class_rank=2; an integer, a decimal, or a character. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 32 of 45
  33. 33. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Accepting and Storing Values in Member Variables To understand how to accept Console.ReadLine() value in a variable, let us Is used to accept input consider the following code from the user and store it snippet: in the variable int Number; Number= Convert.ToInt32(Console.Rea dLine()); Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 33 of 45
  34. 34. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Accepting and Storing Values in Member Variables (Contd.) To understand how to accept Convert.ToInt32() value in a variable, let us Converts the value consider the following code entered by the user to snippet: the int data type int Number; Number= Convert.ToInt32(Console.Rea dLine()); Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 34 of 45
  35. 35. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Writing and Executing a C# Program Let us know learn to write, compile, and execute a C# program. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 35 of 45
  36. 36. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Creating a Sample C# Program A C# program can be written by using an editor like Notepad. Consider the following code, which declares a class Car and also creates an object MyCar of the same class: The using keyword is used to include using System; the namespaces in the program. class Car Comments are used to explain the { code and are represented by // //Member variables symbols. string Engine; Member variables are used to store int NoOfWheels; the data for a class. //Member functions Member functions are declared inside void AcceptDetails() the class that are used to perform a specific task. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 36 of 45
  37. 37. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Creating a Sample C# Program (Contd.) { Console.WriteLine("Enter the Engine Model"); Engine = Console.ReadLine(); Console.WriteLine("Enter the number of Wheels"); NoOfWheels = Convert.ToInt32(Console.ReadLine()); } public void DisplayDetails() { Console.WriteLine("The Engine Model is:{0}", Engine); Console.WriteLine("The number of wheels are:{0}", NoOfWheels); } } Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 37 of 45
  38. 38. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Creating a Sample C# Program (Contd.) //Class used to instantiate the Car class class ExecuteClass The Execute class is used as a class from { where the Car class can be instantiated. public static void Main(string[] args) { Car MyCar = new Car(); MyCar.AcceptDetails(); MyCar.DisplayDetails(); } } Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 38 of 45
  39. 39. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Compiling and Executing C# Program After writing the program in a Notepad, you need to compile and execute it to get the desired output. The compiler converts the source code that you write into the machine code, which the computer can understand. The following steps are needed to compile and execute a C# program. 1. Save the code written in the Notepad with an extension .cs. 2. To compile the code, you need to go to the Visual Studio 2005 Command Prompt window. Select StartAll ProgramsMicrosoft Visual Studio 2005Visual Studio ToolsVisual Studio 2005 Command Prompt. The Visual Studio 2005 Command Prompt window is displayed to compile the program. 3. In the Visual Studio 2005 Command Prompt window, move to the location where the programs file is saved. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 39 of 45
  40. 40. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Compiling and Executing C# Program (Contd.) 4. Compile the program file by using the following command: csc ExecuteClass.cs 5. To execute the code, type the following in the command prompt: ExecuteClass.exe Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 40 of 45
  41. 41. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Demo: Creating a C# Program Problem Statement: David is the member of a team that is developing the Automatic Ranking software for a tennis tournament. You have been assigned the task of creating a program. The program should accept the following details of a tennis player and display it: • Name, containing a maximum of 25 characters • Rank as an integer • Winning average as a decimal value Help David to create the program. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 41 of 45
  42. 42. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Summary In this session, you learned that: According to the object-oriented approach, systems consist of component objects that interact with each other. An object is an entity that may have a physical boundary. However, it should have the following characteristics: • State • Behavior • Identity – A class consists of a set of objects that share a common structure and behavior. – If an object desires an action from another object, it sends a message to that object. – The object that receives the message is called the receiver, and the set of actions taken by the receiver constitutes the method. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 42 of 45
  43. 43. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Summary (Contd.) The features of the object-oriented approach are: • Realistic modeling • Reusability • Resilience to change • Existence as different forms – A model of a system is built in the stages of analysis, design and implementation. – The purpose of the model is to help developers understand the reality that they are trying to imitate. – In C#, a class is created by using the keyword class. It is identified by a name called the class name. – The Console.WriteLine() method is used to display text on the screen. – Main() is the first function which is executed in a C# program. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 43 of 45
  44. 44. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Summary (Contd.) Escape characters are used to display special characters such as the newline character. A variable is a named location in the memory, which contains a specific value. A datatype defines the type of data that can be stored in a variable. The two types of data type are Value type and Reference type. The ReadLine() method is used to accept inputs from the user. The using keyword is used to include the namespaces in the program. A namespace contains a set of related classes. Member variables are declared inside the class body. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 44 of 45
  45. 45. Object-Oriented Programming Using C#Summary (Contd.) Comment entries are notes written by a programmer in the code so that others reading that code can understand it better. An object is an instance of a class. The compiler software translates a program written in a language like C# into the machine language. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 45 of 45

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