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Lawson 2008

  1. 1. structured, bounded location with a technology thatLibraries as hybrid space transcends boundaries. The development of hybrid space raises fundamental questions about how hu-Keith Lawson man beings will act and live in them. The that exist within a library, for example, are madeDalhousie University into usable and hospitable places because they en-_______________________________________________ able certain activities and discourage others. This place making activity now needs to be carried outAbstract through the articulation of these two spatial dimen- This paper connects some trends and issues in plan- sions. The work of Manuel Castells and Rem Kool-ning and architecture with trends and issues in networkdesign in order to consider the shape of hybrid space— haas can provide a starting point and examples forcreated by the flowing together of spaces and networks. exploring some of the features of hybrid space. IReferring to ideas of space articulated by Manuel Castells will examine how openness and structure are bal-and to some of the ideas and architectural work of Rem anced, how boundaries can be used to shape andKoolhaas as examples, this paper considers openness and make place dynamic, and the possible impact ofboundaries, as well as individualized and public spaces. social networks on place.1. Introduction 2. Openness ...and so, said Austerlitz, we began a long, When Castells first wrote about flows, highly whispered conversation in the Haut-de- connected nodes on the network were unusual jardin reading room, which was gradually places: for example, the lower end of Manhattan emptying now, about the dissolution, in Island or the City of London which were wired for line with the inexorable spread of proc- high speed, continuous data and communications essed data, of our capacity to remember, connections to other important nodes around the and about the collapse, leffondrement, as globe. These highly connected areas stood in con- Lemoine put it, of the Bibliothèque Nation- trast to areas perhaps just a few blocks away with ale which is already underway. The new li- little or no connection to the flows of information. brary building, which in both its entire lay- In this arrangement of connectivity, libraries could out and its near ludicrous internal regula- see themselves as significant public locations in the tion seeks to exclude the reader as a po- space of flows. Resources of connectivity were tential enemy, might be described, so scarce, and access tended to be restricted, and so Lemoine thought, said Austerlitz, as the of- the library was the door through which one could ficial manifestation of the increasingly im- enter this other space. Rem Koolhaas, in a conver- portunate urge to break with everything sation with Sarah Whiting about his plans for the which still has some living connection to Seattle Public library, talked about one idea of the the past. (Sebald, 2001, 286) library in this economy of scarcity: it could ... be, for example, a business Manuel Castells argues that architectural space community that needs to be presented withand the space created by information and commu- the latest publications or latest informa-nications technologies, what he calls the space of tion. Certain magazines have become soflows, are becoming more at odds and at the same expensive that certain businesses dont buytime more intertwined. He defines his concept of the magazine, but they would buy the rightflows and places in this way: to consult the magazine in the library. Such The space of flows links up electronically a system creates a layering of virtual space separate locations in an interactive net- where the ubiquity of information is still work that connects activities and people in manipulated to create hierarchies, scarci- distinct geographical contexts. The space ties, authenticities—circles of access and of places organizes experience and activity nonaccess. (Koolhaas & Whiting, 1999, 45) around the confines of locality. (Castells, Koolhaas imagines the library as a place of "embed- 2005, 50) ded systems" (as McCullough calls them) (McCul-The "intertwining of flows and places" (Castells, lough, 2004, 142). Entering the library, one enters2005, 54) has created a hybrid space combining the space of flows and even this space is further Proceedings of the 36th annual conference of the Canadian Association for Informa- tion Science (CAIS), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, June 5-7, 2008 1
  2. 2. divided into different levels of access to special re- pansion and loss of a sense of unique place has alsosources. The space thus become shaped or struc- been happening in architecture. For Koolhaas,tured in an architectural way with walls and pas- uniqueness is disappearing and being replaced bysages separating zones of access. In this arrange- the generic. In his essay on the "Generic City" hement, the idea of a hybrid space is easy to imagine. begins by asking: "Is the contemporary city like theEntering a specific room would be the same as en- contemporary airport—all the same? Is it possible totering a node or a zone of connectivity. theorize this convergence? ... Convergence is possi- However, these walls have, in many ways, fallen ble only at the price of shedding identity. ... Whator shifted. First, more and more areas are highly is left after identity is stripped? The Generic?"connected, and many communities and places (in- (Koolhaas et al., 1995, 1248). And, more recentlycluding, of course, university buildings outside of Koolhaas has written about what he callsthe library) have come to view broadband internet Junkspace.access as a basic need or utility, like power or wa- Continuity is the essence of Junkspace; itter. What was once a closed system, bound to small exploits any invention that enables expan-highly-wired and networked nodes, is now more sion, deploys the infrastructure of seam-open. In addition, new connected devices—3G or lessness: escalator; air-conditioning, sprin-smart phones, for example—have further eroded kler, fire shutter, hot-air curtain ... It iswhat were once the solid boundaries dividing con- always interior, so extensive that younected and unconnected areas. In terms of connec- rarely perceive limits; it promotes disorien-tedness, there may not now be much to divide the tation by any means (mirror, polish, echo)library from the Starbucks or even from the local ... Junkspace is sealed, not held togetherpark (in some places). not by structure but by skin, like a bubble. Second, the tendency of online resources is also Gravity has remained constant, resisted bytowards openness. The "layering of virtual space," as the same arsenal since the beginning ofKoolhaas describes it, which could be imagined as a time; but air-conditioning—invisible me-series of boxes within boxes, containing ever more dium, therefore unnoticed—has truly revo-valuable resources, has dissolved in large measure. lutionized architecture. Air-conditioningOf course, there are still valuable resources that are has launched the endless building. If archi-restricted by the library to specific insiders, and not tecture separates buildings, air-to the general public, and there are still many digi- conditioning unites them. (Koolhaas, 2002,tal resources that some libraries have and others do 175-6 Koolhaass ellipses)not have. But, in terms of access, systems librarians "Junkspace," he concludes, "is the body double ofhave sought to eliminate as many login screens or space" (Koolhaas, 2002, 176). The very idea of spaceunique passageways to resources as possible. At the defined by architecture relies on a unique identitysame time users used to Google expect and demand and on such basic distinctions of outside and inside,barrier-less and rapid access to resources. So, the of walls and doors to separate and enable entrance,route to a resource could be through a library and to separate the distinct climates of outside andworkstation, or it could be through Google Scholar inside. In the type of endless space without defini-via a proxy server to a remote database, where the tion which Koolhaas describes, the very openness ofproxy server is an automatic, unnoticed doorway in the space works against the distinctions which en-what seems to the user an undifferentiated infor- able "identity" or a sense of place.mation space. The tendency in architecture, urban design, and Third, as one can infer from the above, the new network design is to openness, but the sense ofnetwork space is no longer coextensive with the place requires restriction or limitation, a sense of aphysical space of the library. The real and the vir- limited range of appropriate or possible uses or ac-tual spaces no longer fit neatly into the same foot- tivities enabled or encouraged by specific spaces.print. According to Sacks definition, places "constrain and A sense of place is dependent upon space, and enable our actions and our actions construct andspace is defined by boundaries. So, in an environ- maintain places" (Sack quoted in Leckie andment where boundaries dissolve, place is threate- Buschman, 2007, 10). Someone seated at an opac inned. Virtual space has grown and become shapeless a librarys information commons can use the(or at least of an unpredictable shape), but this ex- workstation not only to search, but also to connect Proceedings of the 36th annual conference of the Canadian Association for Informa- tion Science (CAIS), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, June 5-7, 2008 2
  3. 3. to a resource and to read it. But, someone using a or dont we?) surfaces repeatedly through-card catalogue can only search. So, an information out the building. (Kenney, 2005)commons cannot be a place in the sense that a card Later Kenney writes about the reference room (orcatalogue is a place because there is, as we know, to use Koolhaass term, the Mixing Chamber):very little restriction on the types of activities the The room features computers dedicated toworkstation enables, nor would these sorts of activi- the catalog and subscription databases, aties be possible only in an information commons; general reference print collection, and athey could equally happen in some other networked long, minimalist reference desk that seemsenvironment. almost an afterthought. Is it necessary? "Perhaps not," admits Craig Kyte, manager3. Responding to openness of general reference services, who foresees Nodes in the space of flows have an inherent a day when librarians just work the floor.openness or generic quality which works against the "But we are grappling with how to identifysense of place. Some library designers and archi- librarians to the public." (Kenney, 2005)tects have responded to this openness by creating In trying to give definition to a space (and definitionphysically open areas where a range of activities is to those who work in the space), a structure like apossible, and there is no attempt, for example, to desk with its two sides, enables or encourages spe-define a space by putting in it a desk labelled "Ref- cific uses—e.g. asking a question—which in turn cre-erence." This is the situation sketched out by John ates a sense of identity and place. However,Berry in his February column in Library Journal: Kenneys sense of unease with the barrier of the Our circulation desks are disappearing. The desk, illustrates, to borrow Sebalds phrasing, the humans who once greeted and discussed "increasingly importunate urge" to openness and with patrons our wares and services as they lack of boundaries (Sebald, 2001, 286). As an archi- dispensed them are being replaced by self- tect, Koolhaas seeks to balance the expectation for service. Those circulation clerks are either openness and the need for structure. The tension being terminated or sent to work elsewhere created as a result might even be useful. in the library. Instead of creating an entirely open space where Our reference services and the desk from any library activity can happen in almost any part of which they were delivered are gone, too, the building, the Koolhaas, in his proposal for the replaced by wandering “librarians,” with or library, imagined a strategy of "spatial compart- without an MLS. They are supposed to be ments dedicated to and equipped for specific du- proactive in searching out patrons in need ties" (OMA/LMN, 1999, 10). Goldberger notes that but are too often summoned on walkie- the architects began their design process for Seattle talkies or terminals to come to the aid of "by investigating how libraries actually work, and only those who ask or to respond to the few how they are likely to change" (Goldberger, 2004). inquiries that arrive online. (Berry, 2008) When Koolhaas and Ramus designed theKoolhaass Seattle Public Library does not take this building, they did what architects oftenunbounded open approach to library space. Kool- do—they made a diagram. It was, essen-haas arranges a series of rooms each with a specific tially, five boxes: the book stacks were onefunction, and each with relevant library staff. The box, the administrative offices were an-reviewer of the building for Library Journal, Brian other, and there were boxes for staff workKenney, sensed a conflict between the openness of areas, meeting rooms, and below-groundthe physical spaces and the restriction created by parking. Then they did something remark-desks: able. For all intents and purposes, they Poke around in the back of the fiction col- built the diagram. They sketched the boxes lection and—surprise!—theres a fic- floating in space and placed the large pub- tion/readers advisory desk. Why these li- lic areas—the Living Room, the Mixing brarians with all their knowledge are hid- Chamber, and the Reading Room—above den away, or even sitting behind a desk at and below them, surrounded by glass. all, is a mystery. This ambiguous relation- Turning a diagram into an actual architec- ship with public service (do we want a desk tural form seems like something of a parlor trick, not to mention being crudely indif- Proceedings of the 36th annual conference of the Canadian Association for Informa- tion Science (CAIS), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, June 5-7, 2008 3
  4. 4. ferent to aesthetics. In fact, it was neither drals of the Information Age, where the pilgrims of these things. The building has a logic to gather to search for the meaning of their wander- it: functional sections are the starting ings" (Castells, 2005, 60). One feels that this same point, but they are placed so that the use of the power of space was one of the goals for spaces between them are large enough and Deborah Jacobs, Seattles chief librarian, "I spectacular enough to produce powerful thought," she says, "it was very important that you architectural effects. (Goldberger, 2004) have a sense of awe when you come into a publicBuilding the diagram of the library functions is a building, especially a library" (Goldberger, 2004).tool for giving space the type of definition that al- Kenney, in his review of the Seattle library, noteslows a sense of place to develop, but it also allowed that visitors react in a way "akin to tourists enteringKoolhaas to achieve another aim: to have the library one of the great European cathedrals" (Kenney,an image of the library as it exists on the web. The 2005). So, marking a place in the space of flows,compartmentalization of library functions gives involves creating a space which inspires and movesthese functions a shape in the space of flows. For its patrons and users. Of course, this sense of spaceKoolhaas, the real and the virtual "can be made to does not need to be cathedral-like, but it mustcoincide, become each others mirror image" avoid the characteristics of the generic and of junk(OMA/LMN, 1999, p.8). As his proposal for the li- space.brary states: Real and virtual space are conceived in 5. Febrile boundaries parallel, as part of the same architecture. At the same time that systems and architectural The communication strategies that provide spaces move towards openness, people seek for access and clarity in the space of the li- borders and enclosure. City dwellers and planners brary are mirrored in the virtual platform and architects see the need for boundaries and (OMA/LMN, 1999, 37) structured space to create liveable and functionalIn other words, if one can create a place built places. In planning for hybrid space, there are twoaround clear functions in the built structure of the types of boundary creation which are important.library, and if one can transfer that same sense of The first is the creation of a boundary space. Theplace to the network, the result will be a hybrid second response, which can be found in networks, isplace. In other words, from the user point of view, the creation of boundaries which allow a high de-both spaces should be recognizable as images of gree of personalization, in a fundamental way, al-each other, and being comfortable and knowing how lowing users to define a personal space with barri-to fulfill ones goals in the both spaces will enable ers of ones own definition.the library to exist simultaneously as a real and a Some architects have reacted against opennessvirtual structure. and created works which have not responded to the ways space has changed. Goldberger notes that the4. Marking the space of flows new Chicago public library was designed, "as if the While Koolhaass talk of mirroring and balance world is unchanged since 1911" and as a result thebetween the real and the virtual manifestations of building "looks vaguely like a nineteenth-centurythe library is significant, the physical structure of train station and is overbearing and bombastic"the library has an importance that crosses over into (Goldberger, 2004). Architects can look at opennessthe space of flows. In talking about the main issues as something to be feared and resisted. Sebaldsarising for cities in the Information age, Castells character, Jacques Austerlitz, senses this spirit inargues that there is a crisis for the city "as a socio- the Bibliothèque Nationale, arguing that the build-spatial system of cultural communication" (Castells, ing seeks "to exclude the reader as a potential en-2005, 46), and that "recent trends in architecture emy" (Sebald, 2001, 286).signal its transformation from an intervention in the Similarly, in urban planning, as Richard Sennettspace of places to an intervention in the space of argues, "people are ... trying to compensate forflows, the dominant space of the information age" their dislocations and impoverished experience in(Castells, 2005, 59-60). He gives a list of examples the economy by celebrating place—but on exclu-of the types of buildings he means, beginning with sionary terms" (Sennett, 1999, p.23). Finding onesGehrys Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, and ending own place often means keeping others away from it.with the statement that these are the "new cathe- "Less obviously, but as powerfully, modern place- Proceedings of the 36th annual conference of the Canadian Association for Informa- tion Science (CAIS), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, June 5-7, 2008 4
  5. 5. making involves a search for the comforts of same- circulation desks, self-check stations, aness in terms of shared identity, uniform building bank of computers, and a large number ofcontext and reductions of density" (Sennett, 1999, surprisingly comfortable cubist chairs. Op-p.23). Castells also notes the "Breakdown of com- posite the seating, visitors can browse a se-munication patterns between individuals and be- lection of popular magazines as well as thetween cultures and the emergence of defensive librarys fiction collection. A coffee stand—spaces" (Castells, 2005, 47). The defensive spaces not Starbucks but run by FareStart, a pro-which Sennett describes can be imagined as a com- gram that empowers the homeless—and abination of the gated community and the Generic gift shop are nearby. (Kenney, 2005)City. This area which is neither obviously library nor In libraries and in communities, one can respond bookstore nor Starbucks but is "exhilarating" illus-to openness by building walls which define space trates the dynamic friction between the street (andbut do not exclude. Sennett discusses some of these its community) and the library.ideas: There are planning strategies that can 6. Individualized spaces counter claustrophobia and open places up. On the network, creating this type of boundary For instance, new buildings can be directed place is more challenging. Interestingly, some of the to the edges between separate communi- first theorists of cyberspace were architects who ties and away from local centres. This imagined cyberspace in terms of architectural makes the edge a febrile zone of interac- space. They understood the benefit of public spaces tion and exchange, a zone where differ- separating and yet connecting private task spaces ences are activated. Planning work by Hugo and repositories of data. In 1991, Michael Benedikt Hinsley and others in East London is based wrote in "Cyberspace: Some Proposals": on this principle of the active edge. Or There is good reason to be in transit for within central spaces, dissimilar uses can significant periods of time, and in relatively be introduced: many planners in the USA public areas. For it is between tasks, both are, for instance, seeking ways to put clin- spatially and temporally, that one is most ics, government offices and old-age centres open to accident and incident. In the real into shopping malls which have been for- world, chance meetings in hallways, lob- merly devoted solely to consumption activi- bies, airports, on sidewalks, and so on are ties: planners in Germany are similarly ex- essential to the formation of informal per- ploring how pedestrian zones in the centres sonal networks. Browsing is essential to the of cities can become civic as well as com- acquisition of new information. Without mercial sites. (Sennett, 1999, pp.23-24) time in transit in cyberspace—open, spatio-Bringing together dissimilar groups or communities temporally coherent, and free—one is im-and encouraging different activities at the border of prisoned by ones discrete task domains,communities can create new patterns of interaction blinkered and locked to destinations.and new possibilities for social relationships. Simi- (Benedikt, 1991, 170)larly, the border between the library and the street In other words, Benedikt imagines a space withincan also be treated as an active edge. Instead of cyberspace very much like the active edge de-attempting to exclude the user, planning strategies scribed by Sennett. Without this in-between type ofcan create borders which create definition for the space, Benedikt imagines users trapped in "task do-space they enclose but are in-between places in mains," cut off from valuable sources of informationtheir own right, encouraging and enabling entrance and ideas. In many ways the developing boundary-or interaction. Using the dynamic energy inherent in free space of the web is an expression of the desireboundaries can add to the sense of the library as to avoid these types of in-between spaces. In addi-place. From Kenneys description of the Seattle li- tion to the signs of openness already discussed, onebrary, we can see this type of border space: can think of search technologies which seek to con- Enter from Fifth Avenue, the upper part of nect users by the most direct path to the most the slope, and you are in the Living Room— trusted resources, and users have shown their impa- one of the most exhilarating public rooms tience with exploring anything beyond the first page in the nation. ... There are information and of search results. In part, this attests to a discom- Proceedings of the 36th annual conference of the Canadian Association for Informa- tion Science (CAIS), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, June 5-7, 2008 5
  6. 6. fort of open, unstructured places. Speedy connec- can be used in ways to work together with a net-tion to resources, if it means being "imprisoned by work created by a library, for example. Castells dis-ones discrete task domains" (Benedikt, 1991, 170) cusses how personal networks can allow what heor living in a "closed system" (Sennett, 1999, 23) is calls "social patterning," enabling users to organizebetter than having to find ones way through a maze activities in space, arranging meetings at a specificof loosely structured data or ideas. But, paradoxi- location (Castells, 2005, 46). This activity could fitcally, a world without borders or doors or in- in well with the hybrid space of the library. How-between spaces becomes, by its very nature, a ever, library users could look to these personal net-closed system. works as sources for services already provided by The work of Castells on social relations can help the library: for example, virtual reference, bookus understand these paradoxical impulses. Castells recommendations, information seeking questions,argues that in the information age, and so on. The challenge for the library is to create Social relationships are characterized si- a public space with a sense of openness as a way of multaneously by individuation and commu- counterbalancing the "increasing individualization of nalism, both processes using, at the same work, social relationships and residential habits" time, spatial patterning and online commu- (Castells, 2005, 46). nication. Virtual communities and physical Many librarians have experimented with social communities develop in close interaction, networking applications or created spaces on Sec- and both processes of aggregation are chal- ond Life as ways of connecting with their clients lenged by increasing individualization of and of drawing people to the real and virtual ser- work, social relationships and residential vices the library offers. These efforts could be seen habits. (Castells, 2005, 46.) as running the risk of moving too far away from theFor Castells, individuation is "the enclosure of hybrid space of the library, and of turning librarymeaning in the projects, interests, and representa- services into, for example, Facebook applications.tions of the individual" (Castells, 2005, 49). And, Or, one could argue that these efforts attempt tocommunalism is the "enclosure of meaning in a create a sense of place in the library using tools notshared identity" (Castells, 2005, 50). We can see specifically designed for that purpose. Or, one couldboth these urges active in the social networking and see the use of these applications as the thin end ofpeer production initiatives of Web 2.0, which in- the wedge in the privatization of the hybrid publicvolve the creation of communities of shared inter- space of the library.ests and, at the same time, afford high degrees of What social networking applications, and onlinepersonalization. bookstores, and virtual spaces like iGoogle have is a Malcolm McCullough sees the need for a spirit of vast amount of data about users, their interests,"casual extensibility" in the ecology of developing their research and browsing habits, their typicalnetworks (McCullough, 2004, 114). He recognizes spelling errors, and so on. They can use these tothe complexity of this "galaxy of independent sys- individualize, or to let the user individualize his ortems" (114), but argues that the challenge of work- her experience of, for example, an online bookstoreing with them "becomes much more like architec- or search engine or social network. When Koolhaasture" (115). However, McCullough assumes that was planning the Seattle library, he was aware ofthese systems will be within the architects power some of these comprehend and to shape. Increasingly, these In the Seattle Public Library, this issue ofsystems are outside the control of the architect or privacy is becoming pertinent. We beganthe systems designer: think of online social net- this project with a research period to en-works—mediated through social networking applica- able us to explore virtual identity and itstions like Facebook—or the "ubiquitous connectivity, role within the library system. We hope toand self-constructed networks of shared social prac- work with Judith Donath from the MIT Me-tice" mediated through increasingly powerful mobile dia Lab. Shes someone whos looking atcommunications devices, like smart phones (Cas- how cyberspace can generate new commu-tells, 2007, 245). nities. Its interesting in terms of what that These social networking applications or self- implies, because you can create differentconstructed networks can work in ways to enhance communities based on reading patterns,the users ability to make use of physical space, and and those communities can coexist in cy- Proceedings of the 36th annual conference of the Canadian Association for Informa- tion Science (CAIS), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, June 5-7, 2008 6
  7. 7. berspace, but they can also use the library nication. The information revolution & global poli- as a point of actual human contact. tics. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. So the potentials are enormous. The alarms Goldberger, P. (2004, 17 May). "The Sky Line: High- are equally enormous because the library is Tech Bibliophilia". The New Yorker. not willing to give away who reads what or < base its effectiveness on violating that con- 40524crsk_skyline> fidence. (Koolhaas and Whiting, 1999, 44) Gonsalves, A. (2006). "Facebook founder apologizesOf course social networking applications are doing in privacy flap; users given more control" Informa-exactly what Koolhaas describes here, using infor- tion Week (8 Sept, 2006)mation gained from users to create powerful re- <>commender systems, like that of, or Kenney, B. (2005, 15 Aug) "After Seattle" Librarymining user activity to create an individualized pro- Journal.file to enable the application to pitch targeted ad- < or to offer personalized search results, tml>such as we can see in the iGoogle service. Users Koolhaas, R. (2002). Junkspace. October. 100 (1),who are brought up with these systems are willing trade some of their privacy for the benefits these Koolhaas, R., Mau, B., Sigler, J., & Werlemann, offer. And it is likely that many users would (1995). Small, medium, large, extra-large: Officeembrace the types of personalized services that a for Metropolitan Architecture, Rem Koolhaas, andhybrid library community could offer. In addition, Bruce Mau. New York, N.Y.: Monacelli Press.libraries could learn from the errors of social net- Koolhaas, R. and Whiting, S. (1999, Dec) Spotworking systems in deciding how to use their own check: a conversation between Rem Koolhaasuser data. One has only to remember the newsfeed and Sarah Whiting. Assemblage, No. 40 pp. 36-feature which Facebook launched and then with- 55.drew after an online petition rapidly gathered more Leckie, G. and Buschman, J. (2007). Space, placethan 700,000 signatures (Gonsalves, 2006). Users, as and libraries: an introduction. in Buschman, J., &a group, are sensitive to certain kinds of use of per- Leckie, G. J. (2007). The library as place: history,sonal data. Users are also used to managing their community, and culture. Westport, Conn: Librar-own profiles and setting limits on the type of per- ies Unlimited. pp. 3-25.sonal information they would like to reveal, and the McCullough, M. (2004). Digital ground: architecture,types of services they are interested in receiving. As pervasive computing, and environmental knowing.time goes on, users may expect the library to offer Cambridge, Mass: MIT Pressthese types of personalized services as they become OMA/LMN (1999) Seattle Public Library: proposalmore and more a part of how communities are < and maintained and how place is defined. 9/page2.htm> Sebald, W. G. (2001). Austerlitz. New York: Random House.References Sennett, R. (1999) Growth and Failure: the new po-Benedikt, M. (1991) "Cyberspace: some proposals," litical economy and its culture in Featherstone, in Michael Benedikt (ed.), Cyberspace: First M., & Lash, S. (1999). Spaces of culture: city, na- Steps, Cambridge: MIT Press (pp. 119-224) tion, world. London: Sage. pp. 14 - 26.Berry, J. N. (2008, 15 Feb) The vanishing librarians. Blatant Berry. Library Journal. < html>Castells, M. (2005) "Space of flows, space of places: materials for a theory of urbanism in the informa- tion age", in B. Sanyal (Ed.) Comparative plan- ning cultures, New York: Routledge (pp. 45-63)Castells, M. (2007). Mobile communication and soci- ety: a global perspective : a project of the Annen- berg Research Network on international commu- Proceedings of the 36th annual conference of the Canadian Association for Informa- tion Science (CAIS), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, June 5-7, 2008 7