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Nanotechnology is a field that deals with things at molecular level that is as tiny as 10^(-9) of units and finds very useful implementations from cleaning clothes to curing the "incurable"--CANCER.

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  3. 3. NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. The comparative size of a nanometer to a meter is the same as that of a marble to the size of the earth. A nanometer is one billionth of a meter, roughly the width of three or four atoms. The average human hair is about 25,000 nanometers wide. Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology. In the "bottom-up" approach, materials and devices are built from molecular components which assemble themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition. These seek to arrange smaller components into more complex assemblies. In the "top-down" approach, nano-objects are constructed from larger entities without atomic-level control. These seek to create smaller devices by using larger ones to direct their assembly. 3
  4. 4. CURRENT RESEARCH The term "nanotechnology" was independently coined and popularized by Eric Drexler. Graphical representation of a ROTAXANE, useful as a molecular switch. 4
  5. 5. Branches of nanotechnology Green nanotech – use of nanotechnology to enhance the environmental-sustainability of processes currently producing negative externalities. It also refers to the use of the products of nanotechnology to enhance sustainability. Nanoengineering– practice of engineering on the nanoscale. Wet nanotechnology– involves working up to large masses from small ones. Nanobiotech – intersection of nanotechnology and biology. 5
  6. 6. Two forms of nanomedicine that have already been tested in mice and are awaiting human trials are using gold nanoshells to help diagnose and treat cancer and using liposomes as vaccine adjuvants and as vehicles for drug transport 6
  7. 7. Nanotechnology in cancer treatment Nanomedical approaches to drug delivery center on developing nanoscale particles or molecules to improve drug bioavailability. Bioavailability refers to the presence of drug molecules where they are needed in the body and where they will do the most good. Drug delivery focuses on maximizing bioavailability both at specific places in the body and over a period of time. 7
  8. 8. DRUG DELIVERY The basic point to use drug delivery is based upon three facts: a) efficient encapsulation of the drugs, b) successful delivery of said drugs to the targeted region of the body, and c) successful release of that drug there. 8
  9. 9. Researchers at Rice University under Prof. Jennifer West, have demonstrated the use of 120 nm diameter nanoshells coated with gold to kill cancer tumors in mice. The nanoshells can be targeted to bond to cancerous cells by conjugating antibodies or pepti des to the nanoshell surface. By irradiating the area of the tumor with an infrared laser, which passes through flesh without heating it, the gold is heated sufficiently to cause death to the cancer cells. 9
  10. 10. GOLD NANO PARTICLES Nanoparticles of cadmium selenide (quantum dots) glow when exposed to ultraviolet light. When injected, they seep into cancer tumors. The surgeon can see the glowing tumor, and use it as a guide for more accurate tumor removal. 10
  11. 11. NANOROBOTS Nanomedicine would make use of these nanorobots , introduced into the body, to repair or detect damages and infections. Carbon could be the primary element used to build these nanorobots due to the inherent strength and other characteristics of some forms of carbon (diamond/fullerene composites), and nanorobots would be fabricated in desktop nanofactories specialized for this purpose. 11
  12. 12. With the population mounting in Asia and African regions, the global population is expected to touch 7.5 billion by 2020 and 9 billion by 2050. Needless to say, there is an increased need to use scientific technology to boost agricultural production. Nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize the agricultural and food industry with new tools for the molecular treatment of diseases, rapid disease detection, enhancing the ability of plants to absorb nutrients etc. Smart sensors and smart delivery systems will help the agricultural industry combat viruses and other crop pathogens. In the near future nanostructured catalysts will be available which will increase the efficiency of pesticides and herbicides, allowing lower doses to be used Are We Using Nano- Biotechnology to Increase Crop Yield? 12
  13. 13. The union of biotechnology and nanotechnology in sensors will create equipment of increased sensitivity, allowing an earlier response to environmental changes. For example: • Nanosensors utilising carbon nanotubes12 or nano-cantilevers13 are small enough to trap and measure individual proteins or even small molecules.It seems that the long, skinny, strawlike structures promote water uptake, because seeds exposed to carbon nanotubes contained more moisture. • Nanoparticles or nanosurfaces can be engineered to trigger an electrical or chemical signal in the presence of a contaminant such as bacteria. 13
  14. 14. Some nanoparticle products may have unintended consequences. Researchers have discovered that bacteriostatic silver nanoparticles used in socks to reduce foot odour are being released in the wash. These particles are then flushed into the waste water stream and may destroy bacteria which are critical components of natural ecosystems, farms, and waste treatment processes. Researchers have found that when rats breathed in nanoparticles, the particles settled in the brain and lungs, which led to significant increases in biomarkers for inflammation and stress response and that nanoparticles induce skin aging through oxidative stress in hairless mice. carbon nanotubes – a poster child for the “nanotechnology revolution” – could be as harmful as asbestos if inhaled in sufficient quantities. 14
  15. 15. Is nanotechnology bad or good? Nanotechnology offers great potential for benefit to humankind, and also brings severe dangers. While it is appropriate to examine carefully the risks and possible toxicity of nanoparticles and other products of nanoscale technology, the greatest hazards are posed by malicious or unwise use of molecular manufacturing. 15
  16. 16. THANK YOU!! 16