Published on

Published in: Business, Lifestyle
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Wool Natural Materials Nihara Kurian
  2. 2. Where? Wool comes from sheep. 90% of the sheep around the world produce wool. 1 sheep can produce between 2 and 30 pounds of wool yearly. Wool from 1 sheep is called a Fleece, From many it’s called a Clip.
  3. 3. Long wool These sheep usually produce the heaviest fleeces because their fibers, though coarser, grow the longest. Hand spinners prefer wool from the long wool breeds because it is easier to spin. Medium wool Medium wool sheep, raised more for meat than fiber, produce the lightest weight, least valuable fleeces. Medium wool is usually made into blankets, sweaters, or socks or it is felted. Fine wool Fine wool sheep produce fleeces which usually have the greatest value due to their smaller fiber diameter and versatility of use. Garments made from fine wool are less likely to itch. Hair wool Hair sheep shed their coats and produce no usable fibers, should be discarded. Their inclusion in a wool clip can contaminate the entire clip. Raising hair sheep with wooled sheep can affect fleece quality . Hair will not accept dye. Types of Wool
  4. 4. Properties of Wool • Durability: Naturally elastic , wool returns to its original form quickly after pressure is removed. • Absorbency: Can fold 1/3rd of it’s weight in water and still not be damp. Wool absorbs dyes deeply, so color changes are permanent except under extreme and prolonged fading conditions. • Comfort: Retains heat due to the pockets of air formed by crimps in the wool. Wool functions as a "temperature regulator" so it can protect the body in both cold and warm conditions. • Wearability: Do not soil easily and are not easily spotted by grease and oils. Wool does not wrinkle easily. It is resistant to wear and tear. It is lightweight and versatile. • Flammability: When exposed to flame, it chars or smolders. Wool is self- extinguishing. When the flame is removed, burning stops. It will not support combustion. This is why wool blankets are recommended for use in extinguishing small fires.
  6. 6. 1. Shearing
  7. 7. 2. Cleaning Fleece The fleece immediately after shearing has a lot of contaminants that need to be removed by hand or sometimes by washing.
  8. 8. 3. Skirting Fleece The wool from the back end of the sheep, their legs and sometimes their belly is too full of manure to use. These are referred to as "tags" (as in the phrase "tag end"). These are removed first before washing the fleece; this process is called skirting, as all the edges of the wool coat are removed. The fleeces are also sorted into the various types: fine from coarse and short from long.
  9. 9. 4. Washing and Scouring In the scouring process the wool undergoes several soaks and rinses to remove grease and dirt until the wash water remains clean. It is preferable to let wool soak and avoid agitation. Each subsequent wash is a weaker solution of soap or alkaline until the final wash is only water. Between each wash the wool is pressed or squeezed to remove excess water. At each wash step the wash water can be retained for subsequent batches of wool until the first wash becomes to dirty for further use.
  10. 10. 5.Picking The washed and dried wool is then "teased" or "picked" - the beginning of the process of opening up the locks of wool and turning it into a consistent web. The wool is put through a picker which opens the locks and blows the fluffy wool into a room. At the same time a special spinning oil is added which helps the wool fibers slide against each other but also helps them stick together as a fine web through the processing.
  11. 11. 6.Carding Carding is gently spreading washed and dried wool in preparation for further processing.
  12. 12. 7.Roving The final step in the carding process divides the web into small strips called pencil rovings. These are collected on large spools on the end of the card. These spools of pencil roving will be placed on the spinning frame to make yarn.
  13. 13. 8.Spinning The roving as it comes off the card has no twist. It is held together by the oil and natural hooks that exist on the surface of the wool fibers. The spinning frame will put the actual twist on the roving and turn it into yarn. This is collected on wooden bobbins. The frame we have is small but it can spin up to 90 threads at one time.
  14. 14. 9.Wind and/or Skeining When the wooden bobbins are full of yarn, they are placed on a cone winder and the yarn is transferred to paper cones for use in weaving and knitting machines. It could also be put into skeins of yarn which are the form that knitters like to use.
  15. 15. 10.Finishing There are many ways of finishing the yarn. It is sometimes necessary to remove the lubricant by washing, which also "sets the twist" which allows the fibers to open up, fluff out and make a loftier yarn. Sometimes the wool is woven or knitted directly from the cone and is washed and blocked in its final form (as cloth, socks, sweaters, etc.)
  17. 17. Clothes
  18. 18. Carpets • Wool is very resilient and its texture allows it to very quickly recover from crushing or indenting caused by footsteps or furniture. This keeps the rug looking new and fresh for longer periods of time. • Wool has a natural ability to resist staining and soiling, a 30% higher rate of stain resistance than even the best synthetic fibers. This is because of the natural light lanolin that coats the surface of the wool. This coating helps stop dirt and stains from actually penetrating the wool leaving any soiling on or near the surface. That’s why spills on wool is very easy to clean.
  19. 19. Insulating products Woolen covers are made for appliances, because of the durability, water and flame resistance.
  20. 20. Alternative to Wool Cotton flannel, Polyester fleece, and other synthetic fibers wash easily, keep their bright colors, cost less, and don't contribute to sheep cruelty that is associated with wool.