Following are the causes of ourbackwardness in agriculture: 1. Lack of Education The farmers of our country are mostly un-educated and lack technical knowledge .They are unable to unde4rstand the modern scientificmethods of agriculture and often remain ignorant of good means to protect andincrease their yield. Their production is therefore low. 2. Lack of Capital:The majority of our farmers are poor and they often live in a hand to mouthposition. Most of them are always underheavy burdens of debts. So due to lack of capital they cannot afford to purchase modern scientific implements, chemical manures, improved types of seeds etc.
Hence they can not attain the required standards. 3. Following the Old TraditionsMost of our farmers are still stuck to the old traditions of their fore fathers. The circumstances have compelled them touse the crude implements, because due to small holdings of land and poverty they are unable to acquire and use modern scientific methods. That is why theirstandard is lower than that of cultivators in developed countries. 4. Water-logging and Salinity Due to excessive use of canal water, most of our cultivated lands havebecome victims of these two dangerous diseases. Every year, salinity alone, is turning about 1, 00,000 acres of arableland into marches and salt lands. Water-
logging is no less injurious. On the otherhand the measures taken so far are quite inadequate for such issues. 5. Uneconomical Land Holdings Due to our law of inheritance, our farmers command very small pieces ofhands which prove to be costly. A farmer cannot afford tractors and othermachineries for a small piece of land and those his income is low. Hence his interest is converted to some other sector. 6. Scarcity of WaterOur farmers have to face many problemsdue to scarcity of water which is one our major problems. Large tracts of landestimated to be about 22 million acres is lying uncultivated due to shortage of water. Rainfall is uncertain and the
existing irrigational facilities in ourcountry are quite insufficient and need to be extended. 7. Land Tenure System The land tenure system of Pakistan has creates a chain of intermediaries in between the state and the tenants. The system, instead of being conductive to agricultural development, stands in the way of its progress. 8.Soil ErosionIn some areas of our country, especially in hilly regions, the upper fertile soil isbeing eroded by different natural agentsof change .Thus the fertility is poor and soils are becoming less productive. 9. Lack of Organized MarketingThe marketing facilities for agricultural products in Pakistan are still far from
satisfactory level. Our cultivators can not get just prices for their produce due to defective marketing organization. Moreover the chain of middlemen between the producers and ultimate consumers take a heavy share of theirproduce .Thus the cultivators do not take much real interest in increasing their product too. 10. Pests and Crop DiseasesDue to lack of agricultural education andmethods of modern research, our farmers cannot control the various diseases of crops and attacks of pests and insects. The result is low yields. 11. Poor Means of TransportationThe agricultural activities in our countryare performed in rural areas, but most of our villages have no road or railway
links with our markets. So farmers have to face innumerable hardships to sell their products. Hence the farmers takevery little interest in their profession and production suffers. 12.Lack of Credit FacilitiesThe resources required for agricultural operation are land, layout, live stock, farm equipment, seeds, fertilizers, irrigation, transport etc. For theconvenient and timely procurement ofthese resources the farmers must haveeasy access to credit. The A.D.B.P andcommercial banks provide loans to thefarmers which are insufficient because our farmers are very poor. 13. Low Yield Per Acre Due to the above mentioned facts ,it is clear that the yield per acre of various
crops in our country is comparatively low than of the other countries. Hence we are backward.Solutions for Agricultural Problems In Pakistan: 1. Feudalism should be abolished and lands should be allotted to poor farmers. This will enhance the productivity and per acre yield of all the crops in Pakistan. Taxes should be levied on Agricultural income but not without devising limit of land holding. Other wise it would directly affect poor farmers. 2. Federal Seed Certification and Federal Seed Registration is approved but it should taken responsible steps
in approving seeds as it has already approved 36 new kinds of seeds. Specially, those seeds should be banned which can create pest problem in near future. These seeds are of cotton mainly. International seed makers are providing thoseseeds which are not successful in ourcountry as these seeds are not tested on our soil.3. A new Agricultural policy must be framed in which following steps should be focused on.4. Small farmer must be focused.The major problems of small farmers should be solved first.
5. Consumer friendly policy must be projected. 6. Productivity enhancement programme must be constituted to adjust and support prices. 7. Different Agricultural zones should be introduced. As Multan in famous for its Mangoes and citrus fruits so it must be made Mango, citrus zone by which Perishable products should be exported. This would enhance agro based industry and increase foreign reserves. Pakistan Agricultural storage & Services Corporation needs to take steps in this regard.
8. Corporate farming like giving lands to Mitchell, Nestle and Multinational companies is also a good idea that will also help those who own a large area of fertile land but can’t manage it.9. Surplus vegetables and fruits must be exported. A 39 million scheme has been approved for the current fiscal year for establishment of agro export processing zone for fruits, vegetables and flowers. This will also help in commercializing agriculture and farmers will be able to earn more revenue. 10. Latest machinery should be provided to the farmers to increase the per acre yield. This provision
should be on easy installments so that the farmers can avoid the burden of loans. If possible subsidy should be given by the government of modern machinery.