Well-
Being
Tourism
Global
Citizenship
Welcome
The cultural aspect of class has so far largely been ignored, perhaps
because it is a broad yet subtle concept that can be...
PRECARIAT: The
poorest and most
deprived class in
Britain. With low levels
of economic, cultural
and social capital,
every...
PRECARIAT
Household
Income: £8k
Savings: £800
Social Contact
Score: 29.9
ESTABLISHED MIDDLE
CLASS
Household Income: £47k
S...
Standing, G. (2011). The Precariat: The New
Dangerous Class. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
'Participation in civil society, community and/or political life,
characterised by mutual respect and non-violence and in
...
It is important that social exclusion and inclusion
are not considered as a dichotomy: one is
normally not totally exclude...
Social inclusion embraces economic
resources & social relationships...
For example, lone mothers are at particular risk
of...
9
“...social inclusion extends beyond bringing the
‘outsiders’ in, or notions of the periphery versus the
centre. It is ab...
http://research.dwp.gov.uk, 2012 & Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2011
Definitions of Poverty
• Having a household income bel...
Some questions
for you...
How many extra children are predicted to be
pushed into relative poverty in the UK during
2013-2014 as a result of the cur...
How many extra children are predicted to be
pushed into relative poverty in the UK during
2013-2014 as a result of the cur...
How many of the UK’s 11.7 million children and
their parents cannot afford an annual holiday?
1 million
2.5 million
7 mill...
How many of the UK’s 11.7 million children and
their parents cannot afford an annual holiday?
√
1 million
2.5 million
7 mi...
What percentage of the UK’s 2 million lone parent
households cannot afford a week’s holiday?
20%
30%
50%
60%
What percentage of the UK’s 2 million lone parent
households cannot afford a week’s holiday?
√
20%
30%
50%
60%
Office for ...
As British society has
become more affluent since
World War Two there has
been little increase in the
number of people abl...
Source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/financialcrisis/9806409/Nearly-a-third-of-Brits-cant-afford-to-take-a-holiday.h...
Research by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation
into subjective measures of poverty found
that an annual holiday away from home...
Tourism policy & research do not have the same tradition
of addressing non-participation as sport or leisure.
• Tourism is...
WCTR Tourism & Social Inclusion Projects
• WCTR hosts a research development group of the Welsh
Government-funded Older Pe...
• Insight into the experiences of those who are unable to afford any
form of holiday away from home.
• Based on semi-struc...
Inter-generational tourism poverty
“I mean I would love to take my children away,
it doesn’t have to be abroad, even in Lo...
Filling summer days
“So it’s things like going to the cinema, going to
parks, maybe museums and things like that ‘cos
I ca...
Missing out
It makes me ... feel sad ... because when the other kids all meet
up and [they] say we have done this, and we ...
Dangerous neighbourhoods
Where I live there are ... a lot of alcoholics and
people who take drugs and sometimes they’re on...
• It has laid bare an impending pension crisis in Europe
and the US, which threatens to create a new generation
of impover...
29
In partnership with the NBFA, we are exploring the value of
social tourism for people in later life.
As part of this pa...
30
Our research argues for humanist, participatory approaches to the study
of tourism in later life. Such enquiry could en...
Our study of social tourism in later life
Explores the financial, psychological and physical
barriers to holiday taking wh...
People in later life often have to deal with
significant challenges and life transitions
such as widowhood, physiological ...
• “well I’ve left them all [my worries] behind and I sleep so
much better. In fact, I’ve had a better night’s sleep here
t...
• At the beginning of this century most tourism
professionals were anticipating that the so-called
grey market would remai...
What percentage of people in the UK
have a disability?
5%
10%
20%
25%
What percentage of people in the UK
have a disability?
√
5%
10%
20%
25%
Disability
Poverty
Vulnerable to
poverty & ill-
health
Source: http://cripconfessions.com/archives/tag/oppression
Denial o...
38
At the WCTR Victoria Richards has just completed her PhD which
critically analyses the tourism encounters of individual...
‘Lisa’ says: …if I … want to go on a plane I gotta have assistance,
I just can’t do that journey without assistance. I wou...
Because my eyes look perfect in front they [i.e.
other people] don’t believe that I’m blind so
I’m getting that I don’t wa...
Raymond Williams (1921–1988), Welsh academic, novelist and critic
Keynote speech at Tourism Education Futures (TEFI) Conference
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Keynote speech at Tourism Education Futures (TEFI) Conference

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This talk at the TEFI conference focused on global citizenship and social inclusion through a tourism lens. In particular, it discusses poverty of tourism opportunities in affluent societies such as the UK.

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Keynote speech at Tourism Education Futures (TEFI) Conference

  1. 1. Well- Being Tourism Global Citizenship Welcome
  2. 2. The cultural aspect of class has so far largely been ignored, perhaps because it is a broad yet subtle concept that can be difficult to measure. The problem is, if we don’t measure it, we can’t know how important it is and how much it influences people’s chances in life. The Great British Class Survey (conducted by the BBC in 2011) was designed to include questions to develop detailed measures of economic, cultural and social capitals. Its questions on cultural capital asked about people’s leisure interests, tourism participation, musical tastes, use of the media, and food preferences.
  3. 3. PRECARIAT: The poorest and most deprived class in Britain. With low levels of economic, cultural and social capital, everyday life for these people, constituting 15% of the UK population, is precarious. ELITE: This is the most privileged class in Britain. With high levels of all three types of capital, their high amount of economic capital sets them apart from everyone else at 6% of the population. ESTABLISHED MIDDLE CLASS: Not quite elite but members of this class have high levels of all three capitals. They are a gregarious and culturally engaged class at 25% of the population. Graphic from The Independent, 4 April 2013 Data based on Savage, M., et al. (2013) A New Model of Social Class? Findings from the BBC’s Great British Class Survey Experiment, Sociology, doi: 10.1177/0038038513481128. TRADITIONAL WORKING CLASS: Contains more older members than other classes but also scores low on all forms of the three capitals. They are not the poorest group and form 14% of the population. TECHNICAL MIDDLE CLASS: a small, distinctive new class group (6%) which is prosperous but scores low for social and cultural capital. Distinguished by its social isolation and cultural apathy. NEW AFFLUENT WORKERS: a young class group (15%) which is socially and culturally active, with middling levels of economic capital. EMERGENT SERVICE WORKERS: a new, young, urban group (19%) which is relatively poor but has high social and cultural capital.
  4. 4. PRECARIAT Household Income: £8k Savings: £800 Social Contact Score: 29.9 ESTABLISHED MIDDLE CLASS Household Income: £47k Savings: £26k Social Contact Score: 45 Adapted graphic from The Independent, 4 April 2013 Data based on Savage, M., et al. (2013) A New Model of Social Class? Findings from the BBC’s Great British Class Survey Experiment, Sociology, doi: 10.1177/0038038513481128. TRADITIONAL WORKING CLASS Household Income: £13k Savings: £9.5k Social Contact Score: 41.5 TECHNICAL MIDDLE CLASS Household Income: £47k Savings: £65k Social Contact Score: 53 NEW AFFLUENT WORKERS Household Income: £37 Savings: £5k Social Contact Score: 38 EMERGENT SERVICE WORKERS Household Income: £21k Savings: £1k Social Contact Score: 38 ELITE Household Income: £89k Savings: £142k Social Contact Score: 50
  5. 5. Standing, G. (2011). The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
  6. 6. 'Participation in civil society, community and/or political life, characterised by mutual respect and non-violence and in accordance with human rights and democracy' (The European Commission cited in Hoskins 2006). http://www.citizenshipfoundation.org.uk
  7. 7. It is important that social exclusion and inclusion are not considered as a dichotomy: one is normally not totally excluded or included. Lareau, A. & McNamara Horvat, E. (1999), Moments of Social Inclusion and Exclusion: Race, Class, and Cultural Capital in Family-School Relationships, Sociology of Education 72 (1), pp. 37-53. Exclusion &
  8. 8. Social inclusion embraces economic resources & social relationships... For example, lone mothers are at particular risk of economic inactivity and low income. In 2008, 58% of lone mothers in the UK with at least one child aged under 5 were economically inactive compared with 34% of equivalent married or cohabiting mothers. 33% of all children in UK lone parent families live in relative poverty.
  9. 9. 9 “...social inclusion extends beyond bringing the ‘outsiders’ in, or notions of the periphery versus the centre. It is about closing physical, social and economic distances separating people, rather than only about eliminating boundaries or barriers between us and them...” (Donnelly & Coakley, 2002, p. ix).
  10. 10. http://research.dwp.gov.uk, 2012 & Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2011 Definitions of Poverty • Having a household income below 60% of the national average. • Low income is only one indicator of poverty and it can also be measured subjectively by one’s own perceptions, consumption needs, relationships and levels of social interaction and political engagement.
  11. 11. Some questions for you...
  12. 12. How many extra children are predicted to be pushed into relative poverty in the UK during 2013-2014 as a result of the current welfare cuts? 50,000 100,000 200,000 500,000
  13. 13. How many extra children are predicted to be pushed into relative poverty in the UK during 2013-2014 as a result of the current welfare cuts? √ 50,000 100,000 200,000 500,000 Brewer, M. and Joyce, R. 2010, Child and working age poverty from 2010 to 2013, London. Institute for Fiscal Studies
  14. 14. How many of the UK’s 11.7 million children and their parents cannot afford an annual holiday? 1 million 2.5 million 7 million 9 million
  15. 15. How many of the UK’s 11.7 million children and their parents cannot afford an annual holiday? √ 1 million 2.5 million 7 million 9 million Family Holiday Association 2010, fhaonline.org.uk.
  16. 16. What percentage of the UK’s 2 million lone parent households cannot afford a week’s holiday? 20% 30% 50% 60%
  17. 17. What percentage of the UK’s 2 million lone parent households cannot afford a week’s holiday? √ 20% 30% 50% 60% Office for National Statistics 2013
  18. 18. As British society has become more affluent since World War Two there has been little increase in the number of people able to take a holiday. Instead demand for tourism in the UK has remained relatively stable at just over half of the population; a proportion which has actually declined recently. Morgan, N. & Pritchard, A. (1999) Power & Politics at the Seaside, Exeter University Press.
  19. 19. Source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/financialcrisis/9806409/Nearly-a-third-of-Brits-cant-afford-to-take-a-holiday.html
  20. 20. Research by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation into subjective measures of poverty found that an annual holiday away from home (not staying with relatives) was considered a necessity by 55% of respondents, but was one of the activities most likely to be curtailed by lack of money. (For comparison, 56% classed a television as a household necessity, and 71% a telephone).
  21. 21. Tourism policy & research do not have the same tradition of addressing non-participation as sport or leisure. • Tourism is such an integral component of modern lifestyles that to be outside it is to be outside the norms of everyday life. • Tourism provides opportunities for family members to spend time together and spaces in which families seek to be ‘proper’ families. • Non-participation in tourism makes a deep contribution to exclusion that goes beyond the immediate experience of being deprived of participation in these activities.
  22. 22. WCTR Tourism & Social Inclusion Projects • WCTR hosts a research development group of the Welsh Government-funded Older People and Ageing Research Network – our active ageing, well-being and tourism research group. We also recently completed a social tourism in later life project for the NBFA. • We are jointly conducting a project focused on the tourism and leisure needs and experiences of families of children with autism with the UK charity Cerebra. • Other projects examine: (i) the school summer holiday experiences of lone parents in inner city London; (ii) the tourism experiences of people with vision impairment; (iii) the benefits of tourism for people with mild dementia; (iv) female migrant workers’ hospitality employment experiences.
  23. 23. • Insight into the experiences of those who are unable to afford any form of holiday away from home. • Based on semi-structured interviews with 20 low-income parents living in a deprived inner city area of London. • The paper reveals that exclusion from tourism makes a profound contribution to children’s exclusion from everyday norms. • The study also suggests there is a trans-generational dimension to such ‘tourism poverty’ amongst the most disadvantaged – the so-called ‘precariat’.
  24. 24. Inter-generational tourism poverty “I mean I would love to take my children away, it doesn’t have to be abroad, even in London, but it is so expensive. It is hard when you get these adverts on the TV; you can go to Butlin’s for only £499. I thought I don’t even have £4.99 let alone £499.” Lydia
  25. 25. Filling summer days “So it’s things like going to the cinema, going to parks, maybe museums and things like that ‘cos I can’t really afford to go away on holiday as such… So that’s what I tend to try and do but it has to be things that aren’t going to be too expensive obviously because I just haven’t got the money for it.” Gemma
  26. 26. Missing out It makes me ... feel sad ... because when the other kids all meet up and [they] say we have done this, and we have done that ... and then you have got my kids that haven’t done half as much as the other children. They come back and it is hard, [they say] ‘well they done that mummy’ and as I said because they have got two parents it makes it easier because it is only ... [me and I’m short] of funds. But I am very lucky because my children are very understanding and if they ask me to buy them something and I say I don’t have the money they won’t push the point, they will accept it, so on that aspect I am very lucky with my children. Count my blessings. Lydia
  27. 27. Dangerous neighbourhoods Where I live there are ... a lot of alcoholics and people who take drugs and sometimes they’re on the stairs and for [daughter’s name] to come back up the stairs I wouldn’t want her to have to pass them… you go outside and some people have got wild dogs that they don’t keep on the chain and the dogs are just running all over the place. One dog bit this little boy, really just bit him really badly and I don’t think I could have that happen to my daughter, I’d go mad. Cara
  28. 28. • It has laid bare an impending pension crisis in Europe and the US, which threatens to create a new generation of impoverished older people (The Economist, 2008). • Lord McFall, the chairman of the Workplace Retirement Income Commission tasked with investigating the UK pension crisis, has commented that almost three- quarters of private sector staff will be unable to “adequately exist” when they retire and that many workers retiring after 2020 should expect a “bleak old age.” The current economic crisis impacting many of the world’s affluent societies is not only affecting families.1 million + pensioners say they are often or always lonely (Age UK, 2011)
  29. 29. 29 In partnership with the NBFA, we are exploring the value of social tourism for people in later life. As part of this partnership, we conducted participant-driven interviews with older people during a social tourism trip to a UK holiday village. The study reveals that the holiday presented opportunities for escape, respite, companionship and reflection. The paper also discusses the role of tourism in enhancing well-being in later life and sets out the case for greater dialogue between tourism management and social policy. Tourism and Well-Being in Later Life: The Value of Social Tourism Initiatives for Older People, in review.
  30. 30. 30 Our research argues for humanist, participatory approaches to the study of tourism in later life. Such enquiry could engage older people, foreground their voices and agendas and impact on their lives. Such an agenda for tourism and ageing research could: (i) complement existing approaches to gain richer insight into the lives of older people; (ii) actively engage older people in the research process, so that we hear their voices and recognize their perspectives; (iii) create more personalized accounts of tourism experiences in later life that embody emotion, agency and individuality; (iv) promote the social inclusion, human dignity and human rights of older people. Sedgley, D., Pritchard, A. & Morgan, N. (2010) Transforming Tourism & Ageing Research, Annals of Tourism Research 38 (2), pp, 422-436.
  31. 31. Our study of social tourism in later life Explores the financial, psychological and physical barriers to holiday taking which older people face. Reveals the mental and physical benefits of a subsidised holiday and the ways in which they can enable older people to better cope with everyday adversity, illness and routine. For these individuals their holiday evoked complex feelings of trepidation, escape, respite and excitement and for some, it presented opportunities for companionship and new beginnings.
  32. 32. People in later life often have to deal with significant challenges and life transitions such as widowhood, physiological change and increased frailty linked to poor health and reduced socio-economic circumstances.
  33. 33. • “well I’ve left them all [my worries] behind and I sleep so much better. In fact, I’ve had a better night’s sleep here than I’ve had for months at home because I haven’t got anything to worry about” (Mrs Wood). • Mrs King: ‘Freedom… I’ve started a new life… It’s a new world to me.’ • What am I getting out of this holiday? A great deal actually ... it’s nice to be with other people because when you lose your husband or your partner it’s a very strange experience going into an empty house and being on your own so that’s number one; also when you live alone, sometimes you don’t always feel like cooking and it’s very nice to be able to come away and have your meals prepared so that’s another big bonus and also to meet new people, see different places and a lot of benefits.
  34. 34. • At the beginning of this century most tourism professionals were anticipating that the so-called grey market would remain a highly profitable segment and that the newly retired would continue to follow in the footsteps of the current ‘golden’ boomer generation and enjoy even greater affluence and health in their old age (WTO, 2001). • Tourism managers and policy-makers need to reappraise their understandings of older tourists as market segments and reassess the role of tourism in later life.
  35. 35. What percentage of people in the UK have a disability? 5% 10% 20% 25%
  36. 36. What percentage of people in the UK have a disability? √ 5% 10% 20% 25%
  37. 37. Disability Poverty Vulnerable to poverty & ill- health Source: http://cripconfessions.com/archives/tag/oppression Denial of opportunities for economic, social & human development Deficit in economic, social & cultural rights Reduced participation in decision-making and denial of civil & political rights Social & cultural exclusion & stigma
  38. 38. 38 At the WCTR Victoria Richards has just completed her PhD which critically analyses the tourism encounters of individuals with vision problems and the positive impacts these can have on their emotional well-being, as well as the challenges they encounter whilst travelling. She conducted 8 focus groups in partnership with four social and support groups for people with visual impairment and has been working closely with 6 families over 2 years to explore through interviews and diaries how they cope on holiday. Their tourism experiences are discussed under the themes of: embodied tourism encounters; inhospitable tourism spaces; navigating tourism environments. The study is underpinned by a research philosophy which promotes dignity, respect, equality and social justice in and through tourism scholarship and practice. Richards, V., Pritchard, A. & Morgan, N. (2010) (Re)Envisioning Tourism & Visual Impairment, Annals of Tourism Research 37 (4), pp. 1097–1116.
  39. 39. ‘Lisa’ says: …if I … want to go on a plane I gotta have assistance, I just can’t do that journey without assistance. I would never go again, no I don’t want that stress, it’s that anxiety and fear of how ‘do I do that journey again? Oh my God I’ve got to do this coming back and I’m in a foreign country’.
  40. 40. Because my eyes look perfect in front they [i.e. other people] don’t believe that I’m blind so I’m getting that I don’t want to go out sometimes, I don’t want to mix with anybody. It doesn’t matter what disability it is, I feel as if [it’s] “you there” when I go out with friends or “we’ll put you in a corner”. No I’m still Jackie underneath [voice is shaky and emotional], give me back the eyes and the ears, I’m still Jackie, I am a person and I don’t want to be squashed and that’s why I’m finding they tend to talk to you as if your brain’s not working and I don’t like that.
  41. 41. Raymond Williams (1921–1988), Welsh academic, novelist and critic

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