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Week 4 ch 5


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Week 4 ch 5

  1. 1. BUSN 221 Chapter 5<br />Jeff Parsons<br />Motivation<br />
  2. 2. Learning Objectives<br />Discuss with reference to actual work situations, the determinants of job performance<br />Identify the distinct components of motivation and outline the rationale for each component<br />Critically evaluate the applicability of the theories of Maslow and Alderfer to the contemporary workplace<br />Provide a critical analysis of Herzberg’s two-factor theory vis-à-vis the empirical evidence on employee behaviour<br />Evaluate the relevance of McClelland’s theory to organizations in different societies<br />
  3. 3. Learning Objectives cont’d<br />Provide a pellucid explication of expectancy theory and demonstrate its applicability to the contemporary workplace<br />Assess, with reference to observed workplace behaviours, the value of equity theory to managers<br />Explain how goal setting contributes toward the attainment of higher levels of motivation<br />Discuss the insights that theorizing about prevailing psychological contracts provide in understanding employee motivation<br />
  4. 4. Determinants of Job Performance (pg. 80)<br />Willingness to Perform<br />Job Performance<br />Capacity to Perform<br />Opportunity to Perform<br />
  5. 5. Determinants of Job Performance<br />Willingness<br />Individual’s desire and inclination to exert themselves to perform i.e motivation<br />Capacity<br />Task-relevant skills, abilities, experience, knowledge<br />Opportunity<br />Appropriate tools/equipment, technology, managerial support, attitudes<br />
  6. 6. The presence of willingness (motivation), capacity and opportunity does NOT guarantee high performance<br />
  7. 7. Components of Motivation<br />Direction<br />What an employee chooses to do when presented with a number of alternatives<br />Intensity<br />Strength of the response once a choice (direction) is made<br />Persistence<br />Length of time a person will continue to devote effort<br />
  8. 8. Content Motivation Theories<br />Focus on factors within the individual and the needs that motivate<br />Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs<br />Alderfer’s ERG Theory<br />Herzberg’s Two-factor theory<br />McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory<br />
  9. 9. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs<br />Self Actualization<br />Esteem<br />Belongingness, Social, Love<br />Safety, Security<br />Physiological<br />
  10. 10. Alderfer’s ERG Theory<br />Existence = Maslow physiological and safety<br />Relatedness = Maslow belongingness, social, love<br />Growth = Maslow esteem and self-actualization<br />
  11. 11. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory<br />Dissatisfiers-Satisfiers or Hygiene Motivators also called Extrinsic Conditions<br />Needed to maintain “no dissatisfaction”<br />Salary, working conditions, status, company procedures, quality of interpersonal relationships<br />Intrinsic factors<br />Build strong motivation resulting in high performance<br />Achievement, responsibility, recognition, advancement, work itself<br />
  12. 12. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory<br />Significant criticism of Herzberg<br />Oversimplifies job satisfaction<br />Methodology – people examine themselves retrospectively<br />No testing of motivational and performance consequences of the theory<br />Empirical evidence suggests it has merit<br />
  13. 13. McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory<br />Needs are learned through culture<br />Strong needs motivate people to behave in ways that satisfy the needs<br />Need for achievement (n Ach)<br />Need for affiliation (n Aff)<br />Need for power (n Pow)<br />
  14. 14. Behaviours reflecting high n Ach<br />Likes to take responsibility for problem-solving<br />Tends to set moderate achievement goals and take calculated risks<br />Desires feedback on performance<br />
  15. 15. Behaviours reflecting high n Pow<br />Concentrates on obtaining and exercising power and authority<br />Concerned with influencing others and winning arguments<br />Power can be negative or positive<br />
  16. 16. Behaviours reflecting high n Aff<br />Desires social interaction<br />Concerned about the quality of personal relationships<br />Social relationships take precedence over task accomplishment<br />
  17. 17. Comparison of Content Approaches<br />Maslow<br />(need hierarchy)<br />Self-actualization<br />Esteem<br />Belongingness,<br />social, and love<br />Safety and security<br />Physiological<br />Herzberg<br />(two-factor theory)<br />The work itself<br /><ul><li>Responsibility
  18. 18. Advancement
  19. 19. Growth</li></ul>Achievement<br />Recognition<br />Quality of inter-<br />personal relations<br />among peers, with<br />supervisors, with<br />subordinates<br />Job security<br />Working conditions<br />Salary<br />Alderfer<br />Growth<br />Relatedness<br />Existence<br />McClelland<br />Need for<br />achievement<br />Need for<br />power<br />Need for<br />affiliation<br />Higher<br />order<br />needs<br />Motivators<br />Hygiene<br />conditions<br />Basic<br />needs<br />
  20. 20. Theories of Motivation<br /><ul><li>Content (Maslow, Herzberg, Alderfer, McClelland)
  21. 21. Focus primarily on needs and incentives that cause behaviour
  22. 22. Process (Expectancy, Equity, Goal Setting)
  23. 23. Try to explain how behaviour is energized, directed, maintained and stopped</li></li></ul><li>Expectancy Theory<br />Employees are more likely to be motivated when they believe that their efforts will result in successful performance and subsequent desired rewards and outcomes. (pg. 91)<br />
  24. 24. Expectancy Theory<br />First-Level Outcome<br />Productivity, quality of production<br />Second-Level Outcomes<br />Rewards or punishments<br />Group acceptance or rejection, promotion, termination<br />
  25. 25. Expectancy Theory<br />Instrumentality<br />Individual’s perception that first-level outcomes (performance) result in second-level outcomes (rewards)<br />Valence<br />Preference for an outcome<br />Positively valent when preferred<br />Negatively valent when not preferred<br />
  26. 26. Equity Theory<br />“A theory of motivation that examines how a person might respond to perceived discrepancies between his/her input/outcome ratio and that of a reference person.” (pg. 92)<br />
  27. 27. Equity Theory - Terms<br />Person<br />Individual for whom equity or inequity is perceived<br />Comparison other<br />Any referent group or people used by person to compare ratio of inputs and outcomes<br />Inputs<br />Individual characteristics person brings to job<br />Outcomes<br />What person received from job<br />
  28. 28. Equity Theory<br /> What happens when there is a perceived inequity?<br />Change inputs<br />Change attitudes<br />Change reference person<br />Change inputs or outcomes of reference person<br />Leave<br />
  29. 29. Goal Setting<br />Definition of a Goal<br />“A result that a person or team is attempting to accomplish through their behaviour and actions.” (pg. 96)<br />
  30. 30. Goal Setting<br />Goal Specificity<br />Degree of quantitative precision (clarity) of the goal<br />Goal Difficulty<br />Level of performance required to achieve the goal<br />Goal Intensity<br />Process of setting a goal or determining how to reach it<br />Goal Commitment<br />Amount of effort actually used to reach a goal<br />
  31. 31. Points to consider when implementing Goal Setting Programs<br />Individual differences such as<br />Personality<br />Career progression<br />Training background<br />Personal health<br />
  32. 32. Psychological Contract<br />Definition<br />“An unwritten agreement between an employee and the organization that specifies what each expects to give and receive from the other.” (pg. 99)<br />
  33. 33. Motivation and Psychological Contract<br />Degree to which employees will work hard, commit to goals and derive satisfaction from work dependent on:<br />How closely employee expectations match organization’s expectations<br />Nature of what is exchanged<br />
  34. 34. Psychological Contract<br />Dynamic i.e. it changes<br />An important aspect of management’s job<br />May focus on<br />Satisfaction<br />Challenging work<br />Fair treatment<br />Loyalty<br />Opportunities for creativity<br />