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  1. 1. Chapter 6 “Stylistic Characteristics of Lexical Expressive Means”
  2. 2. ♦ Basic Lexis -It can be classified according to different criteria: •standard vs. non-standard words, •abstract vs. concrete words, •colloquial vs. literary(bookish), •colloquial vs. technical terms, etc. ♥The overlap of all these categories creates a group of neutral words which are commonly known as standard vocabulary.
  3. 3. •Nominal Style -abounds in nouns -mainly static -The long sentences prevail in this style because many facts and data have to be provided. •Verbal Style -abounds in verbs -very dynamic -The lexis used in this style denotes processes (processual lexis)
  4. 4. ♦Qualifying Lexis -They are mainly adjectives, adverbs and numerals. -They are mainly used to modify nouns and verbs, and to express qualities of persons, things and processes. -Some adjectives, being part of a nominal phrase, undergo interesting changes within the process of language development. What is known as univerbalisation can be compared with the word-forming process in English called
  5. 5. ♥In univerbalisation, the main idea is to reduce a noun phrase into a single word expression (mainly) in spoken colloquial language which brings about a change of stylistic characteristics (e.g. wise =wisdom; strong = strength). ♥In the case of English conversion the change of stylistic characteristics does not always take place (e.g. to call = a call, to go = ago, empty = to empty, carpet = to carpet, etc.).
  6. 6. ♦Grammatical Lexis -It is present in every language and its main function is to enable the construction of (smaller or bigger units of) utterances which are in accordance with the grammar of particular languages.
  7. 7. ♦ Historically Marked Lexis -It always brings expressiveness to the text. -The following groups of words are always stylistically marked, that is they create expressiveness in the text. ►anachronism ►archaisms ►historicisms ►neologisms -It is not common to use these terms in
  8. 8. Discussing archaic lexis, I. Galperin refers to: •Obsolescent words - gradually passing out of use. •Obsolete words - already gone completely but still recognized by the speakers. •Archaic proper - no longer recognizable in modern English. ♥Thee, thou, thy/thine from Old English → OLD 2nd person singular pronoun → Still used in Biblical/Shakespearian/poetical language. Also
  9. 9. Archaism. - It is a word or phrase which are outdated, obsolete and out of use. ♥ enow - enough ♥ aye - yes ♥ nay - no ♥ ruth - pity; sorrow ♥ twain - two
  10. 10. Anachronism. It is basically an error in chronology or timeline in a piece of art or literature. A better interpretation of the term is that anything that seems out of the timeline or out of place, is an anachronism. ♥ William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar Brutus: Peace! count the clock. Cassius: The clock has stricken three.
  11. 11. Historicisms. -Words that have ceased to be used in connection with the disappearance they stand objects and phenomena: bursa, caftan, burgomaster. -Historicism found in the main text of the past (as in science and in art).
  12. 12. Neologism. - It is a newly coined term, word, or phrase, that may be in the process of entering common use, but has not yet been accepted into mainstream language ♥ noob – someone who is new to an online community ♥ racne – acne located at women‟s chest
  13. 13. ♦ Professionally Marked Lexis -It is represented by the group of words called professionalisms. -Professional expressions often create a whole complex of language means which is known as professional slang or jargon (informal language of people of the same profession or professional interests).
  14. 14. •Jargons used by Doctors ♥ D.M. : Diabetes mellitus. ♥ O.D. : Right eye. ♥ O.S. : Left eye. ♥ VSS : Vital signs are stable. ♥ Schizophrenia: a mental disorder marked by hallucinations
  15. 15. ♦ Expressive lexis - In stylistics, we often discuss the lexis which creates expressiveness in utterances. - Lexemes also have an emotional function and can create emotiveness. (Emotive Function means to show or/and create emotions.) “All emotive lexis is expressive, but not all expressive lexis is emotional.”
  16. 16. 1. Euphemism It is a generally harmless word or phrase that replaces an offensive or suggestive one. ♥ pass away / come to Jesus > die ♥ big boned > fat ♥ Wear apron high >Pregnant ♥ Comfort woman >Prostitute ♥ confirmed bachelor >Male homo ♥ bye-bye box >coffin, cask ♥ senior citizen, golden age >old, elderly
  17. 17. 2. Meliorative -It is a word or phrase that makes better or improves the meaning. ♥ illegitimate child > love child
  18. 18. 3. Pejoratives -It is a word or grammatical form that connotes negativity and expresses contempt or distaste. ♥ die = go West. ♥ Chicken = a coward ♥ Fruitcake = a crazy / eccentric person ♥ Rat = a horrible, nasty person
  19. 19. 4. Vulgarisms -It is a colloquialism of an unpleasant action or unrefined character, which substitutes a coarse, indecorous word. ♥ Cunt - disliked female; "bitch". ♥ Mattress Topper – a prostitute
  20. 20. 5. Laudative It is a word or grammatical form that denote a positive affect. ♥ “He's a saint.”(for a helpful person) ♥ “This is ambrosia.”(for a meal) ♥ "What a house!"
  21. 21. 6. Diminutive -It is a formation of a word used to convey a slight degree of the root meaning, smallness of the object, intimacy, or endearment. ♥ -ette/-et – kitchenette; wallet ♥ -ster – youngster; gangster ♥ -ie – doggie; Charlie; cookie
  22. 22. 7. Augmentative It is a word which expresses greater intensity, often in size, but also in other attributes. ♥ -over - overlord and overseer. ♥ -grand - grandmaster and grandparent. ♥ -super - supermarket and superpower.
  23. 23. ♦ Lexis of Foreign Origin -It is represented by borrowed and loan-words. They are foreign terms used in English language such as those coming from French, Latin, Greek, Chinese, etc. -Some of these words are specific for the language communities living in Europe thus they are sometime called Europeisms.
  24. 24. Examples: ♥ Boondocks(Tagalog) an out-of-the- way place meaning „mountain‟ ♥ Bravo(Breton) a cry of encouragement. ♥ Typhoon(Mandarin) a very strong wind ♥ Shampoo(Hindi) a hair-cleaning detergent ♥ Crochet(French) hook
  25. 25. ♦ Phraseological lexis -It is a powerful means of expressiveness. The terms collocation and idioms are most frequently used to refer to different, the same or multi-words expressions. Idioms - is an expression consisting of a combination of words that have a figurative meaning.
  26. 26. Examples: ♥ HIT BELOW THE BELT - To act in an unfair matter ♥ PULL UP ONE‟S SOCKS - To make an effort to improve ♥ TURN OVER A NEW LEAF - Changing your better for the better ♥ BREAK THE ICE - Overcome initial shyness ♥ THROW IN THE TOWEL - To accept defeat
  27. 27. Flowery Language The use of flowery language provides interesting material for stylistic study. ♥ Too many cooks spoil the broth >Too great a number of culinary assistan0ts may impair the flavour of the consomm
  28. 28. ♥Univerbalization/Univerbalism - the tendency to make expressions shorter. Colloquial Speech exhibits towards brevity, or shortened expressions. →Clippings - spectacle =specs →Acronyms - CD = Compact Disk ♥Multiverbalism - the tendency to use more words instead of one. sanitary engineer =garbage man custodial engineer =custodian Preowned car =secondhand car
  29. 29. 6.2 Stylistic Value of Particular Parts of Words Particular parts of words, that is prefixes, suffixes and infixes, can exhibit various stylistic values.
  30. 30. ○ The prefix ex- often brings about expressiveness •ex-wife •ex-boss •ex-president •her ex- ○ Infixes- It is an affix inserted inside a word stem (an existing word). ♥ abso-bloomin-lutely ♥ Hallebloodylujah / Singabloodypore! ♥ unbeflippinglievable ♥ fanfrigginstastic
  31. 31. 6.3 Synonymy and Polysemy • Synonymy is a collection of synonyms often defined from each other. • Polysemy is a word, phrase, signs etc. that tends to have multiple related meanings (sememes) ♥ Wood →a piece of a tree →a geographical area with many trees
  32. 32. •Tautology -It uses different words to say the same thing, or a series of self- reinforcing statements that cannot be disproved because they depend on the assumption that they are already correct ♥ A round circle ♥ A big giant ♥ An elephant is an animal.
  33. 33. Paronymy -The relationship between one word and another belonging to a different syntactic category and production from the first one by some process of derivation. They are simply words with the same roots. ♥ act / actor ♥ cook / cooker
  34. 34. Figura Etymologica / Paronomasia -It is the intentional grouping of words with the same roots but different morphological categories. •Combination of a verb and related noun : ♥ Fight the fighter. ♥ Hammer the hammer. •Combinations of an adjective and noun : ♥ Actors act. ♥ Wimping wimp.
  35. 35. Palindrome -It is an expression which also makes sense (the same or different) when read backwards. ♥ ave = eva ♥ RADAR ♥ EVE ♥ murder / redroom (redrum)
  36. 36. sample2