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  1. 1. Chapter 5 Constructing Objective Paper And Pencil Tests (part 3) Reference: Measuring and Evaluating Learning Outcomes: A Textbook in AL 1 and 2
  2. 2. Writing Matching Items
  3. 3. Matching items • It is designed to measure students’ ability to single out pairs of matching phrases, words or other related facts from separate lists. • It is basically an efficient arrangement of a set of multiple-choice items with all stems, called premises, having the same set of possible alternative answers. • Matching items are appropriate to use in measuring verbal associative knowledge (Moore, 1997) such as inventors and inventions, titles and authors, or objects and their basic characteristics.
  4. 4. 5 Guidelines… 1. Specify the basis for matching the premises with the responses. Sound testing practice dictates that the directions spell out the nature of the task. It is unfair and unreasonable that the student should have to read through the stimulus and response list in order to discern the basis for matching. 2. Be sure that the whole matching exercise is found in one page only. Splitting the exercise is confusing, distracting and time-consuming for the student.
  5. 5. 5 Guidelines… 3. Avoid including too many premises on one matching item. If a matching exercise is to long, the task becomes tedious and the discrimination too fine. 4. Both the premises and the responses in the same general category or class (e.g. inventors – inventions; authors – literary works; objects – characteristics). 5. Premises or responses composed of one or two words should be arranged alphabetically.
  6. 6. Directions: Match Column A with Column B. You will be given one point for each correct match. ___1. Execution of Rizal A. 1521 ___2. Pseudonym of Ricarte B. 1896 ___3. Hero of Tirad Pass C. Gregorio del Pilar ___4. Arrival of Spaniards in Phil. D. Spolarium ___5. Masterpiece of Juan Luna E. Vibora
  7. 7. Directions: Match Column A with Column B. You will be given one point for each correct match. __1. National Hero of the Phil. A. Aguinaldo __2. Hero of Tirad Pass B. Bonifacio __3. Brain of the Katipunan C. Del Pilar __4. Brain of the Phil. Revolution D. Aquino __5. The Sublime Paralytic E. Mabini F. Rizal
  8. 8. Writing Completion Items
  9. 9. Writing Completion Items • Completion items require the students to associate an incomplete statement with a word or phrase recalled from memory (Ashman, 1991). • Each completion test items contains a blank, which the students must fill in correctly with one word or a phrase. • Inasmuch as the student is requires to write the correct response, the completion item is a form of supply item. Completion test items are useful for the testing or specific facts.
  10. 10. Guidelines… 1. As a general rule, it is best to use ONE blank in a completion item. * The Philippines is at the _________ and _________ of _________. *The Philippines is located in the continent of _________.
  11. 11. Guidelines… 2. The blank should be placed NEAR or at the END of the sentence. * _________ is money earned from the use of money. * Money earned from the use of money is _________.
  12. 12. Guidelines… 3. Give clear instructions indicating whether synonyms will be correct and whether spelling will be a factor in scoring. Directions: On your answer sheet, write the expression that completes each of the following sentences. The word should be EXACT. Synonyms will NOT be accepted.
  13. 13. Guidelines… 4. Be definite enough in the incomplete statements so that only one correct answer is possible. * The highest building is ________. * The highest building in Asia is _________.
  14. 14. Guidelines… 5. Avoid using direct statements from the textbook with a word or two missing. * A part of speech typically denoting a person, place, thing, animal or idea is _________. * A name of person, places, things, etc. is called _________.
  15. 15. Guidelines… 6. All blanks for all items should be of equal length and long enough to accommodate the longest response. * The country which has 7,107 islands is ____________. * The K-pop invasion is from _____. * The country which has 7,107 islands is ____________. * The K-pop invasion is from ____________.
  16. 16. Writing Arrangement Items
  17. 17. Writing Arrangement Items Arrangement items are used for testing knowledge of sequence and order. •words alphabetically •events chronologically •numbers according to magnitude • stages in a process • incidents in a story •jumbled words in a sentence
  18. 18. 3 Guidelines… 1. Items to be arranged should belong to one category only. 2. Provide instructions on the rationale for arrangement or sequencing. 3. Specify the response code students have to use in arranging the items. 4. Provide sufficient space for the writing of answer.
  19. 19. Directions: The four words are arranged at random. On your answer sheets, rearrange the words so that they will form a sentence. much the costs rose Answer: ________________________________
  20. 20. Writing Completion- drawing Items
  21. 21. Writing Completion-Drawing Items As pointed out in the previous chapter, a completion-drawing item is one wherein an incomplete drawing is presented which the student has top complete.
  22. 22. 2 Guidelines… 1. Provide instruction on how the drawing will be completed. 2. Present the drawing to be completed.
  23. 23. Writing correction Items
  24. 24. Writing Correction Items The correction type of test item is similar to the completion item, except that some words or phrase have to be changed to make the sentence correct.
  25. 25. 3 Guidelines… 1. Underline or italicize the word or phrase to be corrected in a sentence. 2. Specify in the instruction where students will write their correction of the underlined or italicized word or phrase. 3. Write items that measure higher levels of cognitive behavior.
  26. 26. Directions: Change the underlined word or phrase to make each of the following statements correct. Write your answer on the space before each number. _________1. Inflation caused by increase demand is known as oil-push. _________2. Inflation is the phenomenon of falling prices. _________3. Expenditure on non-food items increases with increased income according to Keynes. _________4. The additional cost for producing an additional unit of a product is average cost.
  27. 27. Writing identification Items
  28. 28. Writing Identification Items An identification type of test item is one wherein an unknown specimen is to be identified by name or other criterion.
  29. 29. 3 Guidelines… 1. The direction of the test should indicate clearly what has to be identified, like persons, instruments, dates, events, steps in a process and formulas. 2. Sufficient space has to be provided for the answer to each item. 3.The question should not be copied verbatim from the book.
  30. 30. Directions: Following are phrase definitions of term, opposite each number, write the term defined. _________1. Weight divided by volume _________2. Degree of hotness or coldness of a body _________3. Changing speed of a moving body _________4. Ratio of resistance to effort
  31. 31. Writing Enumeration Items
  32. 32. Writing Enumeration Items An enumeration item is one wherein the student has to list down parts or elements/components of a given concept or topic.
  33. 33. 2 Guidelines… 1. The exact numbers of expected answers have to be specified. 2. Spaces for the writing of answers have to be provided and should be of the same length.
  34. 34. Directions: List down or enumerate what are asked for each of the following. Underlying Causes of World Wars I and II 1. _____________________________ 2. _____________________________ 3. _____________________________
  35. 35. Writing Analogy Items
  36. 36. Writing Analogy Items An analogy items consists of a pair of words, which are related to each other (Calmorin, 1994). This type of item is often used in measuring the student’s skill in sensing association between paired words or concepts.
  37. 37. 5 Guidelines… 1. The pattern of relationship in the first pair of words must be the same pattern in the second pair. Sampaguita : Philippines – Heart : Love Sampaguita : Philippines – Rose of Sharon : Korea
  38. 38. 5 Guidelines… 2.Options must be related to the correct answr. Bonifacio : Philippines, ________ ; USA a. Jefferson b. Lincoln c. Madison d. Washington
  39. 39. 5 Guidelines… 3.The principle of parallelism has to be observed in writing options. Gun : Hunting – Pen : ________ a. Clicking b. Viewing c. Typing d. Writing
  40. 40. 5 Guidelines… 4. More than three options have to be included in each analogy item top lessen guessing. 5. All items must be grammatically consistent.
  41. 41. Writing interpretative Items
  42. 42. Writing Interpretative Items Interpretative test item is often used in testing higher cognitive behavior. This kind of test item may involve analysis of maps, figures or charts or even comprehension of written passages.
  43. 43. 4 Guidelines… (Airisian) 1. The interpretative exercise must be related to the instruction provided the students. 2. The material to be presented to the students should be new to them but similar to what was presented during instruction.
  44. 44. 4 Guidelines… (Airisian) 3. Written passages should be as brief as possible. The exercise should not be a test of general reading ability. 4. The students have to interpret, apply, analyze and comprehend in order to answer a given question in the exercise.
  45. 45. Writing Short story explanation Items
  46. 46. Writing Short Story Explanation Items This type of item is similar to an essay test but requires a short response, usually a sequence or two. This type of question is a good practice for the students in expressing themselves concisely.
  47. 47. 2 Guidelines… 1. Specify in the instruction of the test, the number of sentences that the students can use in answering the question. 2. Make the question brief and to the point for the students not to be confused.
  48. 48. Assessment of Learning Thank You!! Presented by: Niel Richard C. Lopez BSED-III