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RESEARCH is purposely and 
methodically search for new 
knowledge and practical 
solutions in the form of answers to 
ques...
A PHENOMENON of 
finding something 
unexpected and useful 
while you are looking for 
something completely 
different.
There are two main 
types of research 
studies: 
 Experimental studies 
 Observational 
studies
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY: 
An experiment is a study in which a 
treatment, procedure, or program is 
intentionally introduced an...
OBSERVATIONAL STUDY: 
An observational study is a study in which a 
researcher simply observes behavior in a 
systematic ...
 Uncontrolled trials: 
A clinical study that lacks a comparison 
(i.e., a control) group. 
 Controlled trials: 
A clinic...
 Randomized controlled trials 
These studies are called randomized 
controlled trials because people are 
randomly assign...
 Cohort study: 
Comparison between the exposed and the non 
exposed groups for a particular factor. 
 Prospective cohort...
 Case-control studies 
Patients who already have a certain 
condition are compared with people 
who do not. 
 Cross sect...
 A scientific paper is a written and 
published report describing original 
research results. 
 A scientific experiment ...
 The purpose of scientific writing is to 
communicate new scientific findings 
 Thus it has to be clear, simple and well...
Knowledge is lost without written 
records 
Knowledge could not be widely 
circulated with no effective 
duplication
 Scientific papers generally follow a 
conventional format that includes a 
title, an abstract, a reference (or 
Literatu...
 Introduction answers ‘’why’’ 
 Methods answers ‘’when, where, how, 
how much?’’ 
 Results answers ‘’what?’’ 
 And 
 ...
 The Title 
 The Abstract 
 The Introduction 
 Methods 
 Results(tables and figures) 
 the Discussion 
 References
 A good title is defined as the fewest 
possible words that describe the 
contents of the paper. 
 An improperly titled ...
 Make a list of the most 
important keywords 
 Think of a title that contains 
these words 
 The title could state the ...
 It should be written in clear and simple 
words, as it is the first and sometimes the 
only part of the manuscript read....
 It should not exceed 250 words 
 It should be written in one paragraph. 
 Long words should be followed by its 
abbrev...
 The introduction should answer the 
following questions: 
 What was I studying? 
 Why was this an important question? ...
 Be precise, complete and concise. 
 Include only relevant information-no unnecessary 
details, anecdotes, excuses or co...
 It is the core or heart of the paper 
 It needs to be clearly and simply stated since it 
constitutes the new knowledge...
 Tables and Figures are the foundation of 
your story 
 Figures and tables should stand alone 
and tell a complete story...
 Use the fewest figures and tables 
needed to tell the story. 
 Do not present the same data in both a 
figure and a tab...
 It is the hardest section to write. 
 Its primary purpose is to show the 
relationships among observed facts 
 It shou...
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS ASKED 
SUPPORT YOUR CONCLUSION (YOUR DATA, OTHER’S 
DATA) 
DEFEND YOUR CONCLUSION 
GIVE THE BIG PICTU...
What is referencing? 
 Referencing is a standardized way of 
acknowledging the sources of 
information and ideas that you...
 Any papers not cited in the text should 
not be included. 
 Reference lists allow readers to 
investigate the subject i...
 for gathering information so that existing 
problems can be solved 
 doing research we are able to make 
smart decision...
 Researchers publish and disseminate 
their work in many different ways 
 through formal publication in books and 
in le...
How to write a scientific research paper
How to write a scientific research paper
How to write a scientific research paper
How to write a scientific research paper
How to write a scientific research paper
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How to write a scientific research paper

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How to write a scientific research paper

  1. 1. RESEARCH is purposely and methodically search for new knowledge and practical solutions in the form of answers to questions.
  2. 2. A PHENOMENON of finding something unexpected and useful while you are looking for something completely different.
  3. 3. There are two main types of research studies:  Experimental studies  Observational studies
  4. 4. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY: An experiment is a study in which a treatment, procedure, or program is intentionally introduced and a result or outcome is observed.
  5. 5. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY: An observational study is a study in which a researcher simply observes behavior in a systematic manner without influencing or interfering with the behavior.
  6. 6.  Uncontrolled trials: A clinical study that lacks a comparison (i.e., a control) group.  Controlled trials: A clinical study that have a control group for comparison
  7. 7.  Randomized controlled trials These studies are called randomized controlled trials because people are randomly assigned to a certain behavior or treatment.  Non randomized A clinical trial in which the participants are not assigned by chance to different treatment groups.
  8. 8.  Cohort study: Comparison between the exposed and the non exposed groups for a particular factor.  Prospective cohort studies A prospective cohort study follows a large group of people forward in time. It basically collects information(exposure) from the beginning of the study.  Retrospective cohort studies Researchers go back in time (retrospectively) and collects information of an exposed disease.
  9. 9.  Case-control studies Patients who already have a certain condition are compared with people who do not.  Cross sectional studies A cross sectional study, also referred to as a cross sectional analysis, is a research study in which a disease and factors causing it are examined at the same time by a group of individuals.
  10. 10.  A scientific paper is a written and published report describing original research results.  A scientific experiment is not complete until the results have been published and understood.
  11. 11.  The purpose of scientific writing is to communicate new scientific findings  Thus it has to be clear, simple and well ordered communication to transmit new scientific findings  A good research paper is the one that easily conveyed your idea to the reader
  12. 12. Knowledge is lost without written records Knowledge could not be widely circulated with no effective duplication
  13. 13.  Scientific papers generally follow a conventional format that includes a title, an abstract, a reference (or Literature cited) section and the components of the IMRAD structure.
  14. 14.  Introduction answers ‘’why’’  Methods answers ‘’when, where, how, how much?’’  Results answers ‘’what?’’  And  Discussion answers ‘’so what?’’
  15. 15.  The Title  The Abstract  The Introduction  Methods  Results(tables and figures)  the Discussion  References
  16. 16.  A good title is defined as the fewest possible words that describe the contents of the paper.  An improperly titled paper will get lost and will never be read.  Informative and specific  Concise  Understandable
  17. 17.  Make a list of the most important keywords  Think of a title that contains these words  The title could state the conclusion of the paper
  18. 18.  It should be written in clear and simple words, as it is the first and sometimes the only part of the manuscript read.  It should provide a complete and selective summary of the most significant ideas and information  Describe the methods used  Summarize the results, and  State the principal conclusions
  19. 19.  It should not exceed 250 words  It should be written in one paragraph.  Long words should be followed by its abbreviation which would be used through out the abstract and paper.  It should never give any information or conclusion that is not stated in the paper
  20. 20.  The introduction should answer the following questions:  What was I studying?  Why was this an important question?  What did I know about this topic before I did this study?  What model was I testing? and  What approach did I take in this study?
  21. 21.  Be precise, complete and concise.  Include only relevant information-no unnecessary details, anecdotes, excuses or confessions.  Detailed experimental procedures  Questions such as “how” or “how much” must be answered and not left to be puzzled over  Explains analytical techniques used
  22. 22.  It is the core or heart of the paper  It needs to be clearly and simply stated since it constitutes the new knowledge contributed to the world  Summarize and illustrate the findings in an orderly and logical sequence, without interpretation  Should guide the reader through the findings, stressing the major points
  23. 23.  Tables and Figures are the foundation of your story  Figures and tables should stand alone and tell a complete story  The reader should not need to refer back to the main text
  24. 24.  Use the fewest figures and tables needed to tell the story.  Do not present the same data in both a figure and a table
  25. 25.  It is the hardest section to write.  Its primary purpose is to show the relationships among observed facts  It should end with a short summary or conclusion regarding the significance of the work.  State your conclusions as clearly as possible  Summarize your evidence for each conclusion
  26. 26. ANSWER THE QUESTIONS ASKED SUPPORT YOUR CONCLUSION (YOUR DATA, OTHER’S DATA) DEFEND YOUR CONCLUSION GIVE THE BIG PICTURE’’TAKE HOME MESSAGE’’ Invert the cone!
  27. 27. What is referencing?  Referencing is a standardized way of acknowledging the sources of information and ideas that you have used in your document.  A list of ALL the references used in the text must be written.
  28. 28.  Any papers not cited in the text should not be included.  Reference lists allow readers to investigate the subject in greater depth.  A reference list contains only the books, articles, and web pages etc that are cited in the text of the document.
  29. 29.  for gathering information so that existing problems can be solved  doing research we are able to make smart decisions  Understand, well, exactly what we are researching  improve knowledge about the subject.
  30. 30.  Researchers publish and disseminate their work in many different ways  through formal publication in books and in learned and professional journals; through conferences and their proceedings; and through a variety of less formal means, now including web-based tools for social networking.

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