RESEARCH is purposely and
methodically search for new
knowledge and practical
solutions in the form of answers to
A PHENOMENON of
unexpected and useful
while you are looking for
There are two main
types of research
An experiment is a study in which a
treatment, procedure, or program is
intentionally introduced and a result
or outcome is observed.
An observational study is a study in which a
researcher simply observes behavior in a
systematic manner without influencing or
interfering with the behavior.
A clinical study that lacks a comparison
(i.e., a control) group.
A clinical study that have a control group
Randomized controlled trials
These studies are called randomized
controlled trials because people are
randomly assigned to a certain behavior
A clinical trial in which the participants are
not assigned by chance to different
Comparison between the exposed and the non
exposed groups for a particular factor.
Prospective cohort studies
A prospective cohort study follows a large group of
people forward in time. It basically collects
information(exposure) from the beginning of the
Retrospective cohort studies
Researchers go back in time (retrospectively) and
collects information of an exposed disease.
Patients who already have a certain
condition are compared with people
who do not.
Cross sectional studies
A cross sectional study, also referred to as
a cross sectional analysis, is a research
study in which a disease and factors
causing it are examined at the same
time by a group of individuals.
A scientific paper is a written and
published report describing original
A scientific experiment is not complete
until the results have been published and
The purpose of scientific writing is to
communicate new scientific findings
Thus it has to be clear, simple and well
ordered communication to transmit new
A good research paper is the one that
easily conveyed your idea to the reader
Knowledge is lost without written
Knowledge could not be widely
circulated with no effective
Scientific papers generally follow a
conventional format that includes a
title, an abstract, a reference (or
Literature cited) section and the
components of the IMRAD structure.
Results(tables and figures)
A good title is defined as the fewest
possible words that describe the
contents of the paper.
An improperly titled paper will get lost
and will never be read.
Informative and specific
Make a list of the most
Think of a title that contains
The title could state the
conclusion of the paper
It should be written in clear and simple
words, as it is the first and sometimes the
only part of the manuscript read.
It should provide a complete and
selective summary of the most significant
ideas and information
Describe the methods used
Summarize the results, and
State the principal conclusions
It should not exceed 250 words
It should be written in one paragraph.
Long words should be followed by its
abbreviation which would be used
through out the abstract and paper.
It should never give any information or
conclusion that is not stated in the paper
The introduction should answer the
What was I studying?
Why was this an important question?
What did I know about this topic before I
did this study?
What model was I testing? and
What approach did I take in this study?
Be precise, complete and concise.
Include only relevant information-no unnecessary
details, anecdotes, excuses or confessions.
Detailed experimental procedures
Questions such as “how” or “how much” must be
answered and not left to be puzzled over
Explains analytical techniques used
It is the core or heart of the paper
It needs to be clearly and simply stated since it
constitutes the new knowledge contributed to the
Summarize and illustrate the findings in an orderly
and logical sequence, without interpretation
Should guide the reader through the findings,
stressing the major points
Tables and Figures are the foundation of
Figures and tables should stand alone
and tell a complete story
The reader should not need to refer back
to the main text
Use the fewest figures and tables
needed to tell the story.
Do not present the same data in both a
figure and a table
It is the hardest section to write.
Its primary purpose is to show the
relationships among observed facts
It should end with a short summary or
conclusion regarding the significance of
State your conclusions as clearly as
Summarize your evidence for each
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS ASKED
SUPPORT YOUR CONCLUSION (YOUR DATA, OTHER’S
DEFEND YOUR CONCLUSION
GIVE THE BIG PICTURE’’TAKE HOME MESSAGE’’
Invert the cone!
What is referencing?
Referencing is a standardized way of
acknowledging the sources of
information and ideas that you have
used in your document.
A list of ALL the references used in the
text must be written.
Any papers not cited in the text should
not be included.
Reference lists allow readers to
investigate the subject in greater depth.
A reference list contains only the books,
articles, and web pages etc that are
cited in the text of the document.
for gathering information so that existing
problems can be solved
doing research we are able to make
Understand, well, exactly what we are
improve knowledge about the subject.
Researchers publish and disseminate
their work in many different ways
through formal publication in books and
in learned and professional journals;
through conferences and their
proceedings; and through a variety of
less formal means, now including web-based
tools for social networking.