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Watson theory

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watson caring theory

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Watson theory

  1. 1. Presented by- Ms. Nidhi Shukla M .Sc. Nursing 1st year
  2. 2. “Too often we underestimate the power of a touch, a smile, a kind word, a listening ear, an honest compliment, or the smallest act of caring, all of which have the potential to turn a life around.”
  3. 3. Jean Watson • Born in West Virginia, currently living in Colorado. • She earned a B.Sc. in 1964, MS in Psychiatric Nursing in 1966 and PhD in Educational Psychology and Counseling in 1973. • Founder of the Center for Human Caring in Colorado.
  4. 4. JEAN WATSON’S THEORY OF HUMANCARING
  5. 5.  Watson's philosophy of caring attempts to define outcome of nursing activity in regard to the humanistic aspects of life. Her theory and philosophy of caring is based on the values of kindness, concern, love of self and others and respect for the spiritual dimensions of the person.  The foundation of Jean Watsons’s theory of nursing was published in 1979 in nursing- The philosophy and science of caring.
  6. 6.  Watson’s defined nursing as a human science of persons and human health- illness experiences that are mediated by professional, personal, scientific, esthetic and ethical human care transactions.
  7. 7. Watson’s defined human caring in nursing as “an act and a science in which caring is a human to human process demonstrated through a therapeutic interpersonal interactions.
  8. 8. MAJOR ELEMENTS OF WATSON’S THEORY OF HUMAN CARING ELEMENTS CARATIVE FACTORS TRANSPERSONAL CARING RELATIONSHIP CARING OCCASION/ CARING MOVEMENTS
  9. 9. CARATIVE FACTORS- The structure for the science of caring is built upon the ten carative factors, these are- 1. Formation of a humanistic- altruistic system of values. 2. The installation of faith-hope. 3. The cultivation of sensitivity to one’s self and to others. 4. The development of helping- trust relationship. 5. The promotion and acceptance of the expression of positive and negative feelings.
  10. 10. Conti….. 6.The systematic use of the scientific problem- solution method for decision making. 7.The promotion of interpersonal teaching- learning. 8. The provision for a supportive, protective and/or corrective mental, physical, socio-cultural and spiritual environment. 9. Assistance with the gratification of human need. 10. The allowance for existential- phenomenological forces.
  11. 11. 1.The formation of a humanistic-altruistic system of values-  Begins developmentally at an early age with values shared with the parents.  Mediated through ones own life experiences, the learning one gains and exposure to the humanities.  Is perceived as necessary to the nurses own maturation which then promotes altruistic behavior towards others.
  12. 12. 2.Faith hope-  Is essential to both the carative and the curative processes.  When modern science has nothing further to offer the person, the nurse can continue to use faith- hope to provide a sense of well- being through beliefs which are meaningful to the individual.
  13. 13. 3.Cultivation of sensitivity to one’s self and to others-  Development of one’s own feeling is needed to interact genuinely and sensitivity with others.  Striving to become sensitive, makes the nurse more authentic, which encourages self-growth and self actualization, in both the nurse and those with whom the nurse interacts.  The nurse promote health and higher level functioning only when they form person to person relationship.
  14. 14. 4.Establishing a helping- trust relationship-  Strongest tool is the mode of communication, which establishes rapport and caring.  She has defined the characteristics needed to develop the helping- trust relationship. They are congruence, empathy and warmth.  Communication includes verbal, nonverbal and listening in a manner which express empathy, understanding.
  15. 15. 5.The expression of feelings, both positive and negative-  According to Watson, “feelings alter thoughts and behavior, and they need to be considered and allowed for in a caring relationship.”  According to her such expression improves one’s level of awareness.  Awareness of the feelings helps to understand the behavior its engenders.
  16. 16. 6.The systematic use of the scientific problem- solving method for decision making-  According to Watson, the scientific problem solving method is the only method that allows for control and prediction, and that permits self correction.  She also values the relative nature of nursing and supports the need to examine and develop the other methods of knowing to provide a holistic perspective.  The science of caring should not be always neutral and objective.
  17. 17. 7.Promotion of interpersonal teaching- learning-  The caring nurse must focus on the learning process as much as the teaching process.  Understanding the person’s perception of the situation assist the nurse to prepare a cognitive plan.
  18. 18. 8. Provision for a supportive, protective and /or corrective mental, physical, socio-cultural and spiritual environment-  Watson divides these into external and internal variables, which the nurse manipulates in order to provide support and protection for the persons mental and physical well being.  The external and internal environments are interdependent.  Watson suggests that the nurse also must provide comfort, privacy and safety as a part of this carative factors.
  19. 19. 9.Assistance with the gratification of human needs-  It is grounded in a hierarchy of need similar to that of the Maslow’s.  She has created a hierarchy which she believes is relevant to the science of caring in nursing.  According to her, each need is equally important for optimal health. All the needs deserve to be attended to and valued.
  20. 20. Watson’s ordering of needs- Lower order needs (biophysical needs, psychological need)-  The need for food and fluid.  The need for elimination  The need for ventilation  The need for sexuality Watson’s ordering of needs- Higher order needs ( psychosocial needs).  The need for achievement.  The need for affiliation.  The need for self- actualization.
  21. 21. 10. Allowance for existential- phenomenological forces-  Phenomenology is a way of understanding people from the way things appear to them, from their frame of reference.  Existential psychology is the study of human existence using phenomenological analysis.  This factor helps the nurse to reconcile and mediate the incongruity of viewing the person holistically while at the same time attending to the hierarchical ordering of needs.  Thus the nurse assists the person to find the strength of courage to confront life or death.
  22. 22. TRANSPERSONAL CARING RELATIONSHIP  Transpersonal describes an intersubjective, human to human relationship that encompasses two individuals, both the nurse and the patient in a given moment.  Describes how the nurse goes beyond the objective assessment to show concern toward the person’s subjective/deeper meaning of their healthcare situation.  Involves mutuality between the two individuals involved
  23. 23. Is protects, enhances and preserve human dignity, humanity, wholeness and inner harmony Goal of transpersonal caring relationship
  24. 24. Transpersonal caring relationship is a special kind of human relationship that depends on-  Nurse’s commitment on protecting and enhancing human dignity .  The nurses caring and connection have potential to heal since experience, intension and perception are taking place.  Nursing goals beyond an objective assessment and shows concern for the patients own health care.
  25. 25. CARING OCCASION / MOMENT  A caring occasion is the moment when the nurse and another person come together in such a way that an occasion for human caring is created.  Both persons come together in a human-human transaction.  The one caring for and the one being cared for are influenced by the choices and actions decided within the relationship.
  26. 26. WATSON’S THEORY AND THE FOUR MAJOR CONCEPTS CONCEPTS HUMAN BEING HEALTH ENVIRONM ENTAL/ SOCIETY NURSING
  27. 27. Human being- She adopts a view of the human being as a valued person in and of him or herself to be cared for respected, nurtured, understood and assisted. In general a philosophical view of a person as a fully functional integrated self.
  28. 28. Health- Watson believes that there are other factors that are needed to be included in the WHO definition of health. She adds the following three elements-  A high level of overall physical, mental and social functioning.  A general adaptative - maintenance level of daily functioning.  The absence of illness (or the presence of efforts that leads its absence).
  29. 29.  Environment / society- according to Watson caring (and nursing) has existed in every society. A caring attitudes is not transmitted from generation to generation. It is transmitted by the culture of the profession as a unique way of coping with its environment.
  30. 30. Nursing –  according to Watson “nursing is concerned with promoting health, preventing illness, caring for the sick and restoring health.”  It focuses on health promotion and treatment of disease. She believes that holistic health care is central to the practice of caring in nursing.  She defines nursing as- a human science of persons and human health- illness experiences that are mediated by professional, personal, scientific, esthetic and ethical human transaction.
  31. 31. WATSON’S THEORY AND NURSING PROCESS Watson’s points out that nursing process contains the same steps as the scientific research process. They both try to solve a problem, both provide a framework for decision making. Assessment-  Involves observation, identification and review of the problem, use of applicable knowledge in literature.  Also includes conceptual knowledge for the formulation and conceptualization of framework.  Includes the formulation of hypothesis, defining variables that will be examined in solving the problem.
  32. 32.  Plan- It helps to determine how variables would be examined or measured, includes a conceptual approach or design for problem solving. It determines what data would be collected and how on whom.
  33. 33.  Intervention- it is the direct action and implementation of the plan. It involves the collection of data.
  34. 34. Evaluation-  Analysis of the data as well as the examination of the effects of interventions based on the data.  Includes the interpretation of the results, the degree to which positive outcome has occurred and whether the result can be generalized.  It may also generate additional hypothesis or may ever lead to the generation of a nursing theory.
  35. 35. WATSON’S WORK AND THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A THEORY  According to Watson’s “a theory is an imaginative grouping of knowledge, ideas and experiences that are represented symbolically and seek to illuminate a given phenomenon.  The basic assumptions for the science of caring in nursing and the ten carative factors that form the structure for that concepts in unique in Watson’s theory.
  36. 36. Conti..  Watson’s also indicates that needs are interrelated.  The science of caring suggests that the nurse recognize and assist with each of the interrelated needs in order to reach the highest order need of self- actualization.
  37. 37. Theories must be logical in nature-  Watson’s work is logical in that the factors are based on broad assumptions which provide a supportive framework.  With these carative factors she delineates nursing from other professions.  These carative factors are logically derived from the assumptions and related to the hierarchy of needs.
  38. 38. Theories should be relatively simple yet generalizable-  The theory is relatively simple as it does not use theories from other disciplines that are familiar to nursing.  She discusses on the “trim” and the “core” of nursing.  She defines trim as the clinical focus, the procedure and the techniques.  The core of the nursing is that which is intrinsic to the nurse-client interaction that produces a therapeutic result. Core mechanism are the carative factors.
  39. 39. Theories can be the basis for hypothesis that can be tested-  Watsons theory is based on phenomenological studies that generally ask questions rather than state hypothesis. Its purpose is to describe the phenomena to analyse and to gain an understanding.  According to Watson the best method to test this theory is through field study.
  40. 40. Theories can be utilized by practitioners to guide and improve their practice-  Watson’s work can be used to guide and improve practice.  It can provide the nurse with the most satisfying aspects of practice and can provide the client with the holistic care so necessary for human growth and development.  Theories must be consistent with other validated theories, laws and principles but will leave upon unanswered questions that need to be investigated.
  41. 41. STRENGTHS  Besides assisting in providing the quality of care that client ought to receive, it also provides the soul satisfying care for which many nurses enter the profession.  As the science of caring ranges from the biophysical through the intrapersonal, each nurse becomes an active co-participant in the clients struggle towards self- actualization.  The client is placed in the context of the family, the community and the culture.  It places the client as the focus of practice rather than the technology.
  42. 42. LIMITATIONS  Given the acuity of illness that leads to hospitalization, the short length stay, such quality of care may be deemed impossible to give in the hospital.  While Watson acknowledge the need for biophysical basis to nursing, the area receives little attention in her writings.  The ten carative factors primarily delineate the psychosocial needs of the person.  While the carative factors have a sound foundation based on other disciplines, they need further research in nursing to demonstrate their application to practice.
  43. 43. HOW TO INTEGRATE JEAN WATSON’S THEORY OF CARING INTO NURSING PRACTICE  Establishing a caring relationship with patients.  Treat patients as holistic beings.  Display unconditional acceptance.  Treat patients with positive regard.  Promote health through knowledge and intervention.  Spend uninterrupted time with patient.

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