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Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation
By Tony R. Kuphaldt
Version 0.4 – Released January 11, 2009
i
c 2008-2009, Tony R. Kuphaldt
This book is a copyrighted work, but licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution
3.0 U...
ii

www.PAControl.com
Contents
Preface

3

1 Physics
1.1 Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Metric p...
iv

CONTENTS
1.8.6
1.8.7
1.8.8
1.8.9
1.8.10
1.8.11
1.8.12
1.8.13
1.8.14

Buoyancy . . . . . . . . . . .
Gas Laws . . . . ....
CONTENTS

v

5 Introduction to Industrial Instrumentation
5.1 Example: boiler water level control system . . .
5.2 Example...
vi

CONTENTS

9 Discrete control elements
245
9.1 On/off valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
CONTENTS

vii

13.5.2 Nonlinear instruments . . . . . . . .
13.5.3 Discrete instruments . . . . . . . . .
Typical calibrat...
viii

CONTENTS
15.4 Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.4.1 Displacement interface level measurement
1...
CONTENTS

ix

17.8 Weighfeeders . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.9 Change-of-quantity flow measurement
17.10Insertion flowmete...
x

CONTENTS
21.5 Integral (reset) control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.6 Derivative (rate) control . . . . . . ....
CONTENTS

22.3

22.4
22.5

22.6

1

22.2.2 Identifying process and system hazards . . .
22.2.3 Identifying the problem(s) ...
2

CONTENTS

www.PAControl.com
Preface
I did not want to write this book . . . honestly.
My first book project began in 1998, titled Lessons In Electric C...
4

CONTENTS

So here I am again, writing another textbook. This time around I have the advantage of wisdom
gained from the...
CONTENTS

5

• Instrumentation for Process Measurement and Control, by Normal A. Anderson. An inspiring
effort by someone w...
6

CONTENTS

www.PAControl.com
Chapter 1

Physics

7

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8

1.1

CHAPTER 1. PHYSICS

Terms and Definitions

Mass (m) is the opposition an object has to acceleration (changes in vel...
1.2. METRIC PREFIXES

9

Mass density (ρ) for any substance is the proportion of mass to volume. Weight density (γ) for
an...
10

1.3

CHAPTER 1. PHYSICS

Unit conversions and physical constants

Converting between disparate units of measurement is...
1.3. UNIT CONVERSIONS AND PHYSICAL CONSTANTS

11

Now we see how the unit of “quarts” cancels from the numerator of the fir...
12

CHAPTER 1. PHYSICS

1
Unfortunately, this will not give us the result we seek. Even though 12 ft is a valid unity frac...
1.3. UNIT CONVERSIONS AND PHYSICAL CONSTANTS

1.3.1

13

Conversion formulae for temperature

• o F = (o C)(9/5) + 32
• o ...
14

CHAPTER 1. PHYSICS

1.3.9

Conversion factors for pressure (absolute pressure units only)

1 atmosphere (Atm) = 14.7 p...
1.3. UNIT CONVERSIONS AND PHYSICAL CONSTANTS

1.3.13

15

Properties of water

Freezing point at sea level = 32o F = 0o C
...
16

CHAPTER 1. PHYSICS

1.3.15

Weight densities of common materials

All density figures approximate for samples at standa...
1.3. UNIT CONVERSIONS AND PHYSICAL CONSTANTS
• Turpentine: γ = 54.3 lb/ft3
• Water, heavy: γ = 68.97 lb/ft3
• Water, light...
18

1.4

CHAPTER 1. PHYSICS

Dimensional analysis

An interesting parallel to the “unity fraction” unit conversion techniq...
1.5. THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS

1.5

19

The International System of Units

The very purpose of physics is to quan...
20

1.6

CHAPTER 1. PHYSICS

Conservation Laws

The Law of Mass Conservation states that matter can neither be created nor...
1.7. CLASSICAL MECHANICS

1.7.1

21

Newton’s Laws of Motion

These laws were formulated by the great mathematician and ph...
22

CHAPTER 1. PHYSICS

1.7.2

Work and Energy

Work is the expenditure of energy resulting from exerting a force over a p...
1.7. CLASSICAL MECHANICS

23

a projectile, therefore, depends on its height above the ground, because the sum of potentia...
24

CHAPTER 1. PHYSICS

Next, we will dimensionally analyze them using standard SI metric units (kilogram, meter,
second)....
1.7. CLASSICAL MECHANICS

1.7.3

25

Mechanical springs

Many instruments make use of springs to translate force into moti...
26

CHAPTER 1. PHYSICS
We may evaluate this integral using the power rule (x is raised to the power of 1 in the integrand)...
1.8. FLUID MECHANICS

1.8

27

Fluid mechanics

A fluid is any substance having the ability to flow : to freely change shape...
28

CHAPTER 1. PHYSICS

The impact of the hammer’s blow is directed straight through the solid nail into the wood below.
N...
1.8. FLUID MECHANICS

29

The even distribution of force throughout a fluid has some very practical applications. One
appli...
30

CHAPTER 1. PHYSICS

Work = (Force in)(Distance in) = (Force out)(Distance out)

Fluid may be used to transfer power ju...
1.8. FLUID MECHANICS

31

Pressure
gauge
Closed bulb
filled with
fluid
Pipe

This illustration shows a simple temperature-...
32

CHAPTER 1. PHYSICS

However, when we are dealing with tall columns of fluid, and/or dense fluids, there is another
force...
1.8. FLUID MECHANICS

33

If we placed another pressure gauge mid-way up the tube, though, how much pressure would it
regi...
34

CHAPTER 1. PHYSICS

An interesting fact about pressure generated by a column of fluid is that the width or shape of
the...
1.8. FLUID MECHANICS

35

Dimensional analysis vindicates these formulae in their calculation of hydrostatic pressure.
Tak...
36

1.8.3

CHAPTER 1. PHYSICS

Fluid density expressions

Fluid density is commonly expressed as a ratio in comparison to ...
1.8. FLUID MECHANICS

37

Just to make things confusing, there are different standards for the heavy Baum´ scale. Instead o...
38

1.8.4

CHAPTER 1. PHYSICS

Manometers

Expressing fluid pressure in terms of a vertical liquid column makes perfect sen...
1.8. FLUID MECHANICS

39

This way, a greater motion of liquid is required to generate the same hydrostatic pressure (vert...
40

CHAPTER 1. PHYSICS

no longer does one have to measure the difference of height between two liquid columns, only the
he...
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Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
Lessons in industrial instrumentation
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