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Image Processing - Components of an Image processing System


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Image Processing - Components of an Image processing System

  1. 1. October 5, 2013 1
  2. 2. October 5, 2013 2 • Image Formation • Image Acquisition • Components of Digital Image Process System  Image Sensors  Specialized Image Processing Hardware  Processors  Computer  Mass Storage  Hardcopy devices  Image Processing software  Image Displays  Networking
  3. 3. Image formation
  4. 4. October 5, 2013 4 The image is captured by a sensor (e.g. Camera), and digitized if the output of the camera or sensor is not already in digital form, using analogue-to-digital convertor Image Acquisition
  5. 5. October 5, 2013 5 Components of Digital Image Processing Systems The problem domain, such as to detect human faces in an Image.
  6. 6. October 5, 2013 6 Two elements are required to acquire digital images. First: is the physical device that is sensitive to the energy radiated by the object we wish to image (Sensor). Second: called a digitizer, is a device for converting the output of the physical sensing device into digital form. Image Sensors
  7. 7. October 5, 2013 7 An image sensor is a device that converts an optical image into an electronic signal. It is used mostly in digital cameras, camera modules and other imaging devices. Early analog sensors were video camera tube; most currently used are digital charge coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors. CMOS image sensorA CCD image sensor on a flexible circuit board
  8. 8. October 5, 2013 8 Today, most digital still cameras use either a CCD image sensor or a CMOS sensor. Both types of sensor accomplish the same task of capturing light and converting it into electrical signals. Each cell of a CCD image sensor is an analog device. When light strikes the chip it is held as a small electrical charge in each photo sensor. The charges are converted to voltage one pixel at a time as they are read from the chip. Additional circuitry in the camera converts the voltage into digital information.
  9. 9. October 5, 2013 9 Usually consists of the digitizer, mentioned before, plus hardware that performs other primitive operations, such as an arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which performs arithmetic and logical operations in parallel on entire images. This type of hardware sometimes is called a front-end subsystem, and its most distinguishing characteristic is speed. In other words, this unit performs functions that require fast data throughputs that the typical main computer cannot handle. Specialized Image Processing Hardware
  10. 10. October 5, 2013 10 Processors • RISC vs CISC • MIMD • SIMD • PIPELINES
  11. 11. October 5, 2013 11 RISC vs CISC
  12. 12. October 5, 2013 12 Multiple Instruction stream Multiple Data stream: Several processors execute different instructions on different data. MIMD
  13. 13. October 5, 2013 13 Single Instruction stream Multiple Data stream: Several processors execute the same instruction on different data. SIMD
  14. 14. October 5, 2013 14 is a set of data processing elements connected in series, where the output of one element is the input of the next one. The elements of a pipeline are often executed in parallel or in time-sliced fashion; in that case, some amount of buffer storage is often inserted between elements. Pipelines
  15. 15. October 5, 2013 15 The computer in an image processing system is a general-purpose computer and can range from a PC to a supercomputer. In dedicated applications, sometimes specially designed computers are used to achieve a required level of performance. Computer
  16. 16. October 5, 2013 16 ‫بحجم‬ ‫الصورة‬1024*1024‫بكسل‬(‫هو‬ ‫بكسل‬ ‫كل‬8‫بت‬)‫لم‬ ‫اذا‬ ‫الذكرة‬ ‫من‬ ‫ميكابايت‬ ‫الى‬ ‫تحتاج‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫الصورة‬ ‫ضغط‬ ‫يتم‬ Mass Storage There are three different types of digital storage that are available for digital image processing applications short-term storage online storage archival storage
  17. 17. October 5, 2013 17 One method of providing short-term storage is computer memory. Another is by specialized boards, called frame buffers, that store one or more images and can be accessed rapidly. The on-line storage method, allows virtually instantaneous image zoom, as well as scroll (vertical shifts) and pan (horizontal shifts). On-line storage generally takes the form of magnetic disks and optical-media storage. The key factor characterizing on-line storage is frequent access to the stored data. Finally, archival storage is characterized by massive storage requirements but infrequent need for access.
  18. 18. October 5, 2013 18
  19. 19. October 5, 2013 19 Used for recording images, include laser printers, film cameras, heat-sensitive devices, inkjet units and digital units, such as optical and CD-Rom disks. Hardcopy devices
  20. 20. October 5, 2013 20 It is the algorithm that runs on your hardware to achieve specific results. This software can be your own designed algorithm or you can just be an end user (eg: using Photoshop). Image Processing software
  21. 21. October 5, 2013 21 Image Displays A display device is an output device for presentation of information in visual When the input information is supplied as an electrical signal, the display is called an electronic display. Common applications for electronic visual displays are televisions or computer monitors
  22. 22. October 5, 2013 22 Networking Is almost a default function in any computer system, in use today. Because of the large amount of data inherent in image processing applications the key consideration in image transmission is bandwidth. In dedicated networks, this typically is not a problem, but communications with remote sites via the internet are not always as efficient.
  23. 23. October 5, 2013 23