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Obesity-A global disorder


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Basic introduction to obesity

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Obesity-A global disorder

  1. 1. Seminar Topic Obesity Presented by Nida Sajjad University of Sargodha
  2. 2. What obesity is? • Abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that has an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems. • A metabolic disorder that is primarily induced and sustained by an over consumption or underutilization of caloric substrate.
  3. 3. Obesity Classification It is based on… 1.Fat cells 2.Distribution of fat • Moderate obesity – Associated with increase in cell size • Sever obesity – Associated with increase in no. of fat cells
  4. 4. Sex Based Difference In Body Fat Distribution • Android Obesity: • Men tend to carry excess fat around their abdomen • Gynoid obesity: • Women tend to accumulate excessive fat in their hips and thighs.
  5. 5. Body Mass Index (kg/m2) • BMI=weight in kg/height in metre*height in metre Body Mass Index (kg/m2) Category <18.5 Underweight 18.5-25 Healthy weight 25-30 Overweight 30-35 Grade 1 obese 35-40 Grade 2 obese >40 Grade 3 obese
  6. 6. Symptoms • Obesity is diagnosed when an individual's body mass index (BMI) is 30 or higher. • But BMI doesn't directly measure body fat because muscular athletes, may have a BMI in the obese category even though they don't have excess body fat. • If someone have weight related health problems then that person is suffering from obesity.
  7. 7. Obesity-A global epidemic • WHO estimates • Currently – 1.5 billion adults are overweight – 400 million obese • By 2015 – 2.2 billion overweight – 700 million obese
  8. 8. Causes And Contributing Factors • Complex and multifactorial disease • Inactivity (due to sedentry lifesyle) • Unhealthy diet and eating habits (fast food,high caloric beverages,diet low in fibres) • Pregnancy • Lack of sleep (harmonal changes increase appetite) • Certain medications ( antidepressants, antiseizure medications, diabetes medications, antipsychotic medications, steroids )
  9. 9. • Genetic factor (Prader-Willi syndrome) • Endocrine disorders (Hypothyroidism) • Arthritis • • • • Age Sex Environmental factors Cessation of smoking
  10. 10. Endocrine Factor • Leptin and obesity • Released from fat tissues • Interact with – Hypothalamus • Inhibits neuropeptide Y and Aguoti-related peptide (AGRP) in CNS • Decreases food intake • Increases energy expenditure
  11. 11. How leptin causes obesity • Primary decrease of leptin (low leptin) • Leptin receptor resistance (high leptin) • So increase neuropeptide Y and AGRP increase in food intake and low energy expenditure  sever obesity
  12. 12. Complications due to obesity • Metabolic syndrome (High cholesterol & triglycerides Type 2 diabetes High BP) • Heart disease • Cancer(fat cells secrete estrogen) • Sleep apnea,serious sleep disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops and starts(due fat cells in neck region) • Depression
  13. 13. • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (a condition in which fat builds up in the liver and can cause inflammation or scarring) • Skin problems, such as poor wound healing
  14. 14. Tests and diagnosis • Taking health history (weight history,weight loss efforts) • Other health problems related to obesity eg diabetes. • Calculating BMI. • Measuring waist circumference. • Blood tests. • 1.cholesterol test 2.liver function tests
  15. 15. Obesity Treatment Pyramid Surgery Pharmacotherapy Lifestyle Modification Diet Physical Activity
  16. 16. 1.Diet • Reduce fatty diets • Increase fiber diet • Take calories according to requirements (1000 to 1500 Kcal) • Stop bing eating
  17. 17. 2.Exercise • Take 30 min. daily for physical activity
  18. 18. 3.Anti-obesity drugs Drug name Orlistat Sibutramine Brand name Xenical Reductil / trim fast Primary indication Obesity Obesity Long-term Long-term 120 mg 5-15 mg Use Dosing Side Effects Insomnia Oily spotting Incontinence Dry mouth Increased BP
  19. 19. 4.Surgery(Bariatric Surgery)  Weight loss surgery (WLS) is also known as Bariatric Surgery. It comes from the Greek work baros, which means weight  Only Recommended in Selected Adult Patients  BMI > 40 or with Co-morbid Conditions
  20. 20. Conclusion