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Pertemuan v media dan pr


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Pertemuan v media dan pr

  1. 1. Media dan PR Media dan Dunia Sosial Industri Media dan Dunia Sosial Pengaruh Politik terhadap Media
  2. 2. SOME LINKS AMONG THEORIES First, the economist's notion of opportunity costs and benefits can be viewed as an application of frame-of-reference or adaptation- level theory that falls under the social context.
  3. 3. Social context Politlcal Context Economic Context Cultural and subcultural Group maintenance and task Competition beliefs achievement Situational beliefs Institutional leaders, effectors, Exchange and activists Frame of reference Politicians and technocrats Value, marginal utility, and marginalreturns Quality and number of social contacts Internalization, compliance, Opportunity costs and and Identification benefits Coorientation processes Central and peripheral Demand elasticity information processing Relative power and coalition Externalities TABLE 13.1 Sets of Concepts Used to Study Social, Political, and Economic Contexts
  4. 4. Second, involvement has roughly the same meaning and plays roughly the same role in the Grunigs' situational-belief theory (presented under the social context) and the elaboration likelihood model of Petty and Cacioppo ( 1986) (discussed as part of the political context because it focuses on persuasion). In each case, a highly involving situation is linked closely to a person's self.
  5. 5. Third, the notions of marginal value and returns in economics call attention forcibly to the importance of beliefs about situations, just as does situational-belief theory. A hamburger has very little value in a situation where the prospective eater has already downed 5-6 burgers. And so on.
  6. 6. Fourth, within the social context, cultural and subcultural beliefs frequently steer, stimulate, and constrain the consumption and interpretation of information.
  7. 7. Fifth, cultural and subcultural beliefs often serve as anchors for personal values. Within the political context, Kelman ( 1961) said the influence strategy called internalization occurs when one links a behavior or belief to such values
  8. 8. Sixth, power, a key element in the political context, is generally viewed within the context of competition, a central construct in economics. However, the political and social versions of competition often differ. As defined by economists, competition tends to be of the win-lose variety. That is, victory by one competitor makes victory by others less likely. However, within management ( Argyris, 1974, pp. 133) and group-dynamics ( Cartwright & Zander, 1960) theories, coalition formation focuses on win-win competition