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Using the Keynote App
as a research tool
A case study in medical education
Veronica Mitchell
Education Development Unit
He...
Research project
Supervisor: Prof Suellen Shay
The Curriculum in Medical Education
Masters
Higher Education
Studies
Context
My stance
Professionalism
&
Health and Human Rights
The Curriculum
Research question
How do students
negotiate the gap
between the fixed, intended curriculum
and
the fluid, e...
Pam Hoffman, http://www.flickr.com/photos/pampan/7669484820/in/set-72157630806128380/
What about integration?
Obstetrics practical rotation
15 deliveries = competence
Year 4
students
Kaleidoscope of student experiences
Kaleido App on iPhone
Obstetrics in Year 4
Obstetrics in Year 4
South Africa’s
weak public health system
Curriculum challenges
?
A changing educational landscape
Supercomplexity
Uncertainty
Prof Ronald Barnett @UCT
June 2012
Barnett (2000:260) explains curricula as:
being lived by rather than being determined …
[with an] elusive quality about th...
Theoretical frame
Barnett & Coates (2005)
triad for professional curricula
K
AB
K
B A
Composition
Size / Weighting
Colour
Sequence
Triple Schema
5 students in Year 4 in 2010
Methodology
1. reflective commentaries
2. one-to-one interviews
3. iPad’s Keynote images
Affordances: Keynote App
Novelty / appealing
Alternative modality
Visual dimension
Tactile component
Intergenerational bri...
Methodology with the iPad
Explanation to students
Explored the Keynote tool
Gave them a template
Alongside semi-structured...
Limitations: Keynote App
Different
New / Unfamiliar
Students more used to text
Abstract nature of concepts
circles represe...
What about integration?
K
AB
Using visual communication
Kress & van Leeuwen (2006)
Deeper hidden truth
Microscopic view th...
Research participants
Joan
Thabo
Sipho
Pseudonyms used
Participants
Joan
Sipho
Thabo
Mature, previous degrees,
tactical, aware of social justice
Quiet, reflectiv...
K
A
B
In 2010
Student Joan
B
A
K
Curriculum
In 2011
K
AB
Curriculum
Student Sipho
K
B A
In 2010 In 2012
K
AB
Curriculum
Student Thabo
K
B
A
In 2010 In 2012
Individual shifts, integration / transformation
Joan
Sipho
Thabo
Developed relationships,
Understood & responded
to broade...
Way forward
PhD
Value of using images
Emerging iPad affordances
Reflecting on the tool Professionalism
&
Health and Human Rights
Enriching experience
- digging deeper into students’ auth...
Conclusion
Deeper insights with alternative approaches
Keynote App was a valuable contribution to research
Exciting new op...
Thank You
Licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 South Africa License.
References
Barnett, R. 20...
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Using the Keynote App as a research tool. A case study in medical education.

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Abstract
Research in medical education has traditionally drawn on scientific evidence using quantitative methodologies. However, qualitative methods now bring new insights
into the humanistic elements of healthcare. In the health sciences, traditional methods of data collection can now be transformed by the affordances of new technologies. The iPad enables alternative types of engagement with research participants. For instance, movable images can provide avenues for data providing deeper insights into individual experiences. The Keynote application (app) offers such an opportunity. In a recent Masters research project in Higher Education Studies, the iPad was used as a valuable tool to draw on students' critical reflection in terms of their obstetrics practical curricular task. Using a simple image on the Keynote app of the iPad, this project involved undergraduate medical students, who shifted the images to indicate their assessment of their personal growth. By talking to their actions as they adjusted the size and position of symbolic circles, the iPad acted as a vehicle to facilitate deeper reflection revealing richer insights. The novelty of using the tablet plus the added sensory input contributed to a deeper student engagement. As products of individual student insights, these images were interpreted to indicate shifts in students' knowledge, empathy and reflection
from their fourth year Obstetrics experience to their insights two years later in their final year. The findings from this project demonstrate how the iPad fosters personal meaning, thereby enhancing the quality and efficacy of our educational practices.

Published in: Education
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Using the Keynote App as a research tool. A case study in medical education.

  1. 1. Using the Keynote App as a research tool A case study in medical education Veronica Mitchell Education Development Unit Health Sciences Faculty University of Cape Town, South Africa @ iPad Conference in Higher Education Cyprus, March 2014
  2. 2. Research project Supervisor: Prof Suellen Shay The Curriculum in Medical Education Masters Higher Education Studies
  3. 3. Context
  4. 4. My stance Professionalism & Health and Human Rights
  5. 5. The Curriculum Research question How do students negotiate the gap between the fixed, intended curriculum and the fluid, enacted curriculum in their early Obstetrics delivery experience ?
  6. 6. Pam Hoffman, http://www.flickr.com/photos/pampan/7669484820/in/set-72157630806128380/ What about integration?
  7. 7. Obstetrics practical rotation 15 deliveries = competence Year 4 students
  8. 8. Kaleidoscope of student experiences Kaleido App on iPhone Obstetrics in Year 4
  9. 9. Obstetrics in Year 4 South Africa’s weak public health system Curriculum challenges ? A changing educational landscape
  10. 10. Supercomplexity Uncertainty Prof Ronald Barnett @UCT June 2012
  11. 11. Barnett (2000:260) explains curricula as: being lived by rather than being determined … [with an] elusive quality about them. Their actual dimensions and elements are tacit. They take on certain patterns and relationships but those patterns and relationships will be hidden from all concerned, except as they are experienced by the students
  12. 12. Theoretical frame Barnett & Coates (2005) triad for professional curricula
  13. 13. K AB K B A Composition Size / Weighting Colour Sequence
  14. 14. Triple Schema
  15. 15. 5 students in Year 4 in 2010 Methodology 1. reflective commentaries 2. one-to-one interviews 3. iPad’s Keynote images
  16. 16. Affordances: Keynote App Novelty / appealing Alternative modality Visual dimension Tactile component Intergenerational bridge 3rd party in the conversational space Sense of play shifting images / familiar shapes / colour Circles created vs messiness of drawings Keynote App
  17. 17. Methodology with the iPad Explanation to students Explored the Keynote tool Gave them a template Alongside semi-structured questions Explained their experiences by moving the circles Emailed to researcher Saved as images Printed for dissertation
  18. 18. Limitations: Keynote App Different New / Unfamiliar Students more used to text Abstract nature of concepts circles representing curricular domains Template used Keynote App By George Tuli (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
  19. 19. What about integration? K AB Using visual communication Kress & van Leeuwen (2006) Deeper hidden truth Microscopic view through circles Jewitt & Oyama (2001) Analysing the visual component Students Year 4 In 2010 Year 6 in 2012 Being Acting Knowing
  20. 20. Research participants Joan Thabo Sipho
  21. 21. Pseudonyms used Participants Joan Sipho Thabo Mature, previous degrees, tactical, aware of social justice Quiet, reflective, developing confidence Proud leader, passionate about Obstetrics
  22. 22. K A B In 2010 Student Joan B A K Curriculum In 2011
  23. 23. K AB Curriculum Student Sipho K B A In 2010 In 2012
  24. 24. K AB Curriculum Student Thabo K B A In 2010 In 2012
  25. 25. Individual shifts, integration / transformation Joan Sipho Thabo Developed relationships, Understood & responded to broader issues Regrets, sense of numbness with compliance Values his power, advice to me and others, critical of peers in not adapting Summary
  26. 26. Way forward PhD Value of using images Emerging iPad affordances
  27. 27. Reflecting on the tool Professionalism & Health and Human Rights Enriching experience - digging deeper into students’ authentic experiences - motivating critical reflection Missing: Students comments on the technology - enabling / constraining iPad was a highlight for me
  28. 28. Conclusion Deeper insights with alternative approaches Keynote App was a valuable contribution to research Exciting new opportunities arising Illustration by Stacey Stent , thanks to Dick Ng’ambi
  29. 29. Thank You
  30. 30. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 South Africa License. References Barnett, R. 2009. Knowing and becoming in the higher education curriculum. Studies in higher education. 34.4:429-440. Barnett. R. & Coate, K. 2005. Engaging the higher curriculum in higher education. SRHE & Open University Press. London Kress, G. & van Leeuwen,T. 2006. Reading Images: The grammar of visual design. 2nd Ed. Routledge: London. Jewitt, C & Oyama, R. 2001. Visual meaning: A social semiotic approach. In van Leeuwen T & Jewitt C. A handbook of visual analysis . London. SAGE. Publications.

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