SANITATION: PREVENTATIVE
DISEASE MANAGEMENT IN
KENTUCKY VINEYARDS
NICOLE WARD GAUTHIER, UK PLANT PATHOLOGY
WHY WASH
YOUR HANDS?

Shopping carts
Door knobs
Money
Escalator rails
WHAT ARE PLANT PATHOGENS?
• Fungi
• Bacteria
• Viruses
• Nematodes
• Water-molds
HOW ARE DISEASES
MANAGED?
DISEASE TRIANGLE
OBJECTIVES
What should you learn?
• Basic biology of major
grape pathogens
• Understand
overwintering of these
pathogens
•...
PREVENTATIVE FUNGICIDE
APPLICATIONS
Early season
• Powdery mildew
• Downy mildew
• Black rot
• Phomopsis cane and leaf spo...
EARLY SEASON DISEASES
Early season infections
• Powdery mildew
• Downy mildew
• Black rot
• Phomopsis
Most critical phase
...
PHOMOPSIS
Phomopsis
• Cool weather disease 34˚F/74˚F
• Pre-bloom sprays
• Fruit infected before and
during bloom

• Fungus...
PHOMOPSIS
PHOMOPSIS
POWDERY MILDEW
Powdery Mildew
• Infections begin pre-bloom
• Pre-bloom sprays
• Arid conditions

• .01” rain and 50˚F
asco...
POWDERY MILDEW
POWDERY MILDEW
POWDERY MILDEW
POWDERY MILDEW
POWDERY MILDEW
DOWNY MILDEW
Downy Mildew
• Infections begin pre-bloom
• Pre-bloom sprays
• .4” rain and 50˚F and 4” vine
growth for oospo...
DOWNY MILDEW
DOWNY MILDEW
DOWNY MILDEW
DOWNY MILDEW
DOWNY MILDEW
BLACK ROT
Black rot
• Infections begin pre-bloom
• Pre-bloom sprays
• Control of initial infections

• Berries become resi...
BLACK ROT
BLACK ROT
BLACK ROT
OTHER IMPORTANT DISEASES
There’s more than the BIG 4
• Eutypa dieback
• Cankers lead to dieback
• Sporulates in old canker...
OTHER IMPORTANT DISEASES
There’s more than the BIG 4
• Grape Anthracnose
• More common during warm,
wet spring
• Can becom...
OTHER IMPORTANT DISEASES
There’s more than the BIG 4
• Botrytis Bunch Rot
• Common in tight-clustered
varieties (V. vinife...
OTHER IMPORTANT DISEASES
There’s more than the BIG 4
• Crown Gall
• Common in V. vinifera
• Enters through wounds,
especia...
WHAT’S THE PATTERN HERE?
EARLY SEASON INFECTIONS
• Phomopsis
• Powdery mildew
• Downy mildew
• Black rot

• Infection take...
PREVENTATIVE PROGRAM
Remove disease-causing
pathogens from vineyards
before sporulation.
•

Approximately 70% of
infective...
CHALLENGES
Sanitation does not offer immediate
disease management
• Reduction of infective materials
• Combined with fungi...
QUESTIONS?
WWW.SLIDESHARE.NET/NICOLEWARDUK
Nicole Ward Gauthier
Extension Specialist
Department of Plant Pathology

www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/people/wa...
Sanitation:  Preventative Disease Management in Kentucky Vineyards
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Sanitation: Preventative Disease Management in Kentucky Vineyards

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Disease management begins with cultural practices, especially sanitation. This presentation discusses pathogen biology and overwintering of disease-causing fungi. Most importantly, we address methods for removing overwintering and sporulating pathogens from vineyards before pathogens are able to reinfect. When combined with preventative fungicide applications, sanitation become a vital component to disease management in grape.

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  • You understand sanitation, right?
  • Sanitation: Preventative Disease Management in Kentucky Vineyards

    1. 1. SANITATION: PREVENTATIVE DISEASE MANAGEMENT IN KENTUCKY VINEYARDS NICOLE WARD GAUTHIER, UK PLANT PATHOLOGY
    2. 2. WHY WASH YOUR HANDS? Shopping carts Door knobs Money Escalator rails
    3. 3. WHAT ARE PLANT PATHOGENS? • Fungi • Bacteria • Viruses • Nematodes • Water-molds
    4. 4. HOW ARE DISEASES MANAGED? DISEASE TRIANGLE
    5. 5. OBJECTIVES What should you learn? • Basic biology of major grape pathogens • Understand overwintering of these pathogens • Methods for preventing inoculum build-up and overwintering
    6. 6. PREVENTATIVE FUNGICIDE APPLICATIONS Early season • Powdery mildew • Downy mildew • Black rot • Phomopsis cane and leaf spot • 1-3” green through 3-4 weeks after bloom Late season • Powdery mildew • Downy mildew • 3-4 wks after bloom through harvest
    7. 7. EARLY SEASON DISEASES Early season infections • Powdery mildew • Downy mildew • Black rot • Phomopsis Most critical phase Pathogens break dormancy Begins with prevention What if pathogens weren’t there in the first place?
    8. 8. PHOMOPSIS Phomopsis • Cool weather disease 34˚F/74˚F • Pre-bloom sprays • Fruit infected before and during bloom • Fungus remains dormant • No symptoms development on fruit until ripening • Cane and leaf spot symptoms all season • Fungus sporulates through full-bloom • Early season control
    9. 9. PHOMOPSIS
    10. 10. PHOMOPSIS
    11. 11. POWDERY MILDEW Powdery Mildew • Infections begin pre-bloom • Pre-bloom sprays • Arid conditions • .01” rain and 50˚F ascospore discharge • Repeating disease cycle • Control of initial infections • Berries become resistant 2-4 weeks after bloom • Cluster stems (rachis) and leaves remain susceptible throughout season
    12. 12. POWDERY MILDEW
    13. 13. POWDERY MILDEW
    14. 14. POWDERY MILDEW
    15. 15. POWDERY MILDEW
    16. 16. POWDERY MILDEW
    17. 17. DOWNY MILDEW Downy Mildew • Infections begin pre-bloom • Pre-bloom sprays • .4” rain and 50˚F and 4” vine growth for oospore germination • Water mold, swimmers • Control of initial infections • Berries become resistant 3-4 weeks after bloom • Cluster stems (rachis) and leaves remain susceptible throughout season
    18. 18. DOWNY MILDEW
    19. 19. DOWNY MILDEW
    20. 20. DOWNY MILDEW
    21. 21. DOWNY MILDEW
    22. 22. DOWNY MILDEW
    23. 23. BLACK ROT Black rot • Infections begin pre-bloom • Pre-bloom sprays • Control of initial infections • Berries become resistant 3-4 weeks after bloom • Susceptible from early bloom through berry touch • Overwinters in mummies • Young leaves are susceptible, mature leaves are resistant • Petioles and shoots susceptible, cankers develop
    24. 24. BLACK ROT
    25. 25. BLACK ROT
    26. 26. BLACK ROT
    27. 27. OTHER IMPORTANT DISEASES There’s more than the BIG 4 • Eutypa dieback • Cankers lead to dieback • Sporulates in old cankers • Enter though wounds, pruning wounds • Early spring • Sanitation, canker removal
    28. 28. OTHER IMPORTANT DISEASES There’s more than the BIG 4 • Grape Anthracnose • More common during warm, wet spring • Can become serious • Sporulates from cankers and leaf debris • Lime sulfur at end of dormancy (delayed dormant application)
    29. 29. OTHER IMPORTANT DISEASES There’s more than the BIG 4 • Botrytis Bunch Rot • Common in tight-clustered varieties (V. vinifera) • Sanitation • Air circulation • Fungicides, bloom & veraison • Rovral • Vangard • Elevate
    30. 30. OTHER IMPORTANT DISEASES There’s more than the BIG 4 • Crown Gall • Common in V. vinifera • Enters through wounds, especially winter injury • Biological controls help suppress disease, but no cure • Gallex • Galltrol A • Norbac 84C
    31. 31. WHAT’S THE PATTERN HERE? EARLY SEASON INFECTIONS • Phomopsis • Powdery mildew • Downy mildew • Black rot • Infection takes place from immediate pre-bloom through 2-4 weeks after bloom How should you manage these diseases? ELIMINATE OVERWINTERING INOCULUM!
    32. 32. PREVENTATIVE PROGRAM Remove disease-causing pathogens from vineyards before sporulation. • Approximately 70% of infective propagules removed through sanitation • Fungicides prevent repeating cycles and re-infections
    33. 33. CHALLENGES Sanitation does not offer immediate disease management • Reduction of infective materials • Combined with fungicides Manual labor • Prune into carts • Burn or bury • Harvest everything Most noticeable during seasons with high disease pressure
    34. 34. QUESTIONS? WWW.SLIDESHARE.NET/NICOLEWARDUK
    35. 35. Nicole Ward Gauthier Extension Specialist Department of Plant Pathology www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/people/ward.htm nicole.ward@uky.edu 859-218-0720 office 859-797-3333 mobile/text Facebook: www.KYPlantDisease.com UK - Diseases of Fruit Crops, Ornamentals, & Forest Trees Twitter: @Nicole_WardUK Blogger: nicolewarduk.blogspot.com

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