CULTIVAR SELECTION Disease Resistant Apples Recommended for Kentucky Resistance to: Cultivar Time of Harvest Apple Scab Cedar Apple Rust Fire Blight Powdery MildewPristine VR S S R mid-JulyRedfree VR VR S S early-AugustDayton VR R MR R mid-AugustLiberty VR R* R R late-AugustSpartan MR R MR R early-SeptemberJonafree VR S S R early-SeptemberPixie Crunch VR - - - early-SeptemberCrimsonCrisp VR MR S S mid-SeptemberPriscilla VR VR* VR R mid-SeptemberSirPrize VR S R R mid-SeptemberEnterprise VR VR* MR R mid-OctoberGoldRush VR S MR S mid-OctoberWinecrisp VR MR VR MR mid-OctoberSundance VR VR VR VR mid-OctoberVR=very resistant, R=resistant, MR=moderately resistant, S=susceptible, -- = insufficient information*=although resistant to cedar apple rust, these cultivars are susceptible to cedar quince rustInformation adapted from ID-21
DISEASE-RESISTANT APPLE• Resistant to major diseases • Scab • Cedar apple rust • Fire blight • Powdery mildew• Not resistant to • Cork spot • Fly speck/sooty blotch• Not insect-resistant • Bagging (ENTFACT-218) • Insecticides
SANITATIONUnderstanding life cyclesof fungi (or bacteria) andremoving source ofspores.• Rake• Remove old fruit• Prune, remove cankers
SPORE POTENTIAL OF FUNGIOptimal Conditions • Moderate temperatures • Free water • exception powdery mildewReproduction • Spores • Spring – sexual spores, initial infection • Growing season – asexual spores, repeating stage • Wind or rain spread
FUNGAL SPORE PRODUCTION • Asci (sexual spores) formed in fall and overwinter in debris or bark crevices • Conidia (asexual spores) form throughout the season, numerousAscocarp types: apothecia, perithecia, cleistothecia
SEXUAL SPORES• Ascospores develop in spring• Leaf litter, debris, cankers• Ascospores germinate and infect plants in spring (once per season)• Initial infection• Lesions then begin to produce conidia
SANITATIONUnderstanding life cyclesof fungi (or bacteria) andremoving source ofspores.• Rake• Remove old fruit• Prune, remove cankers• Do not work in wet orchards• Sanitize tools
CULTURAL PRACTICESAir circulation• Optimal conditions • High humidity • Eliminate micro-climates• Manage canopy by pruning
CULTURAL PRACTICESScouting• Know the pathogen • Understand biology • Learn to recognizeKeep learning • Many sources of information • UK College of Ag website, fact sheets, publications • Subscribe to newsletters or blogs
CULTURAL PRACTICES• Sanitation• Air circulation• Canopy management• Scouting• VigorNot just for organicsDisease management isnot effective withoutproper cultural practices.
WHEN ALL ELSE FAILS… OR INTENSELY MANAGED CROPS
FUNGICIDES• Homeowners purchase • Non-restricted • Small quantities • Cost • Easy to follow instructions • Multi-use • Locally available • Safe (sometimes organic)
WHAT’S IN A NAME?• Trade names change• Trade names can be confusing• FormulationsWhat matters is theactive ingredient!
ACTIVE INGREDIENTSBonide Fungicides:• Captan 50 WP – captan• Fruit Tree Spray – captan• Copper Dust, Liquid concentrate or RTU – Copper• Fungonil concentrate or RTU – chlorothalonil• Fungonil RTS - propiconazole
onil le sulfa cin l t ani nazo r b sulfu y coze er an te al r ptom sulfu lobu rot h copp ca pt ico ma n lim e myc prop str e chloApple & Pearscab x x x x x xfire blight x xpowdery mildew x x x xrust x x x xfruit rots x xPeach, Plum, Cherrybrown rot x x x x x xpeach leaf curl x x x xscab x x x xblack knot of plum x x xcherry leaf spot x x x x xGrapeblack rot x x x xpowdery mildew x x x xdowny mildew x x xphomopsis cane & leaf spot x x xBramblesanthracnose x xcane blight x xspur blight x xStrawberryleaf spot xfruit rots xpowdery mildew x PropiconazoleBlueberry is labeled formummy berry x non-bearingphomopsis twig blight x fruit trees.
FORMULATIONSSpectracide Fungicides: myclobutanil• Immunox Multi-purpose concentrate • Fruit, veggies, nuts, plus ornamentals• Immunox Lawn Disease Control concentrate hose-end• Immunox Lawn Disease Control granules• Immunox 3-in-1 Insect and Disease + Fertilizer • Ornamental plants only• Immunox Plus Insect and Disease Control aerosol• Insect and Disease Control concentrate • No longer available (name change?)
AVAILABILITY• Ortho – Home Depot, Lowes, Tractor Supply• Spectracide – Lowes• Bonide – Southern States
AVAILABILITYImmunox Multi-PurposeFungicide Conc • Only myclobutanil product labeled for fruit and veggies • Lowes (local) may not carry (available for store pick-up) • Know what you need – don’t settle for something else
FUNGICIDE TIPS• Don’t use commercial products • Don’t borrow fungicides • Restricted-use • Unmarked • Not labeled for fruit• Insecticides don’t kill fungi• Same active ingredient but different trade name is often not the same product • Surfactants • Label is the law• Know your agent • Develop a relationship
APPLE & PEAR• Bud to bloom – 4 applications • Scab, powdery mildew, rust• Petal Fall plus 8 covers • Fruit rots, scabNo one fungicide can be used • Fruit tree spray usually contains captan • not effective against all diseases • Resistant cultivars affect priorities
PEACH, PLUM, & CHERRY• Dormant • Peach leaf curl, black knot of plum• Bloom plus covers – 8 applications until 3-4 wks before harvest • Scab, brown rot, black knot of plum, cherry leaf spotJust one fungicide required • Fruit tree spray usually contains captan • Usually effective against all diseases